International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences <p>International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJRPS) is quarterly publishing online peer reviewed scientific journal sponsored by JK Welfare &amp; Pharmascope Foundation. The journal publishes research articles, review articles, short communications, case studies and reports in Pharmaceutical Sciences.</p> en-US (Chief Editor) (Chief Editor) Thu, 09 Jul 2020 14:14:50 +0000 OJS 60 Evaluation of some properties of recycled polymethylmethacrylate incorporated to the acrylic resin <p>Many attempts have been made enhancing properties of PMMA denture base material. Adding fillers to PMMA was a commonly used method to improve physical and mechanical properties. To estimate the effects of incorporating recycled polymethylmethacrylate with a different percentage with conventional heat-cured acrylic resin on some properties of heat-cured denture base resin. The recycled polymethylmethacrylate (Chaini-HK G) particles dissolved at (5%,10%,15%) was added to heat-cured polymethylmethacrylate (Spofadental, Czech Republic) polymer and mixed with a ratio of 2:1 with the polymethylmethacrylate monomer. A total number of specimens were 80, which divided into three experimental groups (5%, 10%, 15%) and control group. Each group have 20specimens. The surface hardness, water sorption, solubility and residual monomer of test groups measured as well as compared to that of control groups. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy test (FTIR) was done for three experimental and control group. This study shows a statistically significant difference at (p&lt;0.01) in the hardness of recycled polymethylmethacrylate incorporate material (10 %,15%) groups when compared with a control group; while recycled polymethylmethacrylate incorporated (5%) group show no significant difference, group with 15% shows the highest Vickers hardness value. The mean values of water sorption test solubility test and residual monomer were decreased with the increase of incorporating a percentage of recycled polymethylmethacrylate as compared to the mean value of the control group. The incorporation of recycled polymethylmethacrylate to heat acrylic resin at different percentage improves some of its properties.</p> Amrah Y. Al Jmmal, Nada Z. Mohammed, Amer A. Taqa Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 25 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Screening of Antimicrobial activity of bodily fluid from three different local fish species around Madanapalle <p>The fish skin acts as a protective shield against environments that are high in infectious agents. A thin layer of mucus which acts as a defence shield against colonization by aquatic parasites, bacteria and fungi which was mediated by peptides and polypeptides, was covered on the external body surface of the fish. In the present study, we had shown the activity of epidermal mucus of tap water, mineral water and saltwater fish exhibit strong antibacterial activity. Here, we have isolated supernatant of a fish Pamphlet (Pomfret), Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Catfish (Clariasgariepinus) mucus. This Bodily fluid (Fish mucus) activity was correlated with a strong antibacterial activity (minimal inhibitory concentration for the three fishes) against both Gram-ve and Gram +vebacteria. In this study, the mucus isolated shows an inhibiting effect on the selected microorganisms. The antibacterial activity of fish mucus may be due to the presence of antibacterial glycoproteins and able to kill bacteria by forming large pores in the target membrane. Fish mucus is believed to play an important role in the prevention of colonization by parasites, bacteria and fungi and thus acts as a chemical defence barrier. Our results suggest that fish secrete antibacterial which are able to kill bacteria in the target membrane.</p> Syed Salman B, Shaik Baba Fakruddin, Diwakar K Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 03 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Positive Impact of Pharmacist Interventions Using Educational Video Technology on Patient Knowledge of and Satisfaction with Warfarin Therapy <p>To assess the positive impact of pharmacist interventions via an educational video on patients’ knowledge of and satisfaction with warfarin therapy . This study used a prospective pre-test/post-test design that enrolled 91 patients from an anticoagulant clinic at King Khaled University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All patients completed the Anticoagulation Knowledge Assessment (AKA) and Anti-Clot Treatment Satisfaction (ACTS) scales. Afterwards, the patients watched a 10-minute educational video containing basic information about warfarin and were given relevant informative booklets. The patients were reassessed after a mean follow-up period of approximately 52 days. In total, 85 patients completed the study. The impact of the intervention on patient knowledge was highly significant (mean difference=17.7%, 95% CI = 21.75-13.58, P.</p> Sireen A. R. Shilbayeh, Abrar F. Al-Qarni, Malak M. Al-Turki, Meshael N. Al-Nuwisser, Ohud A. Al-Nuwaysir, Wejdan F. Al-Muhraj, Miteb A. Alanazi Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 03 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical study to assess efficacy and safety of NRL/MW/201901 in subjects suffering from erectile dysfunction <p>Sex is an integral part of a well-being. Sexual satisfaction is the most important component of the quality of life. In management of ED overall sexual potential and quality of life needs to be taken care of as a holistic approach to management. The aim of the study was to clinically validate effect of NRL/MW/201901 a polyhedral Nutraceutical product in ED. The clinical efficacy of NRL/MW/201901 in patients suffering from erectile dysfunction was evaluated by assessing Quality of Erection Questionnaire and sexual encounter profile with Intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time, serum testosterone and anthropometric analysis etc. NRL/MW/201901 was effective in increasing erection function, orgasmic function, intercourse satisfaction, overall satisfaction and sexual desire. There is marked increase in number of sexual encounters in NRL/MW/201901 treated group. Serum levels of testosterone were increased after treatment of NRL/MW/201901 than in placebo group. It was evident from the anthropometric analysis of the subjects that there was significant increase in resting metabolism and % skeletal muscle content in NRL/MW/201901 treated group. There were no evident adverse events related to drug. Thus it could be concluded that NRL/MW/201901 is safe and effective in the treatment of mild to moderate erectile dysfunction.</p> Omkar Kulkarni, Anuj Agarwal, Priya Khare, Gayatri Ganu Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 03 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Estimating creatinine clearance for Malaysian critically ill patients with unstable kidney function and impact on dosage adjustment <p>It is an essential requirement to estimate glomerular filtration rate in dosing adjustment of drug treatment for critically ill patients with unstable kidney function. Previous studies showed that Cockcroft-Gault equation was not appropriate for the assessment of unstable kidney function. However, there is a lack of assessment on other equations specifically designed for fluctuating kidney functions. This study is aimed to evaluate the differences between estimated creatinine clearances by using Cockcroft-Gault, Jelliffe, Brater, and Chiou equations and the impact on dosing adjustment of renally excreted drugs for critically ill patients with unstable kidney function. A retrospective observational study was conducted among 103 patients with unstable kidney function who were admitted to intensive care unit of Taiping Hospital, Malaysia. Serum creatinine levels from day 1 to 7 of admission were collected. The median differences of estimated creatinine clearance based on the four different equations were analysed by Friedman-ANOVA test. The median estimated creatinine clearances when patients were having fluctuating kidney functions showed 35.69 ml/min (IQR: 22.57 – 53.97) by Cockcroft-Gault and 22.64 ml/min (IQR: 10.46 – 38.49) by Jelliffe equation, while Brater and Chiou equations showed 35.88 ml/min (IQR: 19.46 – 56.04) and 30.10 ml/min (IQR: 16.55 – 46.82) respectively. Jelliffe and Chiou equation showed a significant 36.56% and 15.66% lower estimated creatinine clearance respectively as compared to Cockcroft-Gault (p &lt; 0.001). Meanwhile, there was no significant difference between Brater and Cockcroft-Gault equation. Jelliffe equation demonstrated the lowest estimated creatinine clearance value with a more intense dosage adjustment required for patients’ drug regimen involving renally excreted drugs. In conclusion, there were clinically significant variations in the estimated creatinine clearance from the different equations.</p> Yen Ping Ng, Angel Wei Ling Goh, Chee Ping Chong Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 03 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Myrtenal averts apoptotic evasion of cancer cells in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced experimental oral carcinogenesis <p>Apoptotic avoidance is one of the foremost characteristic features of tumour cells. Apoptotic induction in cancer cells could thus help to identify new anticancer agents from the natural products. The present study has taken an effort to investigate the apoptotic efficacy of myrtenal, a monoterpene, in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced oral carcinoma in male golden Syrian hamsters. The present study used the potent carcinogen, 7,12- dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, to develop oral tumours in the buccal pouches of the golden Syrian hamsters. Topical application of the above said carcinogen on the buccal mucosa (3 times a week for 14 weeks) resulted in well differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma. The apoptotic potential of myrtenal was investigated using a spectrum of apoptotic markers, including pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic markers. Oral tumours developed in the buccal mucosa of hamsters showed higher expression of mutant p53 protein, Bcl-2 and lowered expression of Bax, Bad, Bid, caspase 3 and caspase 9. Myrtenal treatment at a dose of 230mg/kg bw orally to the hamsters treated with DMBA modulated the above said apoptotic markers towards tumour suppression or inhibition. The present findings thus suggests that the tumour preventive effect of myrtenal could partly be ascribed to its apoptotic induction potential during DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis.</p> Buddhan R, Manoharan S, Muralinaidu R Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 03 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment Of Cardiovascular Risk In Patients Attending Hospital For The Treatment Of Other Disorders <p>Main objective our work was to assess the cardiovascular risk in patients attending hospital with other diseases and to determine the effect of each risk factor on CVD risk. The study was a prospective observational study conducted for a period of 6 months from June 2019 to Nov 2019 in tertiary care hospitals in Khammam region. 200 subjects were selected as per inclusion criteria. CVD risk was assessed using Framingham scale and ASCVD scores. Among all the participants in the study, 102 were males and 98 were females. Abnormal HTN, RBS, FBS, PPBS, total cholesterol and Low Density Lipoproteins were found more in male subjects than female subjects. Males of age group 51 to 60 and females of age group 41 to 50 were found to be more susceptible to CVD risk. Our study showed that the age, physical inactivity, dietary habits, obesity, smoking, alcohol, dyslipidemia, Hypertension and Diabetes had direct effect on cardiovascular risk.</p> Praveen Kumar T, Shaik Sabiya, Prashanthi P, Chinna Eswaraiah M Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 04 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The histopathological effect of diclofenac potassium on maternal and fetal tissues <p>Diclofenac (DCF) is one of the most generally utilized non-steroidal antiinflammatory therapies during the world for different diseases curing in post pubertal ladies. Be that as it may, constrained data is accessible with respect to its security during pregnancy and teratogenicity. The present study was done to investigate the histopathological impact of diclofenac potassium (DP) on some vital maternal and fetal tissues, placenta and liver during two different periods of gestation. In this study 30 pregnant rats have been used and divided into 3 groups (ten for each one); group 1 (control), group 2 treated with 15.4 mg/kg of diclofenac potassium during organogenesis period, and group 3 subjected during fetal developmental period with the same dosage. At the 20 gestation day the rats were anesthetized and dissected, histopathological studies on placenta, maternal liver, and fetal liver have been done. Our results revealed moderate to severe histopathological alternations in all examined tissues like disorganization of tissue architecture, vacuolation, lymphatic infiltration, apoptosis and more changes. There is a harmful effect of the DP on the placenta tissue and also the liver tissue of the fetus, and on this we recommend that you use the DP with caution during pregnancy at the possible lowest effective dose and for the shortest duration.</p> Abdel-Rahman Tawfik, Nouf Bader Alduweesh, Zeinab Abdel-Hameid Mohamed, Abdel Rahman Sayed Sultan, Heba Ali Abd El-Rahman Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 04 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Coriander Seed Extract in decreasing Blood Glucose level among Diabetic Patients <p>Diabetes Mellitus (DM) belongs to a group of metabolic disorders. It is characterised by Chronic Hyperglycemia and disturbance of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. The cause for this condition arises from a disease in insulin secretion. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) expresses that worldwide 415 million individuals have Diabetes Mellitus. It also predicts that by 2040 this will ascend to 642 billion. The other prediction is that 77% of individuals with Diabetes live in middle and low-income countries. 12% of the worldwide population spend on the treatment of Diabetes. With the escalating medical expenditure in treating Diabetes, a person from middle or low income may find it challenging to meet the expenses. It is an expected tendency for an individual from this category to opt for a more straightforward treatment that suits their pocket. In the recent past, all over the world, people from all walks of life know essential things about natural remedies. A lot of researches are going on in support of using natural products per se. One such study is this – on the Effectiveness of Coriander Seed Extract in decreasing Blood Glucose level among Diabetic Patients.Coriandrum Sativum is a plant that has been utilised in the administration of Diabetes. It is a herbaceous plant originally from the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern locales, having a place in the family Apiaceae. It is known to have antifungal, antibacterial, free radical searching, and lipid peroxidation activities. The study was conducted to assess the level of pretest and posttest blood glucose level. And, also to evaluate the effect of coriander seed extract in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus. An experimental study was chosen to assess the effectiveness of coriander seed extract among diabetic clients. The present study was conducted at Mappedu. 60 male and female who come under inclusion criteria were selected by purposive sampling technique. Data was collected by using a socio-demographic variable, and random blood glucose was assessed by CBG machine. The results revealed that coriander seed extract has a significant effect on decreasing blood glucose level among diabetic patients.</p> Sheela R, Merlin Shiny Sheeba, Poornima, Priya Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 04 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Formulation and Evaluation of Lyophilized Nanocochleates of Paclitaxel – For Cancer Chemotherapy <p>The nanocochleates are mainly prepared from the liposomes of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) with the help of inactive ingredients like phosphatidylserine (PS) and calcium. The PS shows a considerable binding affinity towards calcium mainly due to the calcium’s tendency to lose part of its hydration shell and to displace water upon complexation. Due to neutralization of the electrostatic charge, calcium causes aggregation &amp; fusion of liposomes composed PS with each other. It has been reported that ca++ has an affinity to form a more tightly packed &amp; highly ordered and less hydrated structure than mg++ with phosphatidylserine, even at a much lower concentration. It is well documented that ca++ plays a vital role in natural membrane fusion phenomena while other cations are ineffective in most such systems. The stability of Nano-cochleate can be increased by doing freeze-drying of finished product which in turn provides a longer shelf life to the product at, where solution form is most unstable. Based on various literature survey and laboratory work, ‘The Ethanol Injection Method’ was selected for the preparation of Nanoliposomes followed by Nanocochleates. For this study; Paclitaxel was selected as an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) to formulate Phospholipid based Nanocochleate. The developed Nanocochleates exhibited higher encapsulation efficiency and controlled release of Paclitaxel. This technology may bring about a reduction in dose as well as cost and increase patient compliance. These Nanocochleates could therefore advantageously be employed to improve anticancer activity of Paclitaxel and an alternative to present intravenous administration. From the present study, it can be concluded that the developed Nanocochleates exhibited higher encapsulation efficiency and controlled release of Paclitaxel which may prove to be a suitable &amp; potential candidate for healing a Cancer at a lower concentration.</p> Harwalkar Mallappa S, Salunkhe Kishor S, Chintamani Ravindra B, Raosaheb Sopanrao S Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 04 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Formulation and Evaluation of fixed dose combination of Nootropic drugs <p>Cognitive functions are the critical brain functions responsible for the effective learning and understanding in the humans. They are responsible for various functions like attention, memory, reasoning and in turn helps to improve knowledge. Cognitive impairment is majorly seen in elderly as the brain is prone to neuro degradation. It may also occur in young adults due to poor diet or exercise. Improving cognition is of utmost importance and can be done by the use of cognition enhancers like Nootropics. This class of drugs is said to act by various mechanisms, which in turn leads to the betterment of the neurotransmission in the brain. They may act on acetylcholine, Gamma Butyric Acid, on the beta amyloid receptor or on NMDA. This research emphasis on the enhancement of cognition along with treating various neurodegenerative diseases like dementia, Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s. Nootropic drugs are chosen for this formulation as they exhibit a rationale in combination with each other since they follow distinctive route of mechanism to treat the diseases. They also show action by preventing the worsening of the disease and by curing the disease. Nootropics are known to have low toxicity leading to their wide acceptance and research. As compared to other combination of nootropic, in this combination, the side effects are reduced of one in presence of the other and show a much higher bioavailability. They cross the blood brain barrier and central nervous system half-life is longer as compared to the systemic half-life owing to their efficacy and superiority over other nootropics when it comes to treating cognition Fixed dose combination of these nootropic drugs is desired and the dose can’t be varied as they no longer show their effect if not used in the exact dose required. The dosage of this varied drug depends on the severity of the disease and patient condition. The research has helped to achieve the reduction in the total tablet mass from 1500 mg to 1420 mg with the use of few excipients. This made it easier for patients to swallow the tablet easily due to an oval shape of the tablet formulation.</p> Priyavarshini R, Shweta Betala, Amit B Patil Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of medication adherence in chronic diseases <p>Majority of people with chronic diseases have poor adherence to their therapeutic regimen. It can result in various complications physialogically with undesirable metabolic conditions. The main objective of this study is to assess the level of satisfaction attained after medication in comorbidities (either having diabetes only or having hypertension only or having Hypertension and Diabetes) and also focussed on creating awareness in patients who do not follow the medication. A prospective cross sectional study was conducted at tertiary care hospital, Khammam, Telangana. 200 patients were approached and were interviewed with their consent. The purpose of the same was to collect the information on socio demographics, medication that is followed, and behavioural characteristics. A structured questionnaire MMAS-8 an eight itemed scale was involved to identify individuals, determine their levels, the reliability and validity of the medication followed. The scrutiny of this study found that there is a better medication adherence in individual’s diseases (Hypertension, Diabetes) whereas in hypertension and diabetes condition high and low adherence were reported because of their awareness, negligence and risk factors respectively. The study concludes that there is an increase in Medication adherence in individual diseases whereas in hypertension and diabetes there are equal ranges of both low and high adherence.</p> Nikhitha K, Sai kiran S, Prasad M, Chinni Eswaraiah M Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Teenage pregnancy. Prevalence and adverse outcomes in Baghdad city <p>Pregnancy at an early age of life is a major challenge. The consequences of this problem have an impact on the quality of life of the young mother and her family, and determines an important risk for her offspring. The son of a teenage mother has, in general, greater risks than that of a mother of more than 20 years. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and outcome of teenage pregnancy. A descriptive data base study was conducted at Al-Elwia Maternity Teaching hospital in the period from January 1, 2019 to the end of June 2019 within the age between 12 and 19 years old. The mean age of the mother was 17.4 ±1.5 years. The mean age of the father was 23.9 ± 5.7 years with (69.5%) with Vaginal delivery and most of the teenage pregnant women were primigravidas (80.3%) and major group of birth weight neonate was in between 2500-4000 gm. Aanemia was the most common complication (55.8%) then pregnancy induced hypertension PIH (18.3%).The admission of the neonate to the neonatal intensive care unit (40.0%) are higher than other complications. In conclusion, Prevalence of teenage pregnancy was (21.9%), with high complications for mothers and neonate.</p> Thikra N Abdulla, Weqar Akram Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Health Outcomes in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis <p>Though several studies have assessed Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and factors affecting HRQoL in maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients, there are limited data about health outcomes in diabetic and non-diabetic patients on MHD in Indian setup.The study aimed to compare Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in diabetic and non-diabetic patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis (MHD), to assess the effect of patient education on HRQoL, and factors affecting HRQoL in diabetic and non-diabetic patients undergoing MHD. This eight month prospective interventional study on ambulatory haemodialysis patients assessed HRQoL using the kidney disease quality of life (KDQoLTM-36) questionnaire at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Comprehensive patient education was provided to patients during study period. Patient responses to questionnaire were compared between baseline and two follow-ups for all patients and between diabetic and nondiabetic patients.89 patients were enrolled into this study and 69 (30 diabetics and 39 non-diabetics) were followed up. The mean age of the study population was 46 ± 12 years. It was observed non-diabetic patients had better HRQoL than diabetic patients undergoing MHD. An improvement in HRQoL from baseline was observed after providing patient education. Male gender (p=0.032), high school education or lesser (p=0.049), smoking history (p=0.031) and dialysis for &lt; three years (p=0.035) were factors with significant influence on HRQoL. Non-diabetic patients had better HRQoL when compared to diabetic patients undergoing MHD. Patient care focussed on factors contributing to lower HRQoL in patients undergoing MHD may improve health outcomes.</p> Savitha R S, Libina Thomas, Manjunath S Shetty, Kiran K K Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of tobacco use on oxidative stress in cataract <p><span style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #444444; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 48px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 32px; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">Even today, the leading cause of visual impairment is age related cataract.&nbsp; Among the risk factors for cataract, tobacco is one of the modifiable risk factors. Association between smoking and increased oxidative stress among cataract patients has been shown by some studies. But studies related to smokeless tobacco use are not done. The aim of the study was</span><span style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #444444; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 48px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 32px; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">&nbsp;to estimate oxidative stress by markers like&nbsp;</span><span style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #444444; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 48px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 32px; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">enzymatic antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)&nbsp;</span><span style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #444444; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 48px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 32px; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">and lipid peroxiation product&nbsp;</span><span style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #444444; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 48px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 32px; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">Malondialdehyde (MDA) in tobacco user age related cataract (ARC) subjects and compare them with tobacco nonuser age related cataract (ARC) subjects.&nbsp;</span><span style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #444444; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 48px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 32px; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">This cross sectional study was performed in 120 subjects divided into 2 groups – 60 tobacco nonuser age related cataract subjects and 60 tobacco user age related cataract subjects. 60 tobacco user cataract subjects divided into 5 groups - tobacco smokers, tobacco chewers, tobacco mishri users, dual tobacco chewers with mishri users and dual smokers with smokeless tobacco users. O</span><span style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #444444; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 48px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 32px; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">xidative stress was assessed by estimation of erythrocytic SOD</span><span style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #444444; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 48px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 32px; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">&nbsp;</span><span style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #444444; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 48px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 32px; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">and serum MDA</span><span style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #444444; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 48px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 32px; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">.</span><span style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #444444; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 48px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 32px; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">&nbsp;The study showed that</span><span style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #444444; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 48px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 32px; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">&nbsp;</span><span style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #444444; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 48px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 32px; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">in tobacco user group age of cataract patients was significantly less than tobacco nonuser cataract patients&nbsp;</span><span style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #444444; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 48px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 32px; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">(P&lt;0.05).&nbsp; Serum MDA levels were significantly high and erythrocytic SOD levels were significantly low in tobacco user cataract patients than tobacco nonuser cataract patients (P&lt;0.001).&nbsp; Nuclear cataract was significantly more in tobacco user group (P&lt;0.05).&nbsp; On comparison of subtypes of cataract in tobacco user subgroup, no significant difference was found.&nbsp;</span><span style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #444444; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 48px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 32px; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">These results suggested that</span><span style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #444444; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 48px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 32px; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">&nbsp;age related Cataract occurs at an earlier age in tobacco users due to increased oxidative stress. Also nuclear cataract was significantly associated with tobacco use.</span></p> Vaishali S Pawar, Ajit Sontakke Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Prospective Study On The Prevalence Of Retinal Lesions Among The Hypertensive Patients <p>To estimate the prevalence of retinal lesions among patients with hypertension. Hypertensive patients of both the genders above 18 years of age, who were willing to participate in the study, were included and patients who were having diabetes, previous retinal abnormalities and below 18 years of age were excluded from this study. The hypertensive patients were screened for the presence of retinal lesions and were categorised based on the severity of damage to the retinal arterioles and veins.In this study, about 876 patients who were diagnosed with hypertension were recruited and screened for retinal lesions. After screening, around 125 (14.3%) patients were observed with retinal lesions. In case of severity of retinal lesions in the hypertensive patients, most of the patients were found to be in Grade-I (40.8%) followed by Grade-II (37.6%). After treating with various types of treatment approaches, about 40 patients who were observed with retinal lesions of Grade-I severity were returned to a healthy state, and about 27 patients who were with retinal lesions of Grade-II severity were recovered to Grade-I. About six patients with retinal lesions of Grade-III was improved to Grade-II, and no patient recovered with the retinal lesions of Grade-IV severity.In this study, the prevalence of retinal lesions among the hypertensive patients was observed to be 14.3%, and the males were found to be more predominant with retinal lesions when compared to the females. The elevated blood pressure for a prolonged duration in hypertensive patients impacts the severity of retinal lesions increasing the risk of retinopathy. It is the responsibility of the clinical pharmacist to create awareness among the hypertensive patients regarding the occurrence of hypertensive retinopathy as it may cause severe complications if left untreated. Hence, regular follow-ups are required for hypertensive patients, which may help to prevent retinal complications.</p> Ramachandran S, Sahithi Kiran T, Ramam Sripada, Supriya M, Sudeepthi Padala, Prabhakara Rao N, Geeth Sai V, Dasaratha Dhanaraju Magharla Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Immunomodulatory and Anti-Inflammatory Potentials of Trigona Honey in the Therapy and Prevention against Respiratory Infection in Wistar Rats <p>Trigona honey (TH) is well known for its therapeutic characteristics. To date, the study of Trigona honey as a prophylactic or immune booster prior to the bacterial infection of the invivo model is not well covered. This study aims to investigate anti-inflammatory and immune activities in Wistar rats infected with respiratory infection following with Trigona honey. 25 Wistar rats were assigned to possitive groups, negative control group, positive control group was fed TH (5 g / kg body weight) orally, the untreated group was infected with Staphylococcus aureus to induce respiratory infection, the treated group has been infected with S. aureus followed by treatment with TH at a dose of 1.5 ×108 CFU / mL and the preventive group ingested TH one week before S. aureus infection. Blood was obtained for biochemical analysis. Lung tissues have been collected for molecular examination. The results showed a significant decrease in serum levels of ALT, AST, urea and creatinine in the preventive and treated groups, serum IgG increased significantly (P&lt;0.05) in the preventive and treated groups, IFN-y increased in the preventive group while decreased in the treated group, and IL-8 increased in the treated group while decreased in the preventive group. The mRNA expression of AGP is up-regulated in the positive control, preventive and treated groups. The α2-MG, TNF-α , and mRNA expressions showed lower regulation after administration of TH in preventive and treated groups. The results show the ability of TH to counteract immune and inflammatory changes in serum levels and gene expressions.</p> Ibrahim Khaled Al-kafaween, Abu Bakar Mohd Hilmi, Mohamed M. Soliman Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Maranta arundinacea root assisted zinc oxide nanoparticles and its characterisation using TEM and UV-vis spectroscopy <p>Arrow root is a tropical root crop cultivated for its starchy rhizomes that have carbohydrate contents. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have emerged a promising potential in biomedicine, especially in the fields of anticancer, wound healing, free radical scavenging and antimicrobial including antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral research fields, which might be worried with their potent ability to trigger extra reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, launch zinc ions, and induce mobile apoptosis. 1 gram of Arrow root powder extract was mixed with 100 mL of water and filtered for nanoparticles synthesis. The zinc sulphate was used as a precursor for the zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesis and 30 mM was used. 50 mL of freshly prepared root extract and zinc sulphate solution was added together for the synthesis of Zinc oxide nanoparticles, which was then dried and characterisedcharacterized using transmission electron microscope (TEM) and during reaction it was characterized using UVvis spectroscopy method. A spherical shaped nanoparticle with plant extract in the background was observed. The peak at 300 nm confirm the nanoparticles synthesis using root extract. Based on our results we confirmed the capability of arrow root for the zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesis and it will be used for the various biomedical application in future.</p> Nivedhita G, Rajeshkumar S, Anitha Roy, Nagalingam M, Lakshmi T Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antistressor effect of Costus speciosus on noise induced immunological changes in rats <p>Costus speciosus is being widely used in Indian folk medicine for treating various disorders. Environmental noise pollution is supposed to be an important factor for many health problems and it causes immune abnormalities. In the present study immune-regulating potential of Costus speciosus extract was evaluated during acute and subacute noise stress conditions. Adult Wistar albino rats were exposed to acute noise stress and subacute noise stress and then the effect of ethanolic Costus speciosus rhizome extract on immunological parameters such as phagocytic index, avidity index, neutrophil adherence test and total leucocyte count were studied. Neutrophil adherence and total leukocyte counts were found decreased and the percentage of avidity and phagocytic index were significantly increased in the stressed group of rats. The result of statistical analysis showed that, the pre-treatment with Costus speciosus extract significantly altered favourably the levels of immunological parameters. Ethanolic extract of Costus speciosus rhizome have the potential to prevent noise stress induced changes in rodent immune system and has a strong immunomodulatory prospective applicable to clinical practices.</p> Saraswathi Ilango, Saikumar P, Sembulingam K, SaiKarthik Jayakumar Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Tagetes erecta flower and leaf extract gel on oxidative stress and antioxidant levels in oral ulcer condition <p>An oral ulcer is described by repeated or painful oral aphthae, in which oxidative stress apparently leads to its pathogenesis. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the effects of fresh leaves and flowers of Tagetes erecta gel on oxidative stress and antioxidant levels on oral ulcer models in albino Wistar rats. The oral ulcer was induced by incision wound model and then treated with the Tagetes erecta flower and leaf extract gel for 7 days. The antioxidant activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), the levels of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in rat buccal mucosal tissues. The antiulcer effects of Tagetes erecta leaf and flower extracts (2.5% and 5%) gel were intercompared with the standard drug, Triamcinolone. Ulcer induced rats exhibited elevated levels of MDA and reduced activity of SOD, GSH and CAT when compared to the control rats. The nonequilibrium levels of antioxidant were observed in rat mucosal tissues indicate that body’s antioxidant status was depleted with an oral ulcer. Tagetes erecta leaf and flower gel (5%) has been found to have higher significant antioxidant activity compared with ulcer induced rats by reducing the levels of MDA and by increasing the activities of SOD, GSH and CAT in response to oxidative stress due to induction of oral ulcers in a rat model. The findings thus justify the traditional use of Tagetes erecta to heal oral ulcer by increasing the antioxidant status and decreasing the free radical production.</p> Lakshana S, Vijayalakshmi S, Dinakar J, Asok Kumar K Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Studies on antioxidant activity of different extracts of aerial parts of Cadaba farinose Forsk: An in-vitro techniques <p>Cadaba farinosa (family Capparidaceae) is generally known as “Indian cadaba” in the traditional ayurvedic system. The current study, aerial parts of different concentrates (Pet.ether, ethyl acetate and methanol) of Cadaba farinose was evaluated for its in-vitro antioxidant potential by Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical, and total antioxidant activity taking ascorbate as standard and superoxide radical activity taking Quercetin as the standard for the in-vitro methods. The methanolic concentrates of Cadaba farinose&amp; ascorbic acid exhibited antioxidant potential possessing IC50 208µg/ml &amp; 66µg/ml (Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical) , 188µg/ml &amp; 57µg/ml (total antioxidant). The methanolic concentrates of Cadaba farinose &amp; quercetin exhibited antioxidant potential possessing IC50 252µg/ml &amp; 60µg/ml (superoxide radical). The IC50 value was originated that methanolic concentrates of Cadaba farinose more efficient in Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical, superoxide radical activity, total antioxidant activity compared EA &amp; PE concentrates. The difference in scavenging potential of the extracts can be due to variation in the percentage of bioactive compound present in different solvents. Invitro antioxidant studies show methanolic concentrates of Cadaba farinose have better antioxidant activity. This result indicates that aerial parts of methanolic concentrate Cadaba farinose could serve as a natural antioxidant, which may be useful in preventing free radical-induced diseases.</p> Jambula Dinesh Babu, Venugopalan Santhosh Kumar Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Schiff bases derivatives: synthesis, identification, and antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria isolated from patients infected with wound infection <p>Schiff bases derivatives are one of the most important compounds that have been used in many biological applications such as antimicrobial activity. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are two of the most important pathogenic bacteria that cause wound infection in Iraq and many developing countries. This research involves a synthesis of some Schiff bases compounds [A1 – A3] that were prepared from the condensation of [4- chlorobenzaldehyde, 4-bromobenzaldehyde, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde] in absolute ethanol. All of these compounds are characterized by [FTIR] spectroscopy. The antibacterial activity test was done according to agar well diffusion method for all derivative compounds with a concentration of 100 mg/ml and 200 mg/ml for each compound. The derivative compound A3 with a concentration of 200 mg/ml had an excellent antibacterial effect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with a diameter of inhibition zone of 18.417 ± 0.54645 and 16.000 ± 0.57735, respectively. Schiff bases derivatives synthesis compounds in this study (A1 and A2) can be considered as suitable antibacterial materials and can be used as raw materials to the synthesis of new ointment.</p> Hawraa Mohammed Sadiq, Hutham Mahmood Yousif Al-Labban, Ahmed Abduljabbar Jaloob Aljanaby Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Microfluidic based Platform for drug screening-A review <p>There is a lot of requirement to develop a preclinical rapid drug screening devices to treat the throat cancerous patients in effective manner. Very High cost models like animal based, 2d and 3d type models are static drug screening models and they are unable to mimic the human body dynamic condition. So microfluidic platform based drug screening devices will give predetermined and prominent result in rapid drug screening by mimic dynamic body conditions. Now it is required to review what are the developments from last five years in screening the drug for cancer. Recently research is going on microfluidic platforms to screen the efficacy of mixed drugs, drug tolerance, and drug susceptibility. So this study presents the review on what are the advancements in microfluidic platforms for rapid drug screening and for different cancer patients. This study also presents what are the different sensing methodologies of microfluidic devices exists to screen the drug for various cancerous tissues</p> Kalpana Seelam, Daisy Rani A Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A study to assess the effectiveness of Acharya Technique on low back pain among women <p>Back pain is the most widely recognised medical consultation in all the nations. It meddles with an individual’s satisfaction and general working. Back pain is a too fundamental issue that can extend from a dull, consistent pain to an unexpected, sharp pain that can leave individuals crippled. It can come on abruptly from a mishap, a fall, or lifting something extraordinary or it can grow gradually, maybe as the consequence of age-related changes to the Spine. Those instincts and behavioural patterns are now codified into Acharya technique for back pain and Spinal &amp; Nervous rejuvenation. The Save India association is conducting camps week after week without involving any fee for every one of the individuals, who are experiencing Back pain. All the same, people with other medical issues can also learn them and help themselves to enjoy perfect health and that as well with no depressions, fatigues or strain. Those who are destitute and are worn out on running from pillar to post and have spent a ton in treating back pain would now be able to plan to appreciate ideal wellbeing through this nature fix treatment which can properly be known as a therapy beyond all therapies. Hence the study is aimed to assess the effectiveness of Acharya technique on low back pain among women. Quantitative approach with Experimental Research design was employed with 60 samples which matched the inclusion criteria were selected by purposive sampling technique. A demographic variable was collected by using multiplechoice questionnaires by structured questionnaires, and the level of pain was assessed by using the Numerical Rating Scale. The results of the study are out of 60 samples 37 [61.66%] had moderate pain, 23 [38.33%] had mild pain, and none had severe pain.</p> KalaBarathi S, Mohana S Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Unhealthy Psycho Social Environment on Adolescent Mental Health Causes Emotional and Behavioural Problems <p><span style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #444444; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; font-size: 12pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">Adolescence is a most crucial period in a person’s life because rapid changes occur in physical, psychological and emotional spheres. Due to the immaturity and emotional turmoil the adolescent undergoes in this period a safe, nurturing environment is essential for the adolescents to grow up in to a well adjusted person.&nbsp;</span><span style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #444444; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; font-size: 12pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">The aim of this study to assess the influence of psychosocial stressors on emotional and behavioral problems of school adolescents. The&nbsp;</span><span style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #444444; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; font-size: 12pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">study conducted at</span><span style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #444444; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; font-size: 12pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">&nbsp;Govt. Higher secondary school for boys and girls at Guduvancheri &nbsp;in Kanchipuram District, Chennai.</span><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; font-weight: bold; color: #444444; font-family: 'open sans', 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><span style="box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 12pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">&nbsp;</span></strong><span style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #444444; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; font-size: 12pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">A mixed method research</span><span style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #444444; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; font-size: 12pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">&nbsp;</span><span style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #444444; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; font-size: 12pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">design was used for collecting data from 8<sup style="box-sizing: border-box; position: relative; font-size: 12px; line-height: 0; vertical-align: baseline; top: -0.5em;">th</sup>&nbsp;to 12<sup style="box-sizing: border-box; position: relative; font-size: 12px; line-height: 0; vertical-align: baseline; top: -0.5em;">th</sup>&nbsp;standard</span><span style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #444444; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; font-size: 12pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">&nbsp;students’ age between 13-17 years. The stratified random sampling technique was used to collect data from 100 samples with help of the standard tool child behaviour check list (CBCL)YSR 11-18year. The result revealed that in comparing the CBCL score between the male and female adolescents having significant difference in rule breaking behaviour p&lt;0.003 and thought problems p&lt;0.001. Out of 100 samples 10 Adolescents were selected who had emotional and behavioural problems and were sharing their problems and express their stressors. By this personal discussion found out &nbsp;the root stressors such as &nbsp;poor parental relationship (alcoholic father), insecure home environment, peer pressure, inadequate economical support and academic pressure lead them for loneliness, inferiority, hopelessness,&nbsp; anxiety, &nbsp;involvement of &nbsp;immoral behaviors.</span></p> Valarmathi V, Thirunavukarasu M, Kanniammal C Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 In vitro antibacterial potential of acetone leaf extract of Otostegia integrifolia Benth against human selected bacterial pathogens <p>Otostegia integrifolia Benth (O. integrifolia) is the endogenous medicinal plant of Ethiopia mostly used for the treatment of Stomach ache, tonsillitis, hypertension, malaria, ascariasis, and lung diseases. The current study was focused on phytochemical analysis and evaluation of the antibacterial activity of O. integrifolia Benth leave extracts against selected human bacterial pathogen by the agar well diffusion and microtube broth dilution method. Plant leaves were extracted with less polar to high polar solvents such as petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, and ethanol. Phytochemical investigation was carried out for the identification of secondary metabolites responsible for antibacterial activity. In vitro antibacterial potential of O.integrifolia Benth leaf organic extracts against human pathogenic gram-negative (E. coli, K. pneumonia, V. cholera) and positive bacteria (B.subtilis, E. faecalis, S.aureus) were assessed by agar well diffusion, and bacterial inhibitory concentration of effective plant extracts was determined by 96 well plate broth dilution assay. Among all the tested organic leaf extracts, the acetone leaf extract of O.integrifolia Benth exhibited a promising broad spectrum of in vitro antibacterial activity against all tested multiple drug-resistant bacteria pathogens with significant MIC values of K.pneumoniae (2.144µg/ml), V. cholera (2.025µg), B.substilis (2.604 µg), and S.aureus (3.028 µg), respectively. The significant antibacterial activity of acetone leaf extracts of O. integrifolia Benth was due to the existence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. The current studies demonstrated that the broad-spectrum antibacterial activity of acetone leaf extracts of O.integrifolia Benth might be helpful for the isolation of novel potent antibacterial agents against infectious bacterial pathogens without any side effects.</p> Kidu Hintsa, Tekleweyni Tadege, Tesfay Weletnsae, Gopalakrishnan V K, Kamalakararao K, Krishna Chaithanya K Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of self help strategies (shs) for pcos on biochemical parameters among young adult girls <p>Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with the predominance of 5 to 7% among youthful grown-up is a main source of infertility and endocrine issue. Metabolic clutters, for example, increased levels of LH and FSH in these young ladies was normal and impacts soundness of the youthful grown-up with PCOS in long-term. Treatment of female infertility and other entanglements needs to have direct hormones and get exogenous hormone. In this investigation, levels of Luteinizing hormone (LH) and Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone among young adults with PCOS were measured. The consequence of this investigation demonstrated that LH, FSH and Free testosterone hormone levels were altogether extraordinary in this disorder. The adjustments in the hormones show an intense effect on the character of the young people. It is a time of existence with explicit wellbeing and formative needs and rights to create information and aptitudes figure out how to oversee feelings and connections, and secure properties and capacities that will be significant for getting a charge out of the immature years and expecting adult roles. To identify the effectiveness of self help strategies in reducing PCOS symptoms.</p> Tamilselvi S, Nalini S J Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of serum osmolarity as an indicator for neurological morbidity in children with acute central nervous illness <p>Acute CNS illness comprising of Acute CNS infections along with Traumatic head Injury is an important cause for significant morbidity and mortality in Pediatric Intensive Care units across the world. Osmolar changes in the blood correlate well with CNS status. Acute BM is still a meaningful, host-pathogen interaction responsible for bacterial invasion of the CNS Osmolality in children with CNS illness is a good indicator of assessing neurological Morbidity and Mortality. A complex neuroendocrine system is involved in the maintenance of sodium and water homeostasis. Bacterial Meningitis (BM) is an acute purulent infection of the meninges. It is the most common bacterial infection of the CNS&amp; it’s the medical emergency that still has high mortality and morbidity. Blood-Brain Barrier is relatively impermeable to sodium, but water crosses freely. Variety of result in sodium dysregulation such as Traumatic Brain Injury, pyogenic meningitis, viral encephalitis, which is associated with significant Mortality and Morbidity. The objective of our study is to determine the incidence and outcome of Serum Osmolar change in children presenting with acute neurological illness. A prospective observational study was carried out between Jan 6th2020-March 6 th2020 enrolling children between ages of 1 month to 15 years, admitted to the PICU of SMCH with Acute onset neurological illness. Among 40 children, 20 children with hyponatremia have 50% of neurological deficit, Children with hypernatremia 50% had Neurological deficit, which is not statistically significant at P value0.083. Among the 40 children 40% had low Osmolality, 25% have high Osmolality&amp; 35% had normal range, which is not statistically significant at P value 0.199</p> Linda Xavier Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Expression of Hepatitis B viral surface antigen (Pre S1) in E. coli <p>Hepatitis B is the most common liver diseases, which caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. There are around 257 million people around the world suffer from severe chronic hepatitis B infection. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a vaccine to prevent viral infection. PreS1 is one of the HBV envelope proteins that have been proved to be an effective vaccine. Accordingly, Viral DNA was purified from patients’ serums and amplified by PCR using specific primers. Amplicons of 324 bp bands of PreS1 was observed on gel electrophoresis. The PreS1 was cloned into pTXB21 plasmid to form the recombinant plasmid pTXB1_PreS1 and transformed into DH5α E. coli. Screening of transformants was done using Colony PCR and Sequencing. Alignment of 26 polypeptide sequences showed conservation of this region. The pTXB1_PreS1 was retransformed into T7 Express Competent E. coli and screened using colony PCR. The PreS1 was expressed as a recombinant protein fused to an intein tag with a molecular weight of ~ 39.5 kD. The PreS1 protein was purified by a single affinity chromatography step and after cleaved from intein tag by Dithiothreitol the obtained protein had a molecular weight of ~ 11.5 kD. Only one protein band was observed on the SDS-page gel. The PreS1 protein was successfully cloned and expressed in E. coli, which can be used as a vaccine against HBV.</p> Shahad Basel Ismail, Yaseen Ismael Mamoori, Ibrahim Abdulla Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The effects of adding Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone antagonist on cycle characteristics and pregnancy rate in stimulated Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) cycle <p>A prospective randomised (comparative) study was conducted in the High Institute for Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies in AL-Nahrain University, Baghdad – Iraq, from the 1st of October 2018 till 1st of September 2019 involving seventy women of infertile couples with the same inclusion and exclusion criteria. They were randomly allocated into two groupsreceiving minimal ovarian stimulation protocol (Clomiphene Citrate and Human Menopausal Gonadotropin) with IUI adding flexible GnRH antagonist protocol (Cetrorelix) to the study group. IUI was done 40-44 hours after ovulation trigger. There were no significant statistical variances among control and study groups in demographic characteristics concerning: age, BMI, type, duration and cause of infertility. There was no important variance in a mean day of trigger among control and study groups, 12.43 ±1.56 versus 13.11 ±1.49, at the same order (p = 0.064). The Mean number of dominant follicles was considerably greater in study groups than that of the group control, 2.40±1.03 versus 1.89±0.83, respectively (p = 0.025).Mean serum Estradiol of the study group was significantly higher than that of the control group, 478.68 ±423.61 versus 273.12 ±254.57, respectively (p = 0.016). The proportion of women with LH&gt; 10 were significantly less frequent in the study group in comparison with the control group, 22.9 % versus 68.6 %, at the same order (p &lt; 0.001). There was no important variance in mean serum Progesterone among control and study groups. There was no significant difference in the characteristic of the dominant follicle, ruptured versus not ruptured, (p = 0.124) on the day of IUI. The pregnancy rate was higher in the study group when compared with the control group; however, the difference in pregnancy rate doesn’t reach statistical import (p = 0.145)</p> Rawaa saad Hassan Abunaila, Lubna Amer Al-anbari, Muayad Sraibet Abbood Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Obesity and Breast Cancer: Circulating Adipokines and Their Potential Diagnostic as Risk Biomarkers <p>Obesity and cancer are two major epidemics of this century. Obesity is related to a higher risk of many types of cancer. Studies have accessed circulating adipokines, as key-mediators in obesity and breast cancer. The study is aimed to examine the circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, adiponectin, and resistin in premenopausal Iraqi women with breast cancer. The current study was performed during the period from June 2019 to December 2019 at Oncology unit/ Medical City Hospital-Baghdad. A total of 90 premenopausal women with BC/ stage II and III after 2nd dose of chemotherapy were contributed in this study as patients group. Their ages ranged from (35- 50) years in addition to 90 premenopausal healthy women were designated as a control group. There was a substantial rise (p &lt; 0.05) in fasting serum glucose, total serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, CA15-3, insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, leptin/adiponectin ratio, and resistin. While there was a substantial decrease (p= 0.01) in serum adiponectin in patients as paralleled to healthy. There was a considerable rise (p ≤ 0.05) in serum insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, and resistin, while there was a reduced in serum adiponectin in obese patients as paralleled to overweight, but it was not significant. Additionally, circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, and resistin were significantly increased (p= 0.001) in patients who had tumour size &gt; 5 cm paralleled to those with tumour size 2-5 cm.Higher levels of serum leptin, resistin, and leptin to adiponectin ratio are related to improved breast cancer risk in Iraqi women. The clinical and pathological features of the tumour recommended that these adipokines might affect the development of breast cancer. Thus adipokines, in complicated and interrelated mechanisms, maybe drive breast cancer instigation and progression.</p> Hind Shakir Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Estimation of total phenolic content and Studies on antioxidant activity of different extracts of Cadaba farinose Forsk by hydroxy radical and iron chelating techniques <p>Cadaba farinosa (family Capparidaceae) is generally known as “Indian cadaba” in the traditional ayurvedic system. The current study, aerial parts of different concentrates (Pet.ether, ethyl acetate and methanol) of Cadaba farinose was evaluated for its in-vitro antioxidant potential by hydroxy radical taking ascorbate as a standard. The iron-chelating activity is taking Ethylenediamine tetraacetate as standard and estimation of total phenol content as equivalent to mg/g of Gallic acid. The methanolic concentrates of Cadaba farinose &amp; ascorbic acid exhibited antioxidant potential possessing IC50 205µg/ml &amp; 65µg/ml (Hydroxy radical) , methanolic concentrates of Cadaba farinose &amp; Ethylenediamine tetraacetate exhibited antioxidant potential possessing IC50 240µg/ml &amp; 70µg/ml (iron-chelating activity). The methanolic and EA concentrates of Cadaba farinose contain total phenolic content 9.86 ± 0.62 and 3.98 ± 0.54, respectively. The IC50 value was originated that methanolic concentrates of Cadaba farinose more efficient in hydroxy radical, iron chelating activity compared EA &amp; PE concentrates. The methanolic extract of Cadaba farinose having more free radical activity due to the presence of phenolic content as a bioactive compound. This result indicates that aerial parts of methanolic concentrate Cadaba farinose could serve as a natural antioxidant, which may be useful in preventing free radical-induced diseases.</p> Jambula DineshBabu, Venugopalan Santhosh Kumar Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antilithiasis activities of Juncus acutus <p>The objective of this work was to perform a phytochemical screening of Juncus acutus and to evaluate its antioxidant activity and antilithiasis activity. Phytochemical screening has demonstrated the presence of catechin, tannins and alkaloids in the various extracts studied. The antioxidant activity of the methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts by ultrasound and maceration was evaluated by the method of DPPH, FRAP and phosphomolybdate. The ethyl acetate extract by ultrasound, the methanolic extract by maceration and ultrasound respectively showed IC 50 with DPPH of 1,449mg / ml, 1,535mg / ml and 4,771mg / ml and a reducing power was observed at concentrations of 419,561mgBHA /100g, 207,143mgBHA /100g and 142,20mgBHA /100g by FRAP and at concentrations of 839,470mgAAE/100g, 283,260mgAAE/100g and 141,018mgAAE/100g by the phosphomolybdate test. The determination of the total polyphenols of the ethyl acetate extract by ultrasound, the methanolic extract by maceration and by ultrasound presented respectively contents of 2,428 mg GAE / g, 1,960mg GAE / g and 1,172mg GAE / g, likewise, the flavonoid assay showed respectively concentrations of 14,469mg EQ/g, 6,466 mg EQ/g and 3,143 mg EQ/g. Antilithiasis activity was evaluated on carbapatite, cystine and uric acid stones. The mass loss of uric acid, carbapatite and cystine stones was respectively 42%, 7% and 16%.</p> Zineb Aliat, Lamyae Yachi, Houda Attjioui, Amine Cheikh, Miloud EL Karbane, Rachid Nejjari, Mustapha Bouatia Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of lumbar support on backache among postoperative patients <p>The post-operative period is a critical time during hospitalization. Back pain is one of the most common indispositions during the post-operative period. Many causes may be attributed to post-operative Back pain. A few of them maybe ACT during a medical procedure, length of medical procedure, a span of immobilization, and exacerbation of existing ailment. The study aims to assess the effectiveness of lumbar support on Backache among post-operative patients. A quantitative approach with the quasi-experimental design was chosen to evaluate the effectiveness of lumbar support on Backache among the post-operative patients at Saveetha Medical College Hospital. Sixty patients who fulfilled the inclusive criteria were selected by purposive sampling technique. Sociodemographic variables of samples were collected by interviewing them. The Numerical pain Rating Scale assessed the Backache. The study findings revealed were recorded. The present study findings depict that in the pre-test of the experimental group majority of them had severe pain, 68%.In contrast, in the post-test the pain level reduced from moderate to mild due to lumbar support among post-operative patients. In the control group, most of them had severe pain 62%, whereas, in the post-test, 52% had moderate level pain. The mean and standard deviation of the effectiveness of lumbar support on Backache among post-operative patients in the experimental group mean is 3.2. The standard deviation of 3.34 w-0, the mean difference is -2.87 z value is -4.7821. The investigation results delineated that there was an association between the degree of back pain and history of back pain among the experimental and the control group patients with p&lt; 0.05.</p> Parimala L, Jeevapriya T Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Laparoscopic or open treatment for liver hydatid cyst? A single-institution experience: a prospective randomized control trial <p>The gold standard modality of management of cystic echinococcosis remains surgery. Regardless of the increased interest in nonsurgical techniques. The study aims to compare laparoscopic versus open methods of the hydatid cyst of the liver regarding complication rate, postoperative hospital stays, and effectiveness. A prospective randomized study. One hundred two patients with liver hydatid cyst in which 60 patients fulfil study requirements. Those undergone either open surgical or laparoscopic approaches under cover of albendazole treatment. The data divided into two groups, group 1 (28), group2 (32), we collected demographic data, surgical approach types, and postoperative data. The overall of 102 patients with hydatid cyst of the liver was randomized,60 patients full the study requirements, 28 patients (46.67%) had a laparoscopic procedure, and 32 patients (53.33%) had an open method. The total number of liver hydatid cysts was 70, and the operative time means 77 min (range,60–120 min) in the laparoscopic group and 55 min (range, 40–110 min) in the open group which is significant (P-value 0.0267). The postoperative hospital stay means time was 32 hours (range, 1–3 days) in the group of the laparoscopic procedure and 52 hours (range,2– 5days) in the group of open type. The postoperative surgical complication was significantly less in the laparoscopic group than the open group (p-value 0.014). A Hydatid liver cyst can be managed either by open surgical or laparoscopic techniques with comparable results. Still, the laparoscopic approach is superior in less postoperative pain, hospital stay and time, but it is essential in choosing the suitable patients.</p> Saad Ab-razq Mijbas, Samer Makki Mohamed Al-Hakkak, Ali Abood Alnajim, Hassan Abdulla Abadi AL-Aquli Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of effect of various treatments in clinically diagnosed patients of Carpal tunnel syndrome <p>Carpal tunnel syndrome is the compression neuropathy in upper extremity. Several researches have been done to see the effect of various treatments separately. But very little research work is available for comparison of treatments. So the study was aimed to study the clinical and electrophysiological findings and their Comparision before and after various treatments. NCS was carried out in 200 CTS patients before and after 6weeks of treatment. Patients were divided into 4 groups. Group I- operative, Group II-medicinal treatment, Group III-exercise, Group IV-medicine+exercise. Clinical and electrophysiological parameters all groups were compared before and after treatment. Group (I), showed significant changes in all parameters except SNAP in operated Rt. Hand as compared to Lt. Hand. Group-II showed significant changes in DML,DML(diff.),DSL,DSL(Diff.)except CMAP,SNAP,&amp;SCV in Rt. Hand but in Lt. hand DML,DML(diff.)DSL showed significant changes where as DSL(Diff.) CMAP,SNAP,&amp;SCV were non-significant. Group-III showed significant changes in DML, DML(diff.),DSL,DSL(Diff.) but SCV,SNAP and CMAP were non-significant in Rt. hand but in Lt. hand only DML(diff.) was significant . Group-IV showed significant changes in all parameters except SCV in Rt. hand but in Lt. hand DML, DML (diff.),DSL, DSL(Diff.) were significant , where as SNAP, CMAP, and SCV were non-significant. It was concluded that maximum improvement was observed in clinical and electrophysiological parameters in operative group, then Medicine + exercise Group, then exercise Group and minimum in Medicinal treatment Group. So operative method is the method of choice for CTS; however the duration of treatment should be more so that further improvements can be seen in all parameters.</p> Sahoo J.K., Joshi A.G Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Sringavacharana and Bandages In Sports Injuries WSR to Acromio-ClavicularJoint Dislocation and Low Back Pain <p>Ayurveda is attaining the attraction globally not only as an ancient life science but also as a successful aid to treat and manage the ailments in style, Apart from the common sayings that Ayurveda does not have quick-acting treatment modality, Nowadays Ayurveda is successfully managing sports medicine effectively and smoothly, as far as sports medicine and athletes are concerned Injuries are part &amp; parcel of a sportsperson’s life. They are a class of people who torture their body to the maximum to get the maximum result. Injuries are sustained due to faulty techniques, accidents as in the case of contact sports. In the process, they sustain a lot of injuries. Despite advanced treatment techniques injuries tend to recur. It severely hampers the progress of their career &amp; shortens their active sports life. It forces them for early retirement. Ayurvedic treatment like sringavacharana &amp; bandaging technique help to heal the injuries more effectively. Sringavacharana is an essential tool in the armarium of Ayurvedic physician to deal as emergency care in low back the technique and step involved in executing the Sringavacharana in the modern era and swastika bandhana is explained with essential photographs and also with the help of a clinical study.</p> Najeeb T K, Prasanth R Krishnan Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of prescribing pattern at basic health care facilities of Islamabad Pakistan <p>Failure to adopt the rational pattern of prescribing and dispensing by health professionals represents a significant risk to the safety of patient and lead to pharmaceuticals wastage. This study was designed to evaluate the prescribing and dispensing pattern at the selected basic healthcare facilities of Islamabad Pakistan. World Health Organization with collaboration to International Network for the Rational Use of Drugs has provided the core indicators to configure and examine the prescribing patterns. The study was conducted in 2018, using these indicators following the study sites, fourteen Basic Health Units, three Rural Health Centres and three local dispensaries located in Islamabad (Pakistan) were randomly visited and that accounts overall 600 prescribing episodes collected retrospectively. The results of this study highlighted that the average number of drugs prescribed was 2.751. Percentage of drugs prescribed by generic was 41.15%. Percentage of steroids, injections and antibiotics were 7.68%, 16.05% and 48.6%. The drugs prescribed from Essential Drug List were 75.08%. Average consultation time was 2.699 minutes. The average dispensing time was 1.479 minutes. We concluded that high number of average drugs per prescription, over prescription of antibiotics, low generic prescribing, less average consultation and dispensing time found in healthcare facilities. Keywords: Prescribing pattern, Basic health facilities, INRUD prescribing indicators, WHO prescribing indicators</p> Nabeel Siddique, Azhar Hussain, Madeeha Malik Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of lead, copper and zinc levels for autistic children in Thi-qar province/Iraq <p>Autism (AU) is a developmental disability identified by a substantial deficiency in communication and social interaction. The cause of Au is not known yet. The purpose of this study is to evaluate if exposure to lead, zinc and copper can affect causinAutismsm. In this study, 54 children diagnosed with AU were involved. Ninety (90) % of them were under the age of three years, and 10% were over the age of three years in the Nasiriyah Autism Centre 2019-2020. The results revealed that lead and copper levels did not affect the female children as much as males.On the other hand, the zinc levels showed a significant statistical difference between female and male. The lead, zinc and copper level did not have any impact on the children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Lead, zinc, and copper were recognised as one of the chief causes for Autism in Children in Thi-Qar Province. The children who were exposed to substantial metal metabolism and the environment in Thi-Qar province were affected by AU or ASD.</p> Khansaa A Hussien, Ali B Roomi, Shamam K Oudah Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antimicrobial and hepatoprotective effect of ISM Drug in alcohol induced liver damage on Zebrafish larvae <p>Liver cirrhosis occurs due to the extracellular matrix proteins accumulation which distorts the hepatic structure. The aim of our study is to investigate the antimicrobial and hepatoprotective effect of India Siddha Medicine(ISM) drug in alcohol-induced liver damage on zebrafish larvae. ISM drug, a hepatoprotective agent comprising of 15 herbs offers numerous formulations with advantages of hepatocellular rejuvenation has proven to be the most effective treatment to suppress liver damage. A series of analyses were carried out using alcohol-induced liver damage through herbal-based therapeutic drug and agar well diffusion method. For the hepatoprotective study, the zebrafish larvae were exposed to different concentrations of ethanol % (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5) and the treatment with 217.2 µg/ml of ISM drug has been evaluated. The outcome revealed the effect of ISM on alcohol-induced zebrafish larvae with a substantial increase in the percentage of viability. ISM drug showed antibacterial and antifungal activity in the diffusion method with a maximum zone of inhibition observed as 12 mm and 13.5 mm, respectively. Taken together, these results showed that the drug has hepatoprotective and antimicrobial activity which can be used for the treatment of liver cirrhosis.</p> Cynthia C, Horne Iona Averal Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis and Characterization of New Heterocyclic Compounds from Calix [4] arene Derivative <p>In this work, a new heterocyclic compounds derived from Calix[4]arene Derivative had been synthesized. The characterization of the produced compounds was performed using melting point, FT-IR spectroscopy and some of them with 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The spectral data confirm the formation of these compounds. This research includes the following two parts:- Part 1: Synthesis of Calix[4]arane Derivative from reaction Calix[4]arane with 4- Aminobutyric acid to produce ester compound this part4-Aminobutyric acid reaction with freshly distilled thinly chloride , the produce final was purified via distillation below pressure reduced. The product was purified by repeated recrystallization. In this step Converted the substituted carboxylic acid to substituted acid chloride included to obtained good leaving group the compound product containing primary amine and the reaction of Calix[4]arane Derivative with compounds containing carbonyl group(aldehyde or ketone) the carbonyl group of aldehyde or ketone react with primary amine to produce imine compounds(Schiff bases. Part 2: Reaction of produced Schiff base compounds with mercaptoacetic acid (thioglycolic acid) or maleic anhydride to synthesized new heterocyclic compounds Compounds with heterogeneous ring are characterized by having many biological activitiesWhich attracts the attention of researchers, and accordingly various derivatives containing sulfur or oxygen were prepared for heterocyclic compounds, these prepared compounds can have inhibitory activity for some bacteria, fungi, and viruses.</p> Khudheyer Jawad Kadem Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antibacterial and antioxidants effects of anthraquinones fraction from Clerodendron inerme leaves <p>Clerodendron inerme is used to treat asthma, inflammation, Parkinson’s diseases, and other diseases.This research is aimed to determine antibacterial and antioxidant effects in the anthraquinones’ fraction of Clerodendron inerme leaves.Well-diffusion agar, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimal bactericidal concentration were used to test the antibacterial properties of the four types of bacteria.DPPH radical scavenging assay was used to evaluate their antioxidant activity.GC-MS and FTIR analysis were used to identify anthraquinones compounds of the leaves in the plant.Anthraquinones component from the leaves of C.inerme has shown significant inhibition against pathogenic bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The anthraquinones extract of plant leaves has higher antioxidant activity compared to the control (ascorbic acid).IR spectra of anthraquinones extract from the leaves of C.inerme exhibited O-H stretching as a strong band at 3347.84 cm-1.C-H stretch bands are found in bands 2924.15 and 2857.29 cm-1. C= O group are located in the bands of 1733.18 cm-1 and 1637.72 cm-1. The C-H bending groups at 1375.64 cm-1 and the C-O groups at 1236.81 and 1050.16 cm-1 were detected. GC-MS results of the leaves of C.inerme identified specific anthraquinones compounds are Emodin, 1,4-Dihydroxyanthraquinone, 1-ethoxyanthraquinone, 2-Ethylanthraquinone, 9,10-Anthracenedione, 1,5- Dihydroxyanthrachinon, 1,4-Dimethoxybenzene, 1,4-Cyclohexanedione, and 2,3-Dimethylquinone. In conclusion, the anthraquinones of the green part of this plant have good antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The results suggest that anthraquinones from the leaves of C.inerme are a source of antimicrobials agents against harmful bacteria and antioxidant sources.</p> AbdulMuhsin M. Shami, Shurook Mohammad K. Saadedin, Suha F. Hasan Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Method development and validation of Ifetroban by RP-UPLC <p>The purpose of this work is to develop and validate reverse phase Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method for the rapid and precise determination of ifetroban sodium in its pure form and in formulations. A simple, specific, accurate, precise isocratic UPLC method for analysis of Ifetroban sodium was developed and validated using a Phenomenex C18 column (50 mm x 3.0 mm, 3µ) as the stationary phase, in conjunction using Triethyl amine buffer: methanol in the proportion of 25:75 with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, run time is 3 min and UV detector is used at 235 nm wavelength. The developed UPLC technique was found to be rapid as the retention time was 0.56 minutes for Ifetroban peak to elute. The developed UPLC technique was validated as per the ICH guidelines for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness and found to be satisfactory. Linearity was established in the concentration range 100-300 µg/mL with correlation coefficient of 0.998 and the equation obtained is y = 0.635x + 0.639.The percentage recovery is 100.41. The method is rugged and is trouble free and transferable. The study showed that the developed UPLC technique can be used for the estimation of drug purity, stability, solubility and with no interference of pharmaceutical excipients from the active pharmaceutical ingredient. The precision, accuracy, robustness results obtained enables rapid quantification of ifetroban for quantitative analysis.</p> Bharani Pandilla, Chitra K, Nalini C N, Ashok P, Vadivelan R Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical characterization and cytotoxicity analysis of ayurvedic formulation of drug <p>The liver is a major endocrine organ which controls the significant metabolic activity in the human body. Treatment of several liver disorders with herbal based plant drugs is popularising nowadays due to their hepatoprotective and nontoxic effect. Livoral, a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation is one such drug commonly recommended for liver disorders in India. The current work was aimed at studying the phytochemical characterisation and cytotoxic activity of livoral. Phytochemical analysis of extracts of livoral in methanol, hexane, acetone and petroleum ether was studied by TLC method. The cytotoxic activity of livoral was analysed by MTT assay in Vero cell lines at a concentration ranging from 10µg/ml to 500µg/ml. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of Phyto compound such as tannins, phenols, steroids, alkaloids, terpenes and carbohydrates in all the four types of livoral extracts. Phytochemicals such as phenols, terpenes and alkaloids were already known for their hepatoprotective activity. MTT assay revealed the nontoxic effect of livoral up to 300 µg/ml concentrations. Thus, based on the results of the phytochemical and cytotoxic analysis, the livoral was proven to be one of the best herbal drugs for liver disorders with hepatoprotective constituents and non-cytotoxic effect.</p> Cynthia C, Horne Iona Averal Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Normal Values And Variation Of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (Tsh) In Cord Blood Of Babies Bornover A Period Of 1 Year <p>A hospital-based prospective study was conducted with 1200 neonates to evaluate the normal values of cord blood TSH and its variations among term babies and identify maternal factors affecting the cord blood TSH. ResultsMajority of the mothers (53.8%) were in the age group of 26-35 years.44.6% mothers were primigravida, None of the mothers had a history of anti-thyroid drug intake or a history of maternal goitre. Majority of the mothers (97.1%) were from a rural area, 70 (55.11%) and 22 (17.32%) mothers developed hypertension and hypothyroidism respectively while 20 (15.74%) and 15 (11.81%) patients developed Gestational diabetes mellitus and HTN+GDM respectively of 127 mothers with antenatal complications: 708 (59%) and 48 (4%) newborns delivered through Normal Vaginal Delivery. Maximum neonates (98.9%) were Appropriate for Gestational Age (AGA) while 0.8%. The incidence of male and female neonates was 640 (53.3%) and 560 (46.7%) respectively. 655 (54.6%) and 531 (44.3%) neonates weighed in the range of 2.501 – 3.000 kgs and 3.001– 3.500 kgs respectively. 1125 (93.7%) neonates had an APGAR score of 5-7. Eighty-two neonates had CBTSH level of &gt;20mIU/L. Eighty-two neonates with CBTSH level of &gt;20mIU/L were followed up on 7thday and 21stday of life. On 7th day, 12 neonates had raised TSH and low T4.On the 21st day out of these 12 neonates, only two neonates had significant raised TSH and low values of T4. Treatment was started for these two neonates. The CBTSH levels were found to increase with increasing maternal age. There was a significant association of CBTSH levels and maternal age, mode of delivery, antenatal complications. There is an urgent need for adopting universal screening of all neonates for congenital hypothyroidism. Babies with CBTSH levels of &gt;20mIU/L should be evaluated on 7th and 21st day of life for TSH and T4 levels for earlier interpretation of congenital hypothyroidism.</p> Suresh S Choudhary, Langade R A, Kshirsagar V Y Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A study of correlation between thyroid disorders and menstrual disorders in reproductive age group <p>Present study to evaluate and detect thyroid dysfunction and its correlation in patients with a menstrual disorder in the reproductive age group. Research objectives are to study the prevalence of thyroid disorders in relation to menstrual disorders and study the correlation between menstrual irregularities and thyroid dysfunction. Precise assessments of thyroid hormones in serum become achievable easily and accurately with the introduction of new hormographical research techniques. Hypothyroidism diagnosis is advantageous because it typically relieves the patient of all symptoms. Therefore, the assessment of thyroid activity forms an essential component for the evaluation of a female with menorrhagia or otherwise menstrual irregularities. The individuals are rescued from repeated curettage from hysterectomy by early diagnosis of hypothyroidism Objectively measured menstrual blood losses were 35 ml per menstrual cycle (patients in the age group exposures.</p> Moulika Shirish Shah, Patange R. P Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study Of Clinically Manifested Congenital Malformations In Live Births <p style="font-weight: 400;">Cross-sectional study in 4786 live births prospective study of surviving infants born scope and clinical manifestations of congenital malformations. It was noted that a total of 4786 live births, the number of infants with a congenital malformation of 100 stillbirths, infant mortality and child morbidity are significantly detected by the abnormal impact. The number of infant birth defects, due to the advanced diagnostic technology, especially the increase USG prenatal and neonatal period. In the current study, 2753 (57.5%) and 2033 (42.5%), male and female fertility. Congenital male fertility in the baby was observed to be relatively high (68) as&nbsp;compared to&nbsp;comparative female (32) cases, as per the chi-square test (p&lt;0.05). For a prevalence of 27 babies (27 percent), in our study, congenital abnormalities, though 2 instances (2 percent) of low birth weights, 9 (9 percent) of the children were very low birth weights and 16 (27.5 percent), of the normal birth weight.</p> Poojan Patel, Potdar D B Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Niosomes as target drug delivery system: A Review <p>The formulation of vesicles as a way of improving the delivery of drugs over the past several years has generated a lot of concern among scientists working in the field of drug delivery systems. The vesicular niosomal system is capable of increasing the bioavailability of a product. When its bilayer structure is constructed by non-ionic surfactants, the bioavailability of products to a specified region for an extended period. Niosomes and liposomes are equative in drug delivery capacity, and both have decreased drug usefulness regarding free drug use. Niosomes are contrasted with liposomes when the high chemical stability and efficacy of the substitute are considered. For medicines and therapeutic purposes, the implementation of vesicular (lipid vesicles and nonionic surfactant vesicles) devices can give many benefits. They strengthen drug molecules ’ clinical efficiency by delaying clearance from circulation, safeguarding the drug from the genetic atmosphere, and limiting target cell impacts. This study focused on recent developments in the distribution for niosomal medicines, possible benefits above other delivery systems, methods of construction, characterisation methods, and current niosome studies. Niosome seems to be a system of choice of drug delivery over liposome as a stable and economical niosome. Niosomes often have tremendous potential for nanotechnology to achieve focused non-cancer, non-infective agents. Niosome’s potential for drug delivery can be improved using new ideas such as proniosomes, discomes, and aspasome. Niosomes are also useful for diagnostic testing and as an active ingredient to the vaccine. Such areas, therefore, need additional study and development to products available in the market niosomal preparations.</p> Khalifa Fathelrahman Khalifa Abdelmagid, Jeganath S, Nitish B Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Uncomplicated adult inguinal hernia repair under local anaesthesia and spinal anaesthesia <p>Multiple researchers have given numerous guidelines in the clinical management of this disorder in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, after comprehensive works on the subject. As a result, a very wide variety of surgical procedures are now available to the surgeon to suit the requirement. There have been numerous advances in the management of inguinal hernia. Inguinal hernias can conveniently be repaired under all kinds of anaesthesia, namely general, spinal and local. Whereas the general anaesthesia requires the services of an experienced anaesthetist and new devices and spinal anaesthesia requires postoperative impairment while local anaesthesia is safe to prescribe, easy and efficient and does not cause postoperative complications. This work consisted of a study group of twenty-five adult patients of uncomplicated inguinal hernias, who after repair of hernias, which after repair of hernias were allowed early ambulation and had a short hospital, stay of one day post operatively. The second control group consisted of similar twenty-five patients who are subjected to conventional delayed ambulation and prolonged hospital stay. The results of repair in the two groups were compared; the available literature on the subject was reviewed. The implementation of ”shortstay surgery” not only relieves the waiting list in hospitals but also offers an economic boost and provides the patient with some social advantages.</p> Naniwadekar R G Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study Of Stabilization Of Shaft Clavicle Fractures <p>We have tried to assess the effects of various methods in the treatment of mid-shaft clavicle fractures for Evaluating the end effects of midshaft Clavicle fractures diagnosed in the Tertiary Treatment Centre through different surgical procedures.Assess the feasibility and risks of the various treatment modalities in relation to time required for union concerning radiological and clinical outcomes range of movements associated complications about infection, deformity and pain stability at shoulder joint . The results are evaluated according to the DASH score. The study was conducted from October 2016 to March 2018 for mid-shaft clavicle fractures in patients with Open Reduction and Internal Plating Fixation, while intramedullary nailing patients were selected and performed from October 2013 to October 2016 at the Orthopedics Department at Krishna Hospital and Medical Research Centre. The present study is a Randomized, Prospective (in terms of plating cases), Retrospective (in terms of cases with intramedullary nailing), and Comparative and Clinical study. In this research or study, we have resolved that plate fixation for severely displaced communicated midpoint shaft clavicle fractures provides excellent results in terms of rigid fixation, rotational stability and maintenance of anatomical length which intramedullary nailing fails to maintain.</p> Vishal Sharma, Paresh Vilasrao Patil Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relative Assessment of Bonding Strength of Orthodontic Adhesives <p>Current study was carried for evaluating the shear bond strengths of 3 clinical micro-filled adhesives. The experiments were performed on extracted premolars for orthodontic purpose. The sample size was selected by randomized sampling technique. Sample size was 90 which were divided into three groups. The extracted maxillary first premolars were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The three adhesives selected for the study were applied to the bracket base according to manufacturer instructions. A Universal Test Machine has been utilized to record the bond shear intensity. The existing remnant adhesive on the teeth has been stereo-microscopically observed and is measured utilizing the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI).</p> Yusuf Ahammed A R Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of diabetic retinopathy among diabetic patients <p>People with diabetes complications under many tests. For diabetic retinopathy, we do many tests like, ophthalmoscopy which is done in clinical examination &amp; Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA), etc. This study has been conducted to evaluate the use of Fundus fluorescein angiography in DM patients and its comparison with clinical evaluation for early detection and assessment of the stage of diabetic retinopathy. The current study looked for ophthalmology and the diagnostic potential of FFA in the diagnosis of ophthalmic retinopathy findings because both facilities may not be available everywhere. So look for and provide better options for diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic maculopathy is also a clear finding on direct eye examination. We found that there was a significant correlation between the age groups of the patients: Diabetes, and the development of diabetic retinopathy. No significant association with the sex of patients was observed in the event of retinopathy. In diabetic patients younger than five years of age or those who are in the early stage of diabetic retinopathy, we found that the initial pathological changes that could not be seen on ophthalmoscopy were evident on FFA. The procedure is useful in diagnosis, treatment, follow-up of patients, maintain a permanent record of the retinopathy staging, study the course of the disease, and response to the procedure.</p> Vinit Umesh Rewanwar, Joshi B.S. Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing Acute St-Elevation Myocardial Infarction With Prognostic Significance Of The Hyponatramia <p>Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) has become a significant public health issue in developed and developing nations, following extensive diagnostic and management research over recent decades. The study intended to research the prognostic values of inexplicable Hyponatremia in patients with severe STelevation of myocardial infarction, in 100 consecutive patients admitted to Tertiary care hospital. In the analysis, identified patients on admission were diagnosed with or produced Hyponatremia within 72 hours—a lower ejection fraction than those with usual amounts of sodium. The research aimed to evaluate the prognosis significance of Hyponatremia for the estimation of early death in acute ST-elevated myocardial infarction. One hundred straight patients admitted in the Coronary Centre Tertiary Care Facility with severe STelevated myocardial infarction were studied. The data of the study on various risk factors in association with the development of Hyponatremia like as age, sex, use of tobacco, diabetes, hypertension, ejection fraction etc. were analyzed. Thus, the researchers reported that in patients diagnosed with severe ST section escalation, Hyponatremia showed the initial emergence of hyponatremia myocardial infarctions. This condition correlates with the severity of LV dysfunction (in term of LVEF) and can be considered as an individual early death indicator as well as a prediction exacerbates with hyponatremia frequency.</p> Makrand B Mane Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Deciphering the Effect of Hydro-alcoholic extract of Cymodocea serrulata on the Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis <p>Liver cancer is the most common cancer both in men and women. Hepato carcinoma is caused due to chemicals, food and also by even some drugs. Many therapies and therapeutic agents show side effects of liver cancer. A natural medicine Cymodoceae serrulata, seagrass under Cymodoceaceae family, found in the subtidal region may prove a source of benefit to avoid such side effects. Hydro ethanol extract of Cymodoceae serrulata shows high antioxidant and pharmacological activities, which may be used for the treatment of liver cancer. The earlier stage of Apoptosis can be identified by the nuclear changes such as DNA fragmentation. Propidium iodide can determine the proportion of cell cycle analysis—Annexin V conjugated to fluorochromes, including FITC. When the HepG2 test sample treated with the drug Cymodoceae serrulata, viable cell growth is significantly reduced compared to the standard camptothecin, which is an antitumor agent. Percentage of viable cell count declined significantly to 5.38%, and the percentage of the late apoptotic cell increased impressively 42.08%.</p> Kalpana C S, Kalaivani P, Vanitha V Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of fluid supplementation with phototherapy in reducing the serum bilirubin levels in severe hyperbilirubinemia <p>Hyperbilirubinemia otherwise called ”jaundice” is yellowish-green pigmentation of the sclera and skin brought about by an expansion in bilirubin creation or an imperfection in bilirubin elimination. Prospective randomized comparative correlational study carried out on babies admitted to NICU in Krishna Hospital. All healthy term babies (= 37 weeks) with non haemolytic hyperbilirubinemia with absolute serum bilirubin =20 mg/dl - = 25 mg/dl from second day of life to fourteenth day of life. Out of 811 babies admitted in NICU during the study period, 52 babies were admitted for severe hyperbilirubinemia in NICU. Thus, the incidence rate was 6.4%.out of these 28 (53.84%) were male and 24 (46.15%) were female. The frequency of extreme hyperbilirubinemia was more in inborn babies (78.88%) than out born babies (21.15%). The frequency of extreme hyperbilirubinemia with respect to birth weight were, Weights between 2000 gms-3000gms were 40 (76.9%) and weight above 3000 gms were 12 (23.07%). The percentage weight loss from the time of birth till admission between enhanced and non enhanced gatherings was comparable. In the study, 28 (53.84%) were delivered per vaginally, 24 (46.15%) were born by LSCS. Most neonates in our study, 31 (59.61%) cases presented with in 2-5 days, 20 cases presented between 6-10 days and only one case between 11-14 days. The mean gestational age of presentation in both groups was not significant. By unpaired T test both supplemental and non supplemental groups are comparable i.e., the levels of bilirubin, rate of reduction of bilirubin between 2 groups is not significant. By ANOVA test i.e., the levels of bilirubin, rate of reduction of bilirubin in both the groups is highly significant. The complete length of phototherapy required between2 groups is not significant. This information show that organization of extra intravenous liquid in embittered sound, term, breastfed neonates have no useful impact on the pace of serum bilirubin decrease during phototherapy.</p> Anand Patil, Pawar J M, Kshirsagar V Y Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Serous effusions: A clinicopathological study <p>This study is a prospective, observational study done for two years, comprising of 267 cases. Their episodes were while tapping pleural cavity, peritoneal cavity and pericardial sac, pleural, ascitic and pericardial fluids were collected. Majority of the samples received were from our hospital (98%) while 2% (5 samples) were obtained from outside. The male cases (55%) outnumbered the females (45%). And, a maximum number of instances in quinquagenarian among males and sexagenarian among females. In peritoneal fluids, females (29/30) outnumbered males. Fifty-nine (22%) samples showed the presence of clot with the majority being in pleural fluid (35/59). Few of the cases of TB showed neutrophilic (10%) or eosinophilic (2.5%) exudate instead of lymphocytic effusion. In contrast, a few cases of liver cirrhosis showed exudative effusion instead of transudative because of bacterial peritonitis. Majority cases were exudates (58.2%) excluding the peritoneal fluids, out of 71 cases of known malignancy. Out of these, 50% of the malignant effusions were nonhemorrhagic. Common microorganisms were gram-negative bacilli and grampositive cocci. There were three unusual cases in this study, viz: Eosinophilic effusion, Parasite (Ascaris) in pleural fluid and an example of a second malignancy. If the effusion is suspected for malignancy, the fluid typing of exudate or transudate may be done. Also, wet mount preparation for abnormal cells may be done before Examination of fixed smears for cancerous cells, as we did not find any transudate fluid positive for malignancy. Diagnostic effusion tapping, followed by immediate processing of fluid in a laboratory may improve cytological outcome. Malignant effusions may not be hemorrhagic in appearance. Rarely effusion may be the first manifestation of malignancy.</p> Akash Jain, Mahendra Patil, Kanetkar S R Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effects of WrightiaTinctoria Leaves in Thioacetamide Induced Hepatotoxicity <p>The plants belong to the genus Wrightiaare widely distributed throughout the world. Wrightiatinctoria (WT) plant species are being used in folk medicine for the treatment of several diseases. The review of the literature suggests that a good number of preclinical have confirmed the medicinal use of various Wrightiatinctoria species that have been mentioned in traditional medicine. The extract of Wrightiatinctoria was given daily to the rats, at doses of two hundred and 400 mg/kg along with thioacetamide to assess the affectivity of extract, against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity. Serum samples were collected for analysis of various hepatoprotective parameters like aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, antacid phosphatase and total bilirubin, using commercially available test kits, together with morphological and histopathological indices in the liver of healthy and thioacetamide treated rats. Animals were sacrificed from each group, and their livers were dissected out for histopathological studies. Results of the present study suggest that the methanolic extract ofWrightiatinctoria leaves possess significant hepatoprotective activity on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity, which might be associated with its high phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant properties.In conclusion, the present study depicts the curative efficacy of Wrightiatinctoria in an in-vivo experimental system. This study also revealed that Wrightiatinctoria could be used for the development of a phytomedicine against oxidative stress and liver ailments. However, further pharmacological evidence at the molecular level is required to establish the mechanism of the action of the drug.</p> Nitin V Patil, Prakash M Somade, Pramod A. Patil, Atul R Chopade, Avinash V.Bhosale, Milind B. Ubale Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evidence Based Support to Assess the Role of Miasm and Establish the Curative Efficacy of Homoeopathic Antimiasmatic Similimum Medicines in the Cases of Hyperlipidaemia-A Case Study <p>Hyperlipidaemia is ametabolic disorder and its prevalence worldwide is a biggest health issue in 21st century. This is more due to the life style in current era. Hyperlipidaemia is disorder with a fundamental cause that Hahnemann has mentioned as miasm.There is high prevalence of hyperlipidaemia in urban slum population in North India. According to prodigy guidance for hyperlipidaemia in UK shows there is high chance of hyperlipidaemia in diabetics and prevalence ratio is 10.3% and prevalence of hyperlipidaemia based on BMI study is more in female than in males. Appreciable prevalence of obesity, hyperlipidaemia, substantial increase in body fat (generalized and regional obesity) in middle age particularly in female need immediate attention in terms of prevalence of this disorder.Hyperlipidaemia and its prevalence worldwide is biggest health issue in 21st century. This is the metabolic disorder which is more due to life style in current era. Hyperlipidaemia is a disease syndrome with multiple causative factors that includes genetic, lifestyle and stress. In today’s world most deaths are attributed to non-communicable diseases and over half of these are the result of cardiovascular diseases, heart disease and stroke are the first and second cause of death in developed countries. WHO has drawn attention to the fact that coronary heart disease is our modern epidemic.Herewe want to give deep insight to the cases of hyperlipidaemia and want to emphasize more over miasmaticdyscrasia, which is a crucial part of homoeopathic treatment and helps in permanent restoration of health and prevent the complications like coronary heart disease, cardiovascular accident, uncontrolled hypertension, aortic stenosis, stricture, etc.</p> BhavitaMalvi, Prasanth.R.Krishnan Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antibacterial activity of several Indonesian plant extracts and combination of antibiotics with Syzygium malaccense extract as the most active substance <p>Natural products have an important role in the development of drugs, especially as an antibacterial. Some plant extracts in Indonesia such as Syzygium (Myrtaceae) and Graptophyllum (Acanthaceae) have been used empirically for the treatment of non-infectious diseases, and are also for management infections such as throat, mouth and vaginal infections, dysentery and diarrhea. The objectives of this study are to investigate antibacterial activity of 11 extracts from ten plants which were used in traditional medicine in Indonesia to treat infection disease and to evaluate interaction between potential antibacterial extract and antibiotics. Antibacterial activity and combination extract with antibiotics were evaluated using agar diffusion method on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the ten plants, Syzygium malaccense leaves extract, and Nephelium lappaceum peel and leaves extracts showed significant antibacterial activity. They have antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative. S. malaccense extract had better antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa compared to the other tested bacteria and provided better activity compared to N. lappaceum leaves extract. Phytochemical screening showed that S. malaccense leaves extract contained flavonoid, tannin, quinone, phenol and triterpenoid/steroid. The combination of S. malaccense extract with antibiotics showed that the usage of S. malaccense extract together with ciprofloxacin gave antagonistic result, so the usage of S. malaccense extract together with ciprofloxacin needs caution because it can reduce the effect of ciprofloxacin.</p> Yuniarni U, Sukandar E Y, Fidrianny I Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role Of Oxidative Stress And Antioxidant In Preeclampsia: A Study In Rural Population <p>Pre-eclampsia is well known complication of gestation which generally occurs around 20 weeks of pregnancy; it is linked with large maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The disease comes with new-onset hypertension and proteinuria in the mother, which can further progress to dysfunction of multiple organs, and includes hepatic, renal and cerebral disease.To estimate malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione reduced, superoxide dismutase and catalase in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia.Role of malondialdehyde, antioxidant and their relationship were estimated using different method. Preeclamptic group was compared with normal pregnant women and another group of pregnant women administered with supplementation of Vitamins. Very significant differences were seen, when compared with each group.In present study we found decrease in levels of reduced glutathione level in preeclamptic group as compared to normal and supplementation group. The levels of superoxide dismutase was found to be increased in present study in pre-eclamptic group as compared to normal pregnant women and pregnant women with supplementation and the differences were highly significant. In present study where antioxidants level was compared with preeclamptic group and group with supplementation the markedly significant variations were seen.Our finding on role of antioxidant in preeclampsia when compared with supplementation of Vitamins and normal pregnant women the result showed beneficial affect with the significant differences. It may provide new insight into a potentially modifiable way to prevent preeclampsia when these vitamins are administrated in diets.</p> Ranjit S. Ambad, Roshan Kumar Jha, Nandkishor Bankar, Minal Kalambe, Deepti Shrivastava Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical Study of Right Iliac Fossa Mass Pathology At: Central Vidarbha Region <p>One of the most common problems experienced in surgical practice, which challenges the surgeon and needs the ability to diagnose through knowing the anatomy and pathological process that can occur inside the abdomen, is a mass in the right iliac fossa. The purpose of this research was to examine clinical appearance, differential diagnosis and treatment methods for patients with the right iliac fossa.Study was carried out in the Dept. of General Surgery at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital, Sawangi (M), Wardha , Maharashtra , between August 2018 to December 2019. 43 patients with signs and symptoms of right iliac fossa mass were studied by taking detailed clinical history, physical examination, and were subjected to various investigations.In the present study appendicular mass constituted 60.46%, appendicular abscess 09.30% ,ileocaecal tuberculosis 06.97 % , carcinoma caecum 13.95 % , intussusseption02.32%. Patients presented with constitutional symptoms like pain , fever , vomiting , weight loss.Appendicular lump remains the most common entity in right iliac fossa mass patients. Ileocaecal tuberculosis is one of the most common differential diagnosis to be considered for pain abdomen evaluation in rural population. Conservative treatment followed by interval appendicectomy remains the main management modality in appendicular lump. The rare cause of mass in right iliac fossa as intussusception should be kept in mind.</p> Anupam Kakade, Mangesh Padamwar, Ajonish Kamble, Yashwant Lamture, Meenakshi Yeola Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pharmacognostic and analytical assessment for Pterolobium hexapetalum (Roth.) Santapau and Wagh. – A dynamic Folklore therapeutic plant <p>The aim of the current study was to assess a scrupulous pharmacognostic cram is to enhance the constructive information with regard to its species identification, characterization and standardization of a dynamic folklore therapeutic plant Pterolobium hexapetalum. It is one of the largest scrambling shrubs belonging to the Leguminosae family having significant medicinal properties. The aerial part of the fresh and healthy plant materials was collected from the Maruthamalai hill, Coimbatore District with a strong traditional background. The confined name of the species is “Karuindu” used as medicine in Siddha, Ayurveda and folk medicine for treating various illnesses. The external morphology of study species, the anatomy of leaf and stem, physicochemical examination of plant powder, powder with diverse chemical reagents, fluorescence analysis of therapeutic powder, ash values, mineral studies, heavy metal analysis, extractive values, phytochemical analysis, GCMS analytical studies were examined with the aim of drafting pharmacopeial principles. The studied plant contains 19 bioactive chemical constituents which confirm the healing domination. The analytical assessment of study species authenticates the presence of various bioactive constituents with a broad range of remedial properties which is used to treat manifold muddle as well it provides a comprehensive insight regarding the phytoconstituents profile which could be browbeaten for the maturity of plant-supported drugs.</p> Sharmila S, Dhivya S M, Akilandeswari D, Mownika S, Ramya E K Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Perception of Mothers among Cerebral Palsy Children with Disabilities in Tamil Nadu, India <p>The purpose of the study is to check the perception of mothers of cerebral palsy children with disabilities in Tamil Nadu. Data, from India, on perceptions about Cerebral palsy disability are scant. This study explored mother’s knowledge, social well-being and awareness of treatment rendered. During the development of the questionnaire, review of the literature has been primarily made; during developing the questionnaire personal and social values were considered. The questionnaire was emerged with 9 themes, Knowledge of disability condition, Parental stress, Community support, Child ability, Mothers Confidence, Improvement, Health status, Benefits &amp; Belief. Data were collected from mothers of both male and female children with cerebral palsy aged between 1 to 18 years. 220 mothers, averaged 33.44 + 6.14years, of children with CP were randomly selected for this study. Data was collected from mothers attending rehabilitation centers from different institution and special schools in Tamil Nadu. Mothers can hold both a fatalistic view of disability and a belief in the course of disability.The raw data was tabulated and analyzed by using SPSS 17 version software. Cronbach’s Alpha was calculated, the results showed that its Cronbach’s Alpha was extremely good (r=0.96). Our results suggest that there is significance difference with in the mother’s perception towards types of disability in Parental stress, child’s ability, mother’s confidence, improvement, health status, benefits and belief.Mothers should be motivated to maximize rehabilitation services in order to improve their children’s functional capacity. The appreciation of this phenomenon could move towards a model for the delivery of rehabilitation that integrates and harmonizes such beliefs.</p> Elanchezhian Chinnavan, Swarna kumari P Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Analgesic Efficacy of subarachnoid Bupivacaine, Bupivacaine with Fentanyl and Bupivacaine with Nalbuphine An Intragroup Prospective Observational Study <p>Opioids are added to local anesthetics to extend theduration of spinal analgesia/anaesthesia.The present study was undertaken to compare the analgesic efficacy of subarachnoid hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% alone as a control,bupivacaine 0.5% with fentanyl and bupivacaine 0.5% with nalbuphine. Total 150 patients of either sex, ASA grade I and II, between 18 to 60 years and height 150 to 170 cm, posted for elective lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries were enrolled. They were divided into three equal groups. Group B: received 15mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5%(3ml) + 0.5ml normal saline, Group BF: received 15mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% (3ml) + Inj. Fentanyl25µg(0.5ml) and Group BN: received 15mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5%(3ml) + Inj. Nalbuphine 500µg(0.5ml). The sensorimotor blockade was significantly faster and prolonged in group BF and BN than group B. Quality of analgesia during the procedure was excellent in 90%, 94% and 94% in group B, BF and BN respectively. The duration of effective analgesia in group B (229.80± 43.542min) was significantly shorter in comparison with group BF (359.40 ± 45.955min) and BN (364.20 ± 38.34min), (P= 0.0001). Subarachnoid fentanyl 25µg and nalbuphine 500µg acts as an adjuvant to potentiate localanesthetic bupivacaine with the result that there is prolongation of sensory and motor blockade&amp; extended duration of effective analgesia in early postoperative period, reducing the total consumption of rescue analgesics.</p> Pratibha Deshmukh, Medha A Sangawar, Nikita Dhumne Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 SEAS Exercise to Treat Scoliosis and Improve Functional Activities in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy <p>SEAS exercise to improve functional activities among the children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy children. Single group pre- post experimental research design. Cerebral paralysis is a static encephalopathy which affects the immature brain and leads to permanent motor disability. Due to a combination of spasticity, muscle weakness and incompletion of muscle control, the spinal deformity occurs in rising patients with CP; it can lead to poor balance in the trunk and significantly limits patient function. SEAS exercise capacity to enhance the self-corrected posture by concentrating during everyday activities. Eighty eight subjects of spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsied children, aged 6-12, male and female with scoliosis were selected under purposive sampling technique and received SEAS exercise training for a period of eight weeks. pre and post outcome measures were assessed using Modified Ashworth scale and Scoliometer to measure the functional activity in the children Pediatric balance scale, functional gait assessment and Gross motor function were used. Significant changes in spasticity and scoliosis were observed, and functional parameters were increased. The results of the post-test mean values for all SEAS variables demonstrated substantial improved balance, reduced scoliosis and gross motor functions in those receiving SEAS protocol (p&lt;0.05). The SEAS exercise proves there was a decrease in scoliosis and their by improvement in functional abilities among children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy after eight weeks of intervention.</p> Sathish G, Swarnakumari P, Ramya R Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Estimation of total Phenolic and flavonoids content and Studies on antioxidant activity of different extracts of Olax scandens by FRAP assay <p>Olax scandens Roxb. (family Olacaceae) available in throughout tropical India. The current study, aerial parts of different concentrates of Olax scandens was evaluated for its in-vitro antioxidant potential by FRAP assay taking ascorbic acid as the standard and estimation of total phenolic content and flavonoids content. The IC50 value was originated that methanolic concentrates of Olax scandens are more efficient in antioxidant activity by FRAP methods compared EA &amp; PE concentrates. The methanolic concentrates of Olax scandens &amp; ascorbate exhibited antioxidant potential possessing IC50 207µg/ml &amp; 50µg/ml by Ferric reducing ability Power assay. The methanolic and EA concentrates of Olax scandens showed the total phenolic content (14.426 ± 0.032, 4.128 ± 0.025) respectively, and ৒lavonoids content (11.526 ± 0.054, 3.682 ± 0.042) respectively. Invitro antioxidant studies show methanolic concentrates of Olax scandens have better antioxidant activity as well as a higher content of total phenolic and flavonoids content. These results indicate that aerial parts of methanolic concentrates Olax scandens could serve as a natural antioxidant, which may be useful in preventing free radical-induced diseases.</p> Pranaya P, Akiladevi D Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Preparation of zinc oxide nanoparticles using punica granatum and elettaria cardamomum fruit extract and determining its antibacterial activity against lactobacillus <p>To determine the antibacterial activity of Zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesised using Punica granatum and Elettaria cardamomum fruit extract against Lactobacillus. Punica granatum and Elettaria cardamomum have been known for their antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The phytochemicals present in these fruits have experimented for the preparation of various metal and metal oxide nanoparticles. Zinc oxide is a widely used metal oxide nanoparticle known for its good antimicrobial activity against a host of microbes. The current study was conducted to determine its effect against Lactobacillus, a bacteria known for its role in the progression of dental caries. Preparation of fruit extract mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles. Determining the characteristics of the nanoparticles using UV spectroscopy and SEM. Analysing the activity of these nanoparticles against Lactobacillus using agar well diffusion method. The zone of inhibition increased if the concentration of the fruit mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles increased. But it was incomparable to the standards. Hence, further studies need to be conducted using different concentration of Punica granatum and Elettaria cardamomum to determine the optimum fruit extract required for the preparation of the nanoparticles. The resultant nanoparticles can be used as an effective antimicrobial agent against Lactobacillus</p> Shilpa Merlyn Jose, Hannah.R, Rajeshkumar S Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Anodyne activities of New Tetrazole derivatives from Triazine <p>The creation of novel drugs containing a tetrazole ring as a structural fragment has contributed considerably to the outstanding achievements of the pharmaceutical chemistry in the last decade. Tetrazoles are the heterocyclic compounds having diverse biological activities such as analgesic, antiinflammation, antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiabetic, etc., and an impending source in biosciences. In this paper, the authors describe the synthesis of novel tetrazoles from N, N-( 6-Phenyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diyl) dibenzamide (PTDDB) and 2-phenyl-4, 6-di(2H-tetrazole-2-yl)-1,3,5-triazine(5a-i) were prepared per the proposed scheme. A new class of tetrazole heterocycles were synthesised and characterised. I n vivo analysis was carried out on the analgesic property of synthesised tetrazole derivatives (5a, 5b, 5c). Characterisation studies such as IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, Mass and elemental analysis were performed for the synthesised tetrazole derivatives. Some of the tetrazole derivatives 5a, 5b, and 5c were tested for anodyne activity using morphine as the standard drug. The data reveals that all the three compounds 5a, 5b and 5c taken for the study show analgesic activity by hot plate method and tail flick methods. Among tested compounds, compound 5c is found to have potent analgesic (anodyne) activity. The results of the study indicate that the sample taken for the study show fairly good business using morphine as the standard drug.</p> Arulmozhi R, Abirami N, Helen P Kavitha, Arulmurugan S, Vinoth Kumar J Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the anticonvulsant activity of the phosphodiesterase III inhibitor cilostazol in the animal model of epilepsy <p>The present study is objected to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of the phosphodiesterase III inhibitor cilostazol in the animal model of epilepsy. Conventional anti-epileptic rodent models like Maximal Electric Shock (MES)- induced convulsions and Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced convulsions were used. The animals were randomly divided into six groups, with six rats in every group. Here anti-epileptic activity of cilostazol with two different doses (10 mg/kg i.p and 20 mg/kg i.p) was compared with standard drug and standard drug + Cilostazol two different doses (10 mg/kg i.p and 20 mg/kg i.p). Cilostazol (20 mg/kg i.p) exhibited an anticonvulsant effect in MES-induced and PTZ induced convulsion models over the Control group and cilostazol (10 mg/kg i.p). Standard drugs were shown superiority in seizure suppression activity than cilostazol (20 mg/kg i.p). The time duration of onset of clonic convulsion and period of clonic convulsions in PTZ induced convulsion were increased and decreased respectively when compared to Standard drug + cilostazol both doses and standard drug alone. Phenytoin abolished convulsions induced by MES- convulsion model. So the present study established that cilostazol has low anticonvulsant efficacy in comparison with conventional drugs (Phenytoin and Sodium Valproate). The potentiating effect of cilostazol with standard drugs was also demonstrated.</p> Sadgunottama goud kamparaj, Kudagi B L, Karikal H P, Muthiah N S, Pravin Kumar R Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Nesting on Posture Comfort among Low Birth Weight Babies in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit <p>An infant is the most helpless gathering to get acclimates to the new condition. Following birth, during the initial months, they act as a momentary period during which the baby adjusts from the aquatic to the aerial environment. Nesting positions keeps up the flexion pose as such as intrauterine position and stances. As a fundamental obligation of the nurses, it is one of the most significant nursing procedures, positioning by nesting utilizes a non-pharmacological methodology to diminish torment and push and improve comfort. The present study aims to assess the effectiveness of nesting on posture comfort among low birth weight babies. A quantitative quasiexperimental research design was conducted among 30 low birth weight babies. Convenient sampling technique was used to select samples. A semistructured interview was used to collect demographic data, and posture comfort was assessed using a comfort scale. The babies in the experimental group were placed in a side-lying position inside the nest, which is then rolled blanket. After an hour, the posture comfort was re-assessed. The study results show significant improvement in the posture comfort among the experimental group than the control group after the intervention at the level of p&lt;0.001. This reveals that nesting is highly signiϑicant in the experimental group because it improves posture comfort of the newborn, which in turn promotes growth and development of the low birth weight babies. This indicates that nesting is an effective and secure method to improve posture comfort, maintains the vital signs and helps in the development of low birth weight babies &amp; promotes sound sleep in low birth weight babies.&gt;&lt;0.001. This reveals that nesting is highly significant in the experimental group because it improves posture comfort of the newborn, which in turn promotes growth and development of the low birth weight babies. This indicates that nesting is an effective and secure method to improve posture comfort, maintains the vital signs and helps in the development of low birth weight babies &amp; promotes sound sleep in low birth weight babies.</p> Jagadeeswari J, Swathi D Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship between uric acid and creatinine in pre-diabetic and diabetic patients: Vidarbha region of Maharashtra <p>Prediabetes is a glucose homeostasis condition characterized by decreased absorption to glucose or reduced fasting glucose. Both of these are reversible stages of intermediate hyperglycaemia providing an increased type II DM risk. Pre-diabetes can therefore be viewed as a significant reversible stage which could lead to type II DM, and early detection of prediabetes may contribute to type II DM prevention. Prediabetes patients are at high risk for potential type II diabetes, and 70 percent of them appear to develop Type II diabetes within 10 years. The present study includes total 200 subjects that include 100 Prediabetic patients, 50 T2DM patients and 50 healthy individual. Blood samples were collected from the subjects were obtained for FBS, PPBS, Uric acid and Creatinine estimation, from OPD and General Medicine Wards. Present study showed low levels of Serum Uric Acid in prediabetic and T2DM patients were decreased as compared to control group, while the level of creatinine in prediabetic and diabetic were elevated as compared to control group, were not statically significant. Serum Uric Acid was high in control group and low in prediabetic and diabetic patients. Serum creatinine was declined in control group and increased in prediabetic and diabetic patients with increasing Fasting blood glucose level.</p> Ranjit S. Ambad, Rakesh Kumar Jha, Lata Kanyal Butola, Nandkishor Bankar, Brij Raj Singh, Archana Dhok Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pregabalin As A Premedicant To Attenuate Pressor Response In Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study <p>The present study was done to evaluate the ability of oral pregabalin to attenuate the pressor response to airway instrumentation in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. Sixty-four adult patients aged between 25-55 year of either gender belonging to ASA-1 or ASA2 physical status weighing 50-70 kg were enrolled in this study. Thirty-two patients each were randomized to group A, or group B. Patients in group A received tablet Pregabalin (150mg) and those in group B received placebo orally one hour before induction of anaesthesia. Heart rate, blood pressure, and sedation were assessed preoperatively before giving the tablets and after 30 minutes, and just before induction of anaesthesia. Intraoperative, pulse rate, mean arterial pressure, ECG in the lead II, SPO2 and ETCO2 were monitored. All the above parameters were noted during laryngoscopy and intubation, 3 minutes after CO2 insufflation, and then at every 10-minute interval till the end of surgery. These parameters were also recorded after extubating the patient. The Ramsay sedation scale was used to assess the sedation at the baseline, one hour after drug intake , one hour after extubation and 4 hour after surgery. Any adverse effects in the postoperative period were recorded. The result of our study shows that pre-emptive administration of oral pregabalin 150 mg significantly reduced the pressor response at the time of laryngoscopy and intubation, after CO2 insufflation and just after extubation. We conclude that oral pregabalin premedication is effective in successful attenuation of hemodynamic pressor response to laryngoscopy, intubation and pneumoperitoneum in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy</p> Sweety Agrawal, Shubhada Bhagat, Pratibha Deshmukh, Amol Singham Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Perimeter of The Tricuspid Valve: A Cadaveric Human Heart Study <p>Historically, the research on the right ventricle (RV) has been neglected by his left equivalent because of the complexity of left ventricle (LV) dysfunction. Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) can be classified as linked to primary valve disease or functional in nature, but most are functional. Although it was historically assumed that such functional Tricuspid regurgitation, i.e. arising from leftsided disease, and it can be resolved after corrective surgery, but after successful surgery, on the aortic or mitral valve annular dilatation, the Tricuspid regurgitation and right ventricular dysfunction may persist.To study the circumference of tricuspid orifice and it’s the diameter in two perpendicular planes and its comparison among the male and female population. The material for the present study comprised of 50 formalin fixed human hearts (35 males and 15 females) which were obtained from the department of anatomy. In this study, it is observed that: The mean value of circumference of a tricuspid orifice is 11.01+/-0.63 cm. The diameter of tricuspid orifice along the frontal dimension is 3.06+/-0.38 cm, and the diameter along the sagittal dimension is 2.26+/-0.23 cm. The measurements of the circumference of tricuspid orifice reported for males and females in western countries were higher than the present study and the diameter along the frontal dimension is greater than the diameter along the sagittal dimension. The tricuspid valve diameter along the frontal dimension was more than the diameter along the sagittal dimension in both males and females.</p> Kirti Chaudhary, Amey Dhatrak, Brij Raj Singh, Ujwal Gajbe Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Development, characterization and optimization of polymeric mucoadhesive microcapsules containing anticancer agent using response surface method: in vitro and in vivo study <p>The present research work covenants the preparation, characterisation and optimisation of mucoadhesive microcapsules containing paclitaxel through ionic gelation method using 32 statistical factorial designs. The effect of mixing proportion of primary polymer sodium alginate to copolymer (X1) and speed of magnetic stirrer (X2) on the microcapsules size (Y1), efficiency of paclitaxel encapsulation (Y2), and percentage yield (Y3) was optimised. The morphology of microcapsules was characterised and evaluated by in vitro and in vivo tests to study the swelling characteristics, mucoadhesion and drug release characteristics, followed by MTT assay on human HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. The size of prepared microcapsules was within the range of 361 ± 4.50 to 931 ± 22.41; encapsulation efficiency (%) was within the range of 42.72 ± 0.43 to 98.12 ± 0.43 %. The in vitro paclitaxel released over 24 hours were in a range of 82.15 ± 3.43 % to 96.75 ± 2.41 %. The controlled release pattern of paclitaxel was observed from the in vitro drug release study of microcapsules. The prepared microcapsules that showed better mucoadhesion were in the range of 73.66 ± 1.42 to 97.85 ± 1.08 % for a period of 6 h. The in vivo pharmacokinetic study conducted in rats resulted in high Tmax, the area under the curve and mean residence time for microcapsules as compared to that of the marketed formulation. It could be concluded that the microcapsules containing povidone polymer showed superior results.</p> Chinmaya Mahapatra, Padala Narasimha Murthy, Anjan Kumar Mahapatra, Sudhir Kumar Sahoo, Prasanna Kumar Dixit Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis And Evaluation Of Herbal Formulation Using Natural Extract <p>Our study is intended to prepare and evaluate the polyherbal formulation (PHF) using Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Piper nigrum, and lemon juice. Poly Herbal Formulation F1 and F2 were synthesised and subjected to qualitative, quantitative phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity was measured using a standard protocol. Antimicrobial activity of PHFs was observed by the agar well diffusion method. The anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities (In-vitro) were studied in F1 by using inhibition of albumin denaturation method. TLC and FTIR are done for the structural elucidation in F1. The F1 and F2 exhibited the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, phenols, terpenoids, carbohydrates, saponins, Glycosides and proteins. The F1 and F2 show significant activity against the standard in the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The presence of flavonoids and alkaloids may contribute to the anti-microbial activity. The Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity and a metal chelating assay of the F1 possess the highest antioxidant activity of 73.1% and 69% respectively. TLC confirms the presence of flavonoids in F1. FTIR spectrum shows the functional group of amines, alcohols, nitrites, aromatic and aliphatic compounds. These FTIR bands denote stretching and vibrational bands responsible for the compounds like flavonoids, terpenoids, phenols and amino acids. This investigation shows the excellent result in antimicrobial, antioxidant and in-vitro anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory activities. In future, the PHF of F1 can be used as potent therapeutical agents and can be further exploited for their other beneficial effect in the pharmacological studies.</p> Sudha Rameshwari K, Muthu Muneeswari M, Gloria Jemmi Christobel R, Mallika R, Renuka R, Salini R Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 09 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Guided Endodontics : A Novel Invasive Technique For Access Cavity Preparation -Review <p>Precision medicine (PM) refers to the modifying of medical or dental treatment according to the individual features of each patient. Imaging has become a central part of PM since the last decade. PM takes into account and aims to exploit the specific profile of the patient’s unique biology and problem. Imaging plays an important role by providing morphologic and functional information, focusing and guiding treatment and assessing response to therapy. Image-guided treatment (IGT), or here specifically image-guided endodontics, is not a strategy that tries to optimize 3-D cleaning, shaping and disinfection, and filling root canal systems. Importantly, IGT is not about simply making a smaller access or smaller shape. It is concept for preserving dentin and restoring the balance. It is about planning access, planning shape using a directed approach, and evaluating the response to treatment. So, in this meta-analysis review, we discuss about the role of image guided therapies like static CT guidance &amp; Dynamic guidance, guided rail based on CBCT (3D printer-based template) used in conventional endodontic therapies and in endodontic surgery. The used of CBCT in the various branches of dentistry such has oral implantology, periodontology has been increased due to its three–dimensional visualization. For the technology to be fully transferred to everyday clinical endodontic practice, there are number of considerations. The novel concepts of guided endodontichas been reported as an effective method to obtain safe and reliable method during variable endodontic procedures.</p> Madhulika Chandak, Manoj Chandak, Chanchal Rathi, Samrudhi Khatod, Pooja Chandak, Kajol Relan Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 09 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical profile and medicinal potentials of Lannea Coromandelica stem <p>In the history of humanity, great ancestors of Indian sub-continent used plants that possessed unique medicinal properties. They identified the plants from jungles and derived crude drugs out of them for treating infectious diseases. This treatment process was a tradition. In the recent century, this plant-based drug extraction, processing and refining began scientifically by pharmaceutical industries. In this new era, plants with medicinal features are being used in curing broad spectrum of diseases. Lannea Coromandelica (L.C.) is a medicinal plant that belongs to this category. Tribals extensively used it in treating various infectious diseases and common injuries. There have been very few studies on the leaves, barks, flowers, gums and mucilage of this tree. But no preliminary phytochemical composition of L.C. stem has been studied. Therefore, the current work focusses on the screening of the phytochemical profile of the stem of L.C. by the sequential ethanolic extract. Stems of L.C. were procured from Mettur, Tamil Nadu. Thirteen different components were qualitatively analyzed using standard procedures from 100g of L.C. stem extract. In this study, seven components were identified, and their percentage was estimated. Using GC-MS, 50 components were identified of which Pentadecanoic acid, 14-methyl-methyl ester (1.0%) was the major component. The presence of these components in L.C. stem extract can be used in the treatment of different ailments through their antioxidant, anti-arthritic, anti-diabetic, antiinflammatory and antimicrobial activities.</p> Jacques Britto N, Kesavi Durairaj Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 09 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A comparative study to assess the level of knowledge on human milk bank among antenatal mothers at selected urban and rural areas <p>The present aim was to assess the current level of knowledge on human milk bank among antenatal mothers in both rural and urban areas. A quantitative approach with comparative research design was used for the present study.60 antenatal mothers among which in an urban group (n=30) and rural group (n=30) were selected by using a non-probability convenience sampling technique. Self- structured questionnaire method was used to collect both the demographic data and the existing level of knowledge on human milk bank among antenatal mothers. Among 60 study participants, the mean score of the existing level of knowledge among antenatal mothers in the rural area was 9.57 with standard deviation 3.25 and the mean score of the existing level of knowledge in the urban area was 6.60 with standard deviation 2.79. The mean knowledge difference score was 2.97. The comparison of the existing level of knowledge score on human milk bank was calculated using unpaired ’t’ test, the value of t = 3.785 was found to be statistically highly significant at p&lt;0.001 level. The study concluded that there is a signiϑicant difference in the existing level of knowledge on human milk bank among antenatal mothers between the rural and urban area. * 1&gt;&lt;0.001 level. The study concluded that there is a significant difference in the existing level of knowledge on human milk bank among antenatal mothers between the rural and urban area.</p> Padmapriya D, Snega R Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 09 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of High sensitive C - reactive protein and Gamma-glutamyl transferase in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Hypertension <p>C-reactive protein (CRP), produced by the hepatocytes is a primary inflammatory marker of T2DM. Higher levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase enzyme (GGT) and Hs CRP (High sensitive CRP)are associated with the complication of poor glycemic control.This study was aimed to find the association of Hs CRP and GGT for cardiovascular risk factors in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)and Hypertension in the suburbs of Chennai. This study includes 57 subjects with T2DM and Hypertension (Group A) and 62 subjects with T2DM (GroupB) within the age group of 40-60 years. FBS, HbA1C, Hs CRP, GGT and blood pressure were determined. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the SPSS 17 version. Mean values of FBS, blood HbA1C, Hs CRP and GGT were significantly higher among participants of Group A than Group B. Significant difference of FBS, HbA1C were found between the two groups. In contrast, no significant difference of GGT was found between the groups. Differences were considered statistically significant at two-sided P &lt; 0.05. Within the group, Hs CRP shows the significance and positive correlation with FBS, SBP and DBP. Still, GGT does not show any significance in Group A. In contrast, in Group B, both Hs CRP and GGT shows the importance and positive correlation with FBS and HbA1C.It is concluded that high levels of HsCRP are associated with T2DM and Hypertension, indicating increased cardiovascular risk, and it should be included in regular monitoring of type-2 diabetic patients.</p> Ramya S, Sureka Varalakshmi V, Uma Maheswari K, Chandan Bala R Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 09 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Development of deep CNN architecture for anomalies in ECG signals <p>In this paper, we propose a deep learning convolutional neural network (CNN) approach to classify arrhythmia based on the time interval of the QRS complex of the ECG signal. The ECG signal was denoised using multiple filters based on the Pan Tompkins algorithm. QRS detection has been done using Pan Tompkins Algorithm. Then the QRS complex is identified using local peaks based technique inside the layers of the Convolutional Neural Network where the repeated application of the same filter to our input results in a map of activations called a feature map, indicating the locations and strength of a detected feature in an input which in our case is the changes in the q-s time interval. Based on the R-R time interval, Heart rate variability (HRV) was computed, and Poincare plot was generated. Instead of using raw ECG signal to train the CNN, we used the feature extracted from ECG signal obtained from Physionet database to train the CNN and map the pattern changes for different classes of diseases. The classifier was then used to classify the test input as either or normal, tachyarrhythmia or intracardiac atrial fibrillation. Data acquisition, ECG data pre-processing and CNN classifier are the several methods that are involved for the classification of several arrhythmias.</p> Sharanya S, Sridhar PA, Anshika Singh, Ankit Dash, Ayushi Sharma Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 09 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Polysaccharide-Based Controlled Release Systems for Antipsychotic Therapeutics Delivery <p>Researches in pharmaceutical fields are now focusing on biopolymer-based drug delivery systems for treatment of mild to severe diseases. Amongst all biopolymers, pectin is one of the frequently available and eco-friendly bio-polymer extracted from different fruit peels and abundantly available in nature. This study focuses to extract the pectin from two different fruits using different methods namely hot water-based extraction and cold maceration, involving two different fruit peels. Post extraction and isolation of polymer, study was performed for characterization of pectin powder by particle shape, particle size distribution, surface area angle of repose, flowability and tapped density. The obtained pectin was used for anti-psychotic drug delivery when incorporated into microspheres by solvent evaporation method. It’s surface morphology and release kinetics was analyzed using in vitro methods and in vivo models and kinetics of drug release (goodness of fit) was assessed. The result revealed that the pectin extracted from mango peel using soxhlation method showed good flow rate, minimum particle size and shape distribution, porosity etc. Moreover, it showed the better drug release data in both invitro and in-vivo analysis. The study concludes that in future the natural biopolymer like pectin stands as a potential candidate for formulation of drug release system for efficient delivery of drug</p> Pranati Srivastava, Pushpendra Kumar Tripathi Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 09 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Anatomical and Radiological study of the posterior cranial base in relationship to occipital condyles and Foramen magnum <p>Detailed morphometric analysis is required for various surgical approaches in the craniovertebraljunction. High mortality and morbidity are anticipated for the surgical procedures when undertaken without in-depth anatomical knowledge. With so much clinical importance in this area, our study will present a thorough understanding in terms of skull and CT values. The main aim of this study is to give the morphometric details of occipital condyles and foramen magnum in cadaveric skulls and CT scans. Seventy dried human skulls and 70 CT images on the three-dimensional volume-rendered reconstruction of the skull base was used for this study. The length and width of the occipital condyle of right and the left side was 22.21 ±5.20 mm; 22.05±4.83 mm; 12.57 ± 2.50 and 12.68 ± 2.92mm respectively in cadaver skull. The length and width of occipital condyles in CT scans for right and left side was 21.61 ± 3.09 mm; 21.58 ± 3.50 mm; 13.04 ± 1.58 mm and 13.13 ± 2.54 mm respectively. The Anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the foramen magnum in cadaveric skulls and CT images was 33.17 ± 7.23; 29.22 ± 6.17; 34.15 ± 2.88 and 28.14 ± 2.43 mm respectively. Each surgical approach and the radiological diagnostic procedures have their limitations. Moreover, analysis of cranial base dimensions of occipital condyles and foramen magnum can be considered as a reliable method for sex determination. Hence this study will a useful guide for surgeons, radiologists, anthropologists and forensic experts.</p> Sharmila Aristotle, Balaji Ramraj, Shantanu Patil, Sundarapandian Subramanian Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of intravitreal Triamcinolone (2mg) on diabetic macular oedema in the pseudophakic patient as primary treatment <p>Diabetic macular oedema is still a significant cause of vision drop in the diabetic patient with no definitive regime for treatment. This study was on the result of effects of intravitreal injection of (2mg) triamcinolone on central macular thickness measured by OCT, visual acuity and intraocular pressure in pseudophakic eyes with diabetic macular oedema as a primary treatment line followed in six months. This study is a prospective, interventional case study series. It was on patients who received intravitreal injection of Triamcinolone in a single dose of ( 2 mg/0. 05 ml). Central macular thickness by OCT, visual acuity, and intraocular pressure was measured pre-injection and 1,3,6 months after injection. This study was performed in Iraq, Baghdad, Ibn Al-Haitham Teaching Eye Hospital from October 2014 to July 2015. Results showed 25 eyes received intravitreal injection of Triamcinolone Acetoniod with pre-injection central macular thickness 597.9+98.02 µm, visual acuity 1.096+0.61 Log MAR and intraocular pressure of 16.5+ 2.53 mmHg. After six months of follow up on central macular thickness 341.6+163.1 µm, visual acuity was 0.63 + 0.40 Log MAR and IOP was 18. 04+ 5. 63mmHg. This study suggests that intravitreal injection of Triamcinolone in a dose 2mg / 0. 05ml improves both anatomical and visual outcome in 21 eyes (84%) out of 25 pseudophakic eyes with diabetic macular oedema during first six months after injection and an increase in intraocular pressure in 2 eyes (8%). The intraocular pressure was despite the use of anti-glaucoma medications during this period.</p> Mohammed Qasim Al Nuwaini, Giyathaldeen T. Neameh, Mustafa A. Al Zubaidi Md, Farook M. Albusultan Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Intraoperative and Postoperative morbidity between in situ and extra-abdominal Uterine repair at Cesarean delivery <p>In-situ and extra abdominal repair of uterine wound during cesarean section are two valid approaches. This study was carried out to compare intra operative and post operative morbidity in women undergoing caesarean delivery using these two techniques. This is a prospective interventional randomized controlled study. The study subjects include 170 women undergoing Lower segment caesarean section (LSCS) at Southern Railway HQ hospital, Chennai. Intra operative and post operative parameters were analysed in all the study subjects. In in-situ group, 12.6 % women experienced intra operative pain and 30.1% women in extra abdominal group. Intra operative nausea and vomiting was seen in 16.1% women in in-situ group and 28.9% women in extra abdominal group. 1.1% women in in-situ had post-operative febrile morbidity and 8.4 % had in extra abdominal group. The median fall in haemoglobin was 1.30 g/dL and 1.40 g/dL in in-situ and extra abdominal group respectively. In-situ repair of the uterine wound at cesarean delivery is associated with lesser incidence of intra operative pain , intra operative nausea or vomiting and post operative febrile morbidity compared to extra abdominal repair technique.</p> Divya Ravikumar, Sindhura Myneni, Shanta Bhaskaran, Gayathri Baluswamy, Ramdas Praveena, Vishnu Priya Veeraraghavan, Preethi Gopakumar, Parvathaneni Divya, Surapaneni Krishna Mohan Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of combined use of rectal misoprostol and oxytocin for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage after cesarean section <p>Post-Partum Hemorrhage (PPH) is defined as the loss of blood which is greater than 500ml after vaginal delivery or greater than 1000 ml after a cesarean section delivery. About 28% of the total maternal deaths were due to PPH particularly in developing countries. Oxytocin has been considered as the ‘gold standard’ drug in the treatment and prevention of PPH. Prophylactic use of prostaglandin analogue i.e., misoprostol in addition to oxytocin during cesarean section is expected to reduce the incidence of PPH. This study aims at comparing the efficacy of combined use of rectal misoprostol and oxytocin infusion with oxytocin in the prevention of PPH. A comparative observational study was conducted on 200 subjects which were divided into two equal groups by Simple Random Selection. One group was treated with Inj. Oxytocin 20U I.V infusion alone while the other group was treated with Tab. Misoprostol 600mcg, rectal route and Inj. Oxytocin 20U I.V infusion. Majority of the subjects were observed under the age group of 21-25years, under primigravidae. A significant decrease in the volume of mean blood loss (740.00 ± 164.00 ml: p = 0.045) and the mean drop of hemoglobin level(Hb) (0.88±0.74gm/dl; p = 0.0001) were observed in group treated with Tab. Misoprostol 600mcg and Inj. Oxytocin and was found to be statistically significant. Preoperative administration of misoprostol per rectal route and oxytocin infusion after the cesarean section have shown, a better control of bleeding and maintenance of hemoglobin level when compared to oxytocin infusion alone. Thus, instead of oxytocin monotherapy combined use of misoprostol and oxytocin would be more effective in prevention of PPH.</p> Nirmala Maniachari, Sathish Kumar Sure, Priyanka Jagadeesh, Lavanya Agamudi, Usha Brindhini Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 In vitro bioassessment of novel δ- carboline derivatives as an antiproliferative agent <p>Several carboline derivatives are anticancer agents and studied for antiproliferative action against various cancer cells. Based on the preliminary analysis using insilico strategies, we have selected eight compounds for the study. All compounds have been synthesised and characterised for their purity and chemical composition. Antiproliferative activity was assessed by insilico Carcinogenicity assay, Cytotoxicity analysis by sulphorhodamine B, Antiproliferation assay and DNA damage analysis. The cytotoxic effects of the CH5, CH17, CH29, CH34, CH37, CH39, CH42 and CH47 on Vero, HeLa, A549, BRL3A, HCT116, and MCF7 were determined using the SRB assay. CH5, CH34, CH37 and CH42 was the most potent cytotoxic towards HCT116 cells with CTC50 value of 62.1±0.19, 47.1±0.41, 78.5±1.26 and 32.1±1.11 µg/ml respectively. The assay revealed a noticeable reduction in cell number for CH5 and CH37 tested except CH34 and CH42. CH5 and CH37 observed cytotoxic effects were found to destroy the cells according to time, and cell viability decreased with that time length. To learn their role in cell death, CH5 and CH37 were therefore taken up for a further screening. This study suggested that CH5 and CH37 had a separate mechanism of action to kill and that in the cell line. Such results will provide enrichment of scientific knowledge on the molecular mechanism and target therapies of CH5 and CH37, thereby potentially helpful for patients with Colon cancer.</p> Chandrasekar MJN, Raman Rajeshkumar, Arivukkarasi Varadharajan Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Design, Synthesis and Anticancer activity of novel Triazole substituted Quinazoline Hybrids <p>Quinazolines and 1,2,4-triazoles are important class of nitrogen containing heterocyclic compounds having immense biological importance. From the literature review, pharmacokinetic properties of a drug can be modified or enhanced by building a triazole moiety into a compound like quinazoline. Therefore, the study of new hybrid systems which combines triazole system with quinazoline is still seemed warranted. In the present study, a sequence of novel 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing quinazolinyl moiety were designed, synthesized and screened for their in vitro anticancer activity. Thirteen new hybrids are synthesized from readily accessible 5-bromoanthranilic acid. All the hybrid compounds were well explicated by IR, 1H, 13C NMR, and mass spectral data. Out of 13, some of the compounds manifested moderate to good antiproliferative activity against two cancer cell lines (HepG2 and MCF7). Remarkably, compounds 8A, 16H and 16K displayed potent activity (14- 49 µM) on both HepG2 (liver carcinoma) and MCF-7 (breast cancer) cell lines whereas compounds 8B, 8F, 16L, and 15 displayed substantial activity against HepG2 cancer cell line (34-65 µM). Synthetic approach described here is very simple and can be used for the syntheses of related compounds library which is useful for the exploration of further biological activities and is currently underway in our laboratory</p> Paduri Karunakar, Swetha Gujjewar, Somesh Sharma, Srinivasu Pothukanuri, Krubakaran Muthusamy, Premkumar Arumugam, Chebolu Naga Sesha Sai Pavan Kumar Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Over the counter drug use: Assessing the perception of the community <p>The drugs that can be easily purchased from any medical store without prescription are known as “Non Prescription” drugs. Such non prescription drugs are used for self medication. Non Prescription drugs are commonly termed as “Over the counter” drugs. There is always certain degree of danger in consuming OTC drugs even though some people consider their use as completely safe. The study is designed with an objective to understand the pattern of Over the Counter drugs use in a locality of Dehradun by using a structured questionnaire. An Observational, Descriptive study was conducted. The data was collected using a Questionnaire. The present study was carried out in 350 participants. After analyzing the results it was found that 100% participants follow self medication and consume OTC drugs. The number of females (52%) were more as compared to males(48%). Paracetamol (62%) was the most commonly consumed OTC drug. Fever (37%) was the most common condition for which people use OTC drugs. The most general reason of practicing selfmedication that was reported in our study was easy convenience (23%). The study also concludes that the most common source of relevant information about OTC drugs were friends/relatives. (28%). The use of OTC drugs is fast increasing as they are easily available. However, poor awareness about their consumption end up in many side effects. This study will help gain knowledge about peoples perceptive which would ultimately help forming new guidelines for safer use of OTC drugs.</p> Shatakshi Lall, Nardev Singh Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Cisplatin-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy: An Observational Descriptive Study <p>Peripheral neurotoxicity is a major adverse effect of cisplatin chemotherapy. A prospective observational study was conducted among 200 cancer patients who received cisplatin between October 2017 and March 2018 to evaluate the occurrence, causality and severity of cisplatin induced peripheral neuropathy. A suitable data collection form was used to record patient information required for the study. Peripheral neuropathy was assessed using the National Cancer Institute- Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTCAE). As per the results, 19 (9.5%) patients developed peripheral neuropathy after receiving cisplatin therapy. Peripheral neuropathy was reported higher in males (84.2%) compared to females (15.7%) and more within the age group of 58-65 years (38.6%). Most of the patients developed Grade I neuropathy (84.2%), followed by Grade II neuropathy (15.7%). The study concluded that the severity of peripheral neuropathy increases with higher cumulative doses of cisplatin.</p> Anjol Kurian, Bittu Babu, Benson Punnoose, Chinju Susan Chacko, Mallikarjuna Rao, Sharad Chand, Vinay B C, Nandakumar U P Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Identification of Components In Boerhavia Diffusa Plant Extract And Assessment Of Its Biological Activity By Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry <p>Boerhavia diffusa is a medicinal plant used for various therapeutic benefits ant the plant can be found in tropics and subtropics regions. It has the pharmacological activities which include antifibrinolytic, immunosuppressive, diuretic, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antilympho proliferative, analgesic properties and also for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. This study deals with the determination of possible phytocompounds present in the hydroethanolic extract of the plant Boerhavia diffusa using Gas chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy technique. Using GC-MS technique the phytocompounds present in the hydroethanolic extract of the plant Boerhavia diffusa was investigated and the mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract were matched with National Institute of Standards and Technology library. GC-MS Analysis of Boerhavia diffusa extract reveals that the existence of phytocompounds which includes 1, 2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, diethyl ester, Hexadecanoic Acid, 1,2- Benzenedicarboxylic acid, dibutyl ester and 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic Acid, Dioctyl Ester. This research paper helps to identify the phytocompounds which are present in the extract of Boerhavia diffusa and also prove the biological activities of the phytocompounds present. Furthermore, studies were made in-depth to find the mode of action of the phytocompounds.</p> Murugan K, Kalaivani P, Bothiraj K V, Vanitha V Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Suitable Diet with Anti-oxidant Food have a Good Effect to Embryo Quality resulting from Assisted Reproductive Technology and The increase of Sperm Quality of Infertile Male Especially with Asthenozoospermia <p>The purpose of this research was to assess the correlation between antioxidant and male infertility. The study also sought to investigate the role antioxidants play in ensuring that male people can produce the right amount of sperms, perfect sperm mobility and quality embryo. Literature views were done using PubMed, Cochrane electronic database, Medline, Oxford academic, NCBI, PopLine, EMBASE, and Trip Pro. Keywords used included antioxidants, sperm function, pregnancy rate, semen, and male infertility. The cases had a lower BMI of 19.9 against 26.1 and total energy intake of 1705.3 against 1935.8. Importantly, as it was expected because of the study design the sperm mobility in the cases was lower than in the controls. The highest tertile of the whole vegetables and fruits was associated with a low risk of asthenozoospermia. The subgroups of vegetables mainly increase of tomatoes, and dark green vegetables were associated with a low risk of asthenozoospermia. Fruits and vegetables were considered as the primary sources of fibre intake in the population for the study. In the high research intake of processed meat mainly those that have high saturated fat it was evident there was reduced sperm mobility. It is concluded in the study that the consumption of healthy foods such as vegetables, fruits and minerals is the best way men can use to improve their fertility. Too much protein in the body found by eating dairy products, sweets and processed meat only makes people develop lifestyle illnesses such as obesity which increases infertility in men.</p> Ria Margiana, Silvia Werdhy Lestari, Muharam, Andon Hestiantoro, Gita Pratama, Achmad Kemal Harzif Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A study to assess the knowledge on weaning practice among postnatal mothers <p>The purpose of the study was to assess the knowledge regarding weaning among the working mothers and to find the association between the level of knowledge regarding weaning among mothers of infant with their selected demographic variables. Descriptive approach will be used to conduct the study. Non experimental descriptive design will be adopted for the study. Study was conducted in selected area at kuthambakkam. The mothers who are having infants and residing in kuthambakkam. The mother who has only one baby, whose age is less than one year, was the study samples. The sample size was 30 mothers of infant. The sampling technique adopted for the study was non probability purposive sampling. Regarding demographic data 25 (83.33%) women are between the age of 24-30 years, most of them are having 1-2 (86.66%) number of children. Family status in that 27 (90%) of the women they are in middle class family and the religious 20(66.66%) of the women they are in Hindu. Out of 30 women in that 21 (70) of the women they are having female baby. Regarding the level of knowledge 22 (73.33%) women’s are having adequate knowledge, 5(16.66%) women’s are having moderate knowledge and then 3(10%) women’s are having inadequate knowledge. The association was done by using chi-square test there is significant association between knowledge with variable education and occupation at p = (0.05) significant levels. There is no significant difference with other demographic variables.</p> Beautily V Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Newly developed method for the determination of sitagliptin phosphate using rubeanic acid as a precipitating agent via the use of ISNAG continues flow fluorimeter <p>A new, a simple, sensitive and fast developed method for the estimation of sitagliptin phosphate in pure and pharmaceutical drugs (tablet). This method based on the reaction between sitagliptin phosphate and rubeanic acid to form reddish-black ppt, using ISNAG-Fluorimeter analyzer via the measure of diverged light at 90° from radiation source which is used a range of high intensity ultraviolet 184.9 nm &amp; 253.7 nm by low-pressure mercury lamp while detector cell can detect at 410-1150 nm. The resultant of diverged light by an interaction between incident photons and precipitated particles giving rise to a longer wavelength that the detector can detected. Chemical and physical parameters were studied and optimized. The calibration graph was linear in the range of (0.03-13 ) mmol.L−1 , with correlation coefficient ( r )= 0.9881 ,linearity percentage r2%= 97.64 , L.O.D = 0.7848µg/sample and RSD lower than 0.6 % for (3&amp;7 ) mmol.L−1 ( eight replicates) concentration of sitagliptin phosphate. This method was successfully applied for the determination of sitagliptin phosphate in two different companies of pharmaceutical drugs. A comparison was made between the newly developed method analysis with the classical method (UV-spectrophotometer by measuring of absorbance ) using standard addition method via the use of t-test, it was noticed that there was no significant difference between two methods at %95 confidence level.</p> Nagam S.Turkey Al-Awadie, Kefah H. Ismael Al-Saadi Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Comprehensive Review on Antiulcer properties of Herbal drugs <p>Herbal medicines are very useful in treating various human ailments. The plants and herbs consumed in its natural state have proved to have lesser side effects and are cost effective too. Recognition of this fact has created a demand for herbal medicines, both in developing and developed countries across the globe. Peptic ulcer disease in clinical practice is one of the common gastrointestinal disorders where duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, NSAIDs triggered ulcer and stress ulcer are common forms of peptic ulcer. Gastric ulcers are commonly found in the geriatrics and in the lower socio-economic class of people. Most synthetic drugs are used to treat peptic ulcers, but they cause adverse effects of various kinds. For its ethnic, ethno botanical and ethno pharmacological use, herbal medicines are therefore exceptional. In this review, attempts were made to know the natural antiulcer drugs with their recommended drug portion, screening method and sort of extract used for appraisal and observations to show its usage. The reason for this assessment is to assemble literature and the antiulcer residences of the herbal medicines used frequently. Different plants such as Allium sativum, Centella asiatica, Lawsonia inermis, Ocimum sanctum, Sesbania grandiflora, Adansonia digitata, Ficus religiosa, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Cynodon dactylon, have been shown to be involved in antiulcer care.</p> Sayed Al Ansary, Jyothi Y, Rajendra Sandur V Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A questionnaire study on knowledge and awareness of metabolic syndrome and it’s components in undergraduate medical students at entry level <p>Metabolic syndrome is a major and escalating public health crisis among young adults in recent times. Increasing calorie intake, sedentary lifestyle, lack of exercise and chronic stress are the contributing factors for metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study is to evaluate the awareness and knowledge levels of first-year medical students regarding various aspects in metabolic syndrome. The study was conducted among 74 undergraduate medical students at Apollo institute of medical sciences and research. A standardized questionnaire was given to the students and the students were asked to answer the questionnaire independently and the responses obtained were statistically analyzed. In our study, the participants showed a good level of knowledge about different types, the pattern of inheritance and symptoms of diabetes mellitus. They were cognizant about causes, risk factors and treatment of adiposity and hypertension. The majority knew about ill effects of high cholesterol, stroke and arteriosclerosis. Most of them doesn’t know the underlying mechanism of heart infraction. The study also identified areas of deficiencies in the knowledge of students about different components of metabolic syndrome. This effort is done in the beginning of their course because being the force of future medical feternity, they can educate themselves and the public about ill-effects of metabolic syndrome and means to prevent it as a part of public health. The study also supports the necessity of early clinical exposure for medical students at the entry-level.</p> Soundarya Vemuri, Krishna Veni D V, Chigulapalli Neha, Sravya Reddy Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical and Epidemiologic Characteristics of Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients in Sulaimaniyah, Iraqi Kurdistan <p>Prostate cancer is prevalent among men aged over 65 and has been reported as the fourth most common cause of mortality of males all over the world. In addition to age, family history, and race, there are some lifestyle features such as diet, obesity, alcohol, and smoking are believed to play a role in its development. The present study was carried out in order to examine the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of castration-resistant prostate cancer patients identify predictive factors for development of resistance to hormonal therapy. The present retrospective cohort study was carried out on 150 patients who were diagnosed with prostate cancer at Hiwa Cancer hospital in Sulaimania, Iraqi Kurdistan over the period of 2009-2014. Required data were collected using face-to-face or phone interviews using a questionnaire and the patients’ hospital records. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, independent samples t-test, Mann Whitney test, and Pearson’s Chi-square test through SPSS 20.0.</p> Khalid Anwar Hama Ghareeb, Zahira Metwally Gad, NohaAwad, Mohammed Ibrahim Mohialdeen Gubari, Jwan Jalal Rasheed shwana, ShuannShwana, Fattah Hama Rahim Fattah, Blind Goran Mustafa Al Talabani, Safeen Rasul Ali, Dlovan Ali Taha, Barham M M Salih, Shaho Osman Mahmood Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular docking study on quercetin derivatives as inhibitors of PantothenateSynthetase (PanC) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis <p>The anti-TB drugs currently in the use are insufficient to address these major health challenges. Hence, it is imperative to discover and develop new and efficient drugs against TB. The enzyme pantothenate synthetase (PS or PanC), necessary for the production of pantothenate (vitamin B5), critical components of fatty acid synthesis, when inhibited will in turn affect the cell wall synthesis of bacilli. In the present study, an attempt will be made to find the drug like molecules from quercetin derivatives prepared in silico to find out possible inhibitors of PanCof M. tuberculosis. The 3D structure of PanC was obtained from RCSB database and quercetin from ZINC database. The derivatives of quercetin were prepared and were docked initially with iGEMDOCK docking tool. The final docking was done in AutoDock vina software. The ADMET properties of the selected ligands were done in admetSAR online server tool. The present study revealed that four derivatives of quercetin has excellent binding with Pantothenate Synthetase (PanC) of M. tuberculosis. These derivatives can be taken for in vitro enzymatic assays for its inhibitory property in the search for new anti-TB drugs.</p> Premalatha E, Dineshraj R, Iyanar Kannan, Bhaarath KS, Sharavanan TKV Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Incidence and Surgical Approaches of Pancreatic Injuries Following Blunt and Penetrating Abdominal Trauma in Al-DiwaniyahTeaching Hospital <p>The pancreas is a long J-shaped, soft, lobulated retroperitoneal organ. Pancreatic injury is relatively uncommon, occurring in 0.2–2 % of all trauma patients and 3–12 % of patients with abdominal injury. All traumatic pancreatic injuries are associated with significant morbidity with an overall rate of morbidity nearing 40%, higher grade pancreatic injuries are associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality . To evaluate of surgical management of blunt and penetrating pancreatic trauma. During the period from January 2015 to September 2018, thirty patients with blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma were managed in emergency surgical department in Al-Diwaniya Teaching Hospital and assigned in prospective a case control study. Patients with proved associated pancreatic injury (regardless of the degree) at the time of laparotomy were included in the study . The mean age of patients was 34.4 year (17- 57 years) among them there was 25 male (83.3 %) and 5 females (16. 7% The overall mortality rate is 20% (6 patients). The predominant mechanism of injury was penetrating 24 patients (80%) from gunshots and 6 patients with blunt abdominal trauma resulted from road traffic accidents). Pancreatic injury is infrequent in abdominal trauma. Its frequency is little different between blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma.</p> Adel Shaker Al Tamimi, Raafa Jawad Kadhm Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Computer vision based Comparative Studies on the Physicochemical Analysis and Bacterial Biota in Different Milk Samples <p>Milk is a complete food with high nutritional value. Milk is an important culture medium for the growth and reproduction of microorganisms. This study focuses on the samples collected from the different milk distribution areas in MaduranthagamTaluk, South India. Fifty pasteurized milk samples of ten different brands were collected and physicochemical, microbiological analysis were carried out in both raw milk and pasteurized milk samples. The milk samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis such as Fat content, Clearance, Lactometric Reading, Clot on Boiling Test, Solid Non Fat and Acidity were calculated. The milk sample were also subjected to the chemical analysis for the Nitrogen content, crude protein content, Lactose content, ash content were also calculated Methylene blue reduction test has been used to test quality of the milk samples. These findings may be helpful to monitor the quality of the milk products in the market. It can provide an interest in examine the organic and inorganic content in milk. It is reported that all samples added with urea and few samples have sulphate. Raw milk showed inferior quality, processed milk have Low load of bacterial population.</p> Karthikeyan V, Gokul Priyan K, Rajesh Siva, Gopirajan P V Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Platelet reactivity with a third generation thienopyridine drug versus with a second-generation thienopyridine drug <p>Prasugrel is a third generation thienopyridine drug and Clopidogrel is a second-generation thienopyridine drug. Both drugs used for reducing platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery diseases.The aim of this study is to investigate the antiplatelet efficacy and safety of Prasugrel 5mg daily as compared to Clopidogrel 75 mg daily for period along to 12 days treatment.Fifty patients, (10 females, 40 males), their ages ranging from (50- 60) years with stable angina were recruited from IbnAlbitar Center for Cardiac Surgery and enrolled in this case study.Of whom 25 patients (group A) received a dose of 75 mg daily of Clopidogrel and other 25 patients (group B) were on a dose of 5 mg daily of Prasugrel for a period of 12 days .Clinical laboratory data of lipid profile, renal function, and prothrombine time obtained at baseline (before treatment). While Platelet aggregation percent measured at the baseline and after 12 days of treatment.The maximal platelet aggregation percent for group A was fell from 78 % ± 6.3 (baseline) to 43.5% ± 5.8 (after 12 days treatment).While patients of group B showed dropping in the maximal platelet aggregation percent from 76 % ± 7.4 (baseline) to 27.3 % ± 5.7 (after 12 days treatment). Analysis of adverse events showed three patients with minor bleeding occurred during Prasugrel treatment, and no bleeding occurred during Clopidogrel treatment. Compared with Clopidogrel 75mg treatment, Prasugrel 5mg treatment for 12 days averted platelets accumulation more quickly and steadily.</p> Feryal Hashim Rada Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Clinicohematological study of spectrum of myeloproliferative neoplasms in a tertiary care hospital <p>Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a group of disorders of hematopoietic stem cells which were initially recognised by William Dameshek in 1951. Objectives of the study were to diagnose and classify cases of myeloproliferative neoplasms according to 2016 revision of WHO classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukaemias, to study various haematological parameters of cases of MPNs (Peripheral smear findings, bone marrow aspirate and trephine biopsy) and their clinical manifestations, to record the cytogenetic/molecular genetic abnormalities of the cases and to categorise CML patients according to Hasford Risk Score as a predictor of prognosis. This study was a prospective study carried out in the Department of Pathology of a tertiary care hospital over two years from June 2016 to September 2018. The study included a total of 41 cases of MPNs. The cases of CMLs were diagnosed on peripheral blood findings, Bone marrow aspiration, Trephine biopsy Serum LDH and uric acid. CML was the most common MPN encountered (37/41; 90.24%) in the present study. Maximum serum LDH elevation was observed in CML cases with a mean value of 1396.6 U/L. Of the 37 CML cases, as per Hasford score, 17 cases were categorised into a low-risk group, 17 cases into an intermediate-risk group and 3 cases into a high-risk group. In the present study of Hasford score in CML cases, it was found that it helps in making a better-informed decision about the adaption of alternative high-risk treatment, and was of value in oncology practice.</p> Sonal Gupta, Sujata R. Kanetkar Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of Lipid Profile in Adults in Clinical Correlation with Anthropometric Indices <p>Fast industrialisation and Globalisation, with rapid progress on all fronts, has lead to the economic prosperity and modern lifestyle in India. It, in turn, is reflected as an increased prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases in the country. A cross-sectional study was done with 285 subjects. Majority of the subjects (61.1%) were in between 21-25 years. There was a female preponderance (68.4%). 145 (50.9%) and 61 (21.4%) were in the normal range and overweight respectively. It was observed that there were 95 (33.3%) cases of dyslipidemia. Significant association with dyslipidemia. The incidence of dyslipidemia altogether expanded with expanding BMI. There was a significant association of BMI with Dyslipidemia. Waist Circumference (WC), Hip Circumference (HC) and Waist Hip (WH) Ratio increased significantly with increasing BMI. There was a significant association of Anthropometric measurements with Underweight, Normal, Overweight and Obese BMI. There was a significant positive correlation between BMI and TG, while substantial negative relationship existed between BMI and TC and HDL. Dyslipidemia is very common in youthful grown-ups than anticipated. Blend of the way of life treatments, i.e., upgraded physical movement, dietary change, and remedial mediation would help us in treatment and the executives of dyslipidemia. Henceforth, mindfulness programs on attractive eating routine and regular screening of populace on occasional premise ought to be fused at the essential human services level.</p> Vasant Deokar, Aditya C Aundhakar Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of community based awareness education about dengue by assessing knowledge and preventive practices in rural population <p>Dengue a major international public health concern is a vector-borne viral infection caused due to bite of Aedes aegypti mosquito. To reduce humanmosquito contact or eliminate vector population efforts should be made. The knowledge gained through this investigation would help rural population to take certain preventive and control measures against dengue fever. It would also be helpful to guide policy makers and health authorities to plan, design and initiate initiatives, various programs and policies regarding prevention of dengue. To find out the impact of community-based awareness education about dengue by assessing knowledge and preventive practices in rural population. A Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was done in rural population residing near the Datta Meghe Medical College, Wanadongri, Nagpur over a period of three months. Sample size of 166 participants; age more than 18 years residing in rural area were included in the study. Positive correlation in knowledge regarding dengue fever was found at post test among participants and information imparted; significant improvement was observed with respect to pretest taken. Questionnaire helped individuals to gain more knowledge regarding the disease and its prevention. This study concludes that the knowledge score of participants regarding dengue fever and invigilator increases at post test. Hence a better and healthy community can be achieved just by imparting simple doorstep knowledge.</p> Komal Meshram, Ajay Meshram, Shubham Chopra, Ujwal Gajbe Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis in Sample of Iraqi Patients <p>Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis is a non-inflammatory disease characterised by calcification of soft tissues, mainly ligaments and enthuses, as well as by ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament. To assess the relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis among a sample of middle and old age Iraqis.A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2018 to May 2019 at the Rheumatology Unit of Baghdad Teaching Hospital, Iraq and Basra Teaching Hospital, Iraq. A total of 282 patients were included in the study. Data were gathered using a pre-constructed data collection sheet for patients that evaluate: age, gender, occupation, education, smoking, weight, height, waist circumference, and body mass index were calculated. Clinical data about back pain, limitation in movement or any neurological symptoms were identified, serum lipid profiles (serum triglycerides, serum high-density lipoprotein), fasting blood sugar, haemoglobin A1c and serum uric acid were obtained. Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis was reported in 18 (6.4%) patients. High waist circumference was reported in 175 patients, high triglycerides found in 208 patients, while low HDL found in 162 patients. We reported 147 patients who had elevated blood pressure and 106 patients with elevated blood glucose. Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis was significantly more frequent in patients with metabolic syndrome compared to those with no metabolic syndrome, (9.2%) vs (3.1%). There is a significant association between diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis and metabolic syndrome among a sample of middle and old age Iraqi people.</p> Khudair Al-Bedri, Noor Majid Ibraheem, Zainab A. Mahmood Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The public health dilemma of Self-Medication with Antibiotics: The undergraduate students of the College of Pharmacy in Mosul as an example <p>To evaluate the behaviour of Pharmacy College students as a representative sample of undergraduate students in terms of the use of antibiotics in Mosul city, Iraq. A questionnaire was adopted from previous studies with minor modifications to suit the current study sample and distributed to undergraduate students from all stages of the College of Pharmacy at the University of Mosul, in Nineveh province, north of Iraq. The study sample included 429 students. The results were statistically analyzed using GraphPad prism 7 and Excel 2013. the study showed that 51.28 % (n=220) of the participants practiced self-medication with antibiotics over the past 6 months. Retail pharmacies were the most common source for obtaining the antibiotics (87.4%), followed by the nurse clinics (7.9%), and lastly from the leftovers (4.7%). The main reasons for self-medication with antibiotics were the belief of having good knowledge about antibiotic use, followed by assuming that practicing self-medication with antibiotics would save time and money or due to inadequate improvement following proper medical consultation and lack of the nearby health care providers. The major diseases being treated was URTIs. The most used antibiotic for self-medication was Amoxicillin and to a lesser extent Azithromycin Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid and Cefixime. Undergraduate students included in this survey had inadequate knowledge concerning antibiotics and a high rate of self-medication. This study calls attention to the need for focused educational intervention and rigorous authoritarian and governmental ruling regarding the issue of inappropriate antibiotic use and sale in community pharmacies.</p> Radhwan N. Al-Zidan, Ahmed S. Saadallah, Ghayth M Abdulrazzaq Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evolving Scenario In Indian Blood Transfusion Industry: Need for a Study on Re Look at Customer Perceptions and Marketing Strategies <p>The purpose of the study is to assess the rapid strides that Blood Transfusion in India is going through currently. The resultant impact on the Industry catering to this sector, and the need for a re-look at the Marketing Strategies under the resulting customer perceptions. The study proposes to reassess these new market influencing factors from a customer perspective, their reach on the buying behaviour from the present, the potential impact on the industry stakeholders to their current marketing &amp; promotional strategies and propose an alternate marketing strategy (if required ) for the new market order. The object of this study was the data on blood collection and related industry post-2012 to date. The blood collection figures and the relevant industry, secondary data were assessed as were the various mergers and acquisitions that happened during the period and the new entrants into the market. The recent amendments in the Drugs &amp; Cosmetics Act of 1940 which govern the Blood Transfusion in India were looked at as well. The resulting assessment is that there is a paradigm shift in the blood transfusion industry in India. There needs to be a reassessment as to the requirements of the benefits from a patient point of view, from a blood centre (customer point of view) and a realtime re-look at the current ways and methods to take the new technologies to the customer most efficiently and affordably.</p> Rejeesh G R, Ramanakumar K P V, Manojkrishnan C G Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Patients’ Level of Satisfaction from Pharmaceutical Services Provided by Private Pharmacies Using the SERVQUAL Model Analysis <p>Customer satisfaction is an essential aspect of quality of service. In healthcare, customer satisfaction, also known as patient satisfaction is an indicator for measuring the quality of service and how happy the patient is with the professional services received in the industry. This parameter is essential for all healthcare organizations, as it is used for improving service delivery and strategic goals. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the patients’ level of satisfaction regarding professional pharmaceutical services provided by certified pharmacists of 14 private pharmacies in the Kasihan Subdistrict, Bantul Regency, Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The nonexperimental descriptive design with a cross-sectional method was employed in this study. It involved 308 participants and was conducted from November 2018 to May 2019. The patients’ level of satisfaction was measured using the Service Quality (SERVQUAL) approach involving five dimensions, namely; reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and tangibles. The results showed that the patients’ level of satisfaction on the average was satisfactory, at 80.2%. Besides, satisfaction based on reliability was 82.5%, responsiveness was 85.5%, assurance was 85.8%, empathy was 76.3%, while the dimension of tangibles was 70.9%. In conclusion, patients were satisfied on an average, regarding the professional services provided by the staff of certified pharmacies in the region.</p> Pinasti Utami, Ghozali MT, Ingenida Hadning, Firdhanita Liz Syafani Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The analysis of NQO1 isoforms as an Off-target to anti-cancer drug RH1 using molecular modeling and structure-based drug discovery approaches <p>NQO1 is already evaluated for its high-level expression in numerous human cancers as compared with normal tissues. RH1 acts as an indigenous prodrug to NQO1. In our preceding work Off-targeting of (RH1) drug to protein kinases is well reported. Numerous protein isoforms have reported a potential drug target and biomarkers in cancer and related diseases. In the present study, the 3D structure of all the three NQO1 isoforms is modelled using the homologybased concept, evaluated for their conformational stability and energy forms by MD simulation. MSA and related method used for binding site prediction. Protein-ligand interactions were studied using molecular docking approach. The 3D modelled structure of NQO1 isoform 2 and 3 exhibited a conformational change in the protein FAD and RH1 binding region due to the absence of a few key amino acids. Docking results revealed a good degree of binding energy and interaction between the selected NQO1 isoforms, FAD and RH1. As FAD acts as a floor surface to RH1, a similar trend observed in the NQO1 isoform 2 and 3. Hence the NQO1 isoforms 2 and 3 could be a drug target to anticancer prodrug RH1 and can be further investigated in the lab.</p> Pramodkumar P Gupta, Shanker L Kothari, Mindaugas Valius, Jonas Cicenas, Virupaksha A Bastikar Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Surgical Sponge After Splenectomy: A Rare Case Report <p>A gossypiboma is a cotton sponge retained in the abdominal cavity after the operative procedure. It leads to tremendous morbidity, loss of money and even occasional death of the patient. Another problem on the part of treating the surgeon is defamation and medicolegal issue. We report a case of a 25- year young man presented with pain in abdomen and vomiting for six months, History of a lump in the right lumbar region for two months and with constipation for five days. He had operated for splenectomy after a blunt injury to the abdomen eight months back. On clinical examination, adhesive obstruction of bowel was suspected. On computed tomography, (CT), a foreign body was revealed. On laparotomy, there was evidence of sponge in a jejunum. By doing enterotomy, a large sponge was removed. Postoperative recovery was not associated with significant complications. An essential precaution is to look for retained foreign body and confirmation before the closure of any body cavity, as there may even after all precautionary exercises, occur retention of foreign bodies. Hence consider always the possibility of gossypiboma in the differential diagnosis of chronic abdominal pain or a mass in patients with a history surgery.</p> Yashwant R. Lamture, Varsha Gajbhiye, Aditya Mundada Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Anti-microbial activity of methanolic extract of Costus igneus plant against multidrug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms <p>Costus igneus plants are highly active against the majority of Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms. The purpose of the current study was intended to evaluate the anti-microbial potential of methanolic extract of Costus igneus over multidrug-resistant bacteria, specifically to methicillin, vancomycin, carbapenems, colistin. The study also focused on the antifungal activity of the plant extract against Candida species. Phytochemical analysis was conducted to identify the presence of the active chemicals such as steroids, alkaloid, flavonoids, polyphenols, terpenoids, saponin, tannin, glycosides, quinones, coumarins and phenolic compounds using standard protocols. Anti-microbial activity of C. igneus was assessed through agar well diffusion technique and Minimum inhibitory concentration method (MIC) by using multidrug-resistant Gram-positive microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis) and multidrug-resistant Gram-negative microorganisms (E.coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter species) and also Candida albicans. At 120mg/ml C.igneus plant extract concentration, maximum zone of inhibition was obtained with all the nine tested microorganisms and however the zone of inhibition was slighter with regular standard potential antibiotics like colistin, imipenem etc. Anti-microbials of plant origin possesses tremendous therapeutic potential as they can accomplish the requirements with fewer sideeffects that are routinely associated with synthetic anti-microbials. In this investigation, it was established that C. igneus leaf extract possesses excellent anti-microbial activity which can be attributed to the occurrence of phytochemicals. Further discovery of plant-derived anti-microbials should be continued to trim down the usage of powerful drugs which pose bad side effects.</p> Rajani Chowdary Akkina, Payala Vijayalakshmi, Raaththika R Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Distribution of leukocyte subpopulation among students threatened by failure <p>Psychoneuroimmunology or the study of the relationships between the brain and the immune system is an area of research that has experienced significant development over the decade. Stress does not appear without consequences on the state of health, the role of fears, emotions and significant constraints in the appearance of organic and mental diseases. In this research, we studied the effect of stress and anxiety during exams at the end of the academic year (2018/2019) on the distribution of leukocyte subpopulations and the immune system, questionnaires has been completed by student volunteers, to estimate the anxio-depressive comorbidities through the (HADS) test during and outside exams, and in the same time we asked them for a blood sample the next morning day to carry out some biological assays (CBC). We also found that stress during exams caused a change in the distribution of different types of white blood cells, a total decrease in white blood cell counts with neutropenia and lymphopenia were found in students during exams compared to controls, and an increase in monocyte and other types of polymorphonuclear levels in students during exams compared to controls. Other tests measuring the effects of stress on specific functions of the immune system can be used.</p> Aziez Chettoum, Kamilia Guedri, Zouhir Djerrou, Rachid Mosbah, Latifa Khattabi, Abir Boumaaza, Wissam Benferdi Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Quality of Life of Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy <p>Quality of life is a significant part of patient care among cancer patients. Toxicities and adverse impacts of chemotherapy influence personal satisfaction in disease patients, and it likewise makes challenges in satisfying family and social jobs. Hence the study aimed to assess the quality of life of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Cross-sectional research design was employed with 50 samples which matched the inclusion criteria were selected by convenience sampling technique. Demographic variables data were collected by using a structured questionnaire followed by assessing the quality of life by using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. The findings of the study revealed the highest median value in the cognitive functioning, social functioning, role functioning and also in physical functioning compared symptom scale and in which the lowest score in the symptoms of nausea &amp; vomiting, loss of craving, fatigue, diarrhea and constipation and face many challenges related to finance. Based on findings, further studies can be conducted to correlate the quality of life with clinical assessment and focus on the mind-body exercise such as yoga, meditation and physical therapy like exercise, massage to enhance the quality of life and to complete the entire cycle of chemotherapy.</p> Thenmozhi P, Simeon I Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Method Development and Validation of simultaneous estimation for Ramipril and Amlodipine besylate by UV- VISIBLE Spectrophotometric method <p>This experiment shares the method development and analytical validation of an original, accurate and correct UV-Visible Spectrophotometric methods for the fixed dose assessment of Ramipril and Amlodipine besylate. The working solutions of Telmisartan and Ramipril were scanned at 240 nanometer and 210nanometer respectively. The regression strength of Amlodipine besylate and Ramipril over its absorbances take place as y=0.4291x0.0084 and y=0.0399x-0.310 respectively with a correlation coefficient (r2 ) of 0.9998 for Amlodipine besylate and 0.9993 for Ramipril. The intra-day precision in addition inter-day precision for Amlodipine besylate and its % RSD were obtained as 0.08% and 0.25% respectively. The intra-day precision in addition interday precision for Ramipril and% RSD were obtained as 0.16% and 0.24% respectively. The precise amount of tablet formulation were added which holds Alkaline (0.1 N Sodium hydroxide), Acidic (0.1 N Hydrochloric acid) reflux for 3 hours, 3% Oxydol at 50ºC, heat (60ºC), humidity (75 percentage Relative humidity) for 24 hr. and after the particular time diluted to distilled water, separated using Filter paper. From this stock solution, 5 mL section of the filtrate was pipetted out and further thinned with distilled water in a 100 mL standard flask (10 µg/mL). The standard stock solution of two drugs were prepared and compared against a label claim</p> Khairunnisa Tasneem, Sonia K, Lakshmi K S Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Cancer Incidence Rate in Kurdistan-Iraq during 14 Years - Depend on Cancer Registry Program <p>The aim of this study was to identify the incident rate of different types of cancers and determine risks of cancer in Erbil Capital of Kurdistan Region Government from June 2004 to December 2017. This data was collected from registered cases in Nanakaly hospital for cancer. It included all cancer cases for different age groups during the a fore mentioned period; the results showed that the recorded number of cancer cases was 1021 with 27 types of cancer during. The highest recorded cancers are lung, breast, diffuse cancer, lymphoma, myeloid leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia by 9.43%, 24.40%, 10.61%, 9.10%, 8.95% and 8.78% respectively. The annual incident rate per 100,000 was 5712 and for all age groups were 67.26 in female and 4698 in women, from 53 to 376.5 cases/population/ year. Incident rate showed to be 51.72% in female and 48.28% in male. It was last noticed that the most common cancer amongst females and males were breast, lung, myeloid leukemia, Lymphoma, Acute lymphocytic leukemia, Colon, ovary, and thalassemia by 21.01%, 1.80%, 5.71%, 4.54%, 4.41%, 1.69%, 1.42%, and 0.50% with the males by 3.05%, 7.68%, 5.56%, 6.17%, 5.67%, 2.81%, 0.18%, and 0.32% respectively. Projections of cancer trends to the year 2030 indicate to expected rises in both incidence and prevalence. It seems that the cancer cases in Erbil city is higher comparing to the cases of other cities like Sulaymaniyah especially for older age groups. In this survey, breast cancer in females, lung cancers in males were ranked first with other cancer all 14 years. </p> Holem Hashm Balaky, Ardalan Abdulhamid Osman, Pakestan Hammad Amin, Haval Abdullah khudher Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus cultured for anti-fungal activity against Pyricularia oryzae <p>The rice is the main food crop worldwide. The fungi Pyriculariaoryzae infected the rice and caused a decrease in rice production. The silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) are popular in several research areas such as cosmetics, agriculture, and medicine due to their biological activities and environmentally friendly. Interestingly, the biosynthesis using the microbe is a preferred alternative route for AgNPs production because it does not involve a supplementary reducing agent. The objective of this work was to biosynthesize the AgNPs using Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and then also evaluate for antifungal activity against P.oryzae. Biosynthesis of AgNPs was used Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus cultured with AgNO3 in Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium. AgNPs characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and particle size analyzer (PSA). The AgNPs sample at different concentrations (0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) were evaluated for antifungal properties against P. oryzae using the agar diffusion method. Results confirmed the absorbance maximum of AgNPs at 423 nm. The size of the AgNPs was 2.0 nm. AgNPs showed antifungal activity against P. oryzae and the highest activity was observed at 0.75% concentration.The results showed the AgNPs could be used as a complementary to bio-fungicide against P. oryzae in the blast disease treatment of rice.</p> Suryani, Neng Yulia Nengsih, Waras Nurcholis Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Development and validation of a simple bio-analytical HPLC-UV method for estimation of irbesartan in human plasma <p>The present study was aimed to develop and validate a simple, sensitive and economical bio-analytical high-performance liquid chromatographicultraviolet method for the determination of irbesartan in human plasma. The method involves the use of simple precipitation method for the determination of irbesartan, using methanol as precipitating agent and losartan as internal standard. The separation was achieved using Zorbax C18 column (150 x 4.6 mm, 5µm), mobile phase consists of methanol and 0.2% formic acid in water at the ratio 85:15, v/v using detection wavelength of 237 nm. Further, the developed method was validated as per US-FDA guidelines for accuracy, precision, linearity, stability, detection and quantification limit. The method developed was found to be linear over the concentration ranging from 5 to 500 ng/ml with a correlation coefficient of 0.9987. The LOD and LLOQ of the method were found to be 1 ng/ml and 5 ng/ml, respectively.</p> Ashok P, Narenderan S T, Meyyanathan S N, Babu B, Jawahar N Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Formulation of parenteral nutrition based on argan oil nanocapsule system using d-optimal mixture design <p>In parenteral nutrition, the lipid emulsions are usually presented separately from other components. The admixture is made just before or during administration because of limited stability. The purpose of the present study is the formulation of lipid nanocapsules (LNC) based on Argan-oil and their introduction into preparations for parenteral nutrition, then the evaluation of their stability. The lipid nanocapsules have been prepared according to the phase inversion temperature method. The experimental design was used to determine the feasibility of LNC with Argan oil (A.O.-LNC), the evaluation of their size and the stability in the final mixing parenteral nutrition. The average size of the LNC was chosen as a response. The LNC based on 14% Argan oil, 6% Labrafac ®, 55% water and 25% of Solutol ® with an average size of 44 nm was selected for the preparation of the parenteral nutrition. The particle size distribution with a value of 70 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.102 indicates the homogeneity of the populations of particles. The statistical analysis shows the excellent stability of parenteral nutrition for 14 days.</p> Majda Benabbes, Aicha Fahri, Yassir El alaoui, Naoual Cherkaoui, Abdelkader Laatiris, Younes Rahali Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Restorative processes of the vascular bed of the brain in the progressive course of ischemic stroke <p>The objective is to study morphometry of the restoration processes of the cerebral vascular bed in the progressive course of ischemic stroke. We studied the structure of the vessels and parenchyma of the brain of patients who died of ischemic stroke in the angio-neurological department of the National Hospital under the Ministry of Health of the Kyrgyz Republic. With a progressive course of ischemic stroke, brain vessel lesions are characterized by peculiar changes in the shape and contents of the vessels, different from the vessels surrounding the ischemic area, and tissues of the opposite hemisphere. The study showed that reparative processes appear early and are expressed by a change in the number of capillaries, angiogenesis and recalibration of existing vessels. With a progressive ischemic stroke, dystrophic processes prevail over the compensatory-adaptive reactions of the central nervous system, while the latter are insufficient to restore lost functions.</p> Dzhamalbek Turgumbaev, Elmira Mamytova, Aikerim Dzhamalbekova, Tugolbai Tagaev, Vityala Yethindra Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The roles of medicinal herbs in the treatment of measles <p>As an acute infectious disease caused by the paramyxoviridae virus, the disease spreads rapidly into a respiratory tract. Patients may have many serious complications if not monitored and treated promptly. Identifying common measles in young children and contagious in the community, especially in schools, kindergartens and primary schools is something that many people are interested in to master the methods in order to prevent this disease. Measles, although not serious, has serious complications and can be fatal. In addition to vaccinating children, some folk remedies handed down and currently being used to treat measles in Vietnam have proven its effectiveness. Very common herbs that are used for everyday food seem very ordinary but have great roles that we sometimes overlook. The scientific ingredients in herbs are a safe solution for people suffering from viral diseases such as influenza strains, typhus, pimples, dysentery, sore throat, colds. A special thing is that herbs is quite safe and have few side effects like Western medicine antibiotics. There are some medicinal herbs such as ophiopogon japonicus, coriander seed, elsholtzia cristata or eclipta prostrata which can bring a healthier life for everyone in general and children in particular if we know how to apply these herbs in a logical and scientific way. For that purpose, the paper was completed in order to clarify the basic knowledge of measles and the way of using medicinal herbs as a therapy that has been used for a long time in some Asian countries in general and Vietnam in particular.</p> Huynh Tan Hoi Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Response of biogenic zinc oxide nanoparticles against periimplantitis triggering non periodontal pathogen <p>Biogenic zinc oxide nanoparticles (BZnONPs) as a nano medicine attain high importance in the treatment of Peri Implantitis (PI). Present study was aimed to biosynthesize, optimize, characterize and evaluate the response of BZnONPs against PI triggering non periodontal pathogen. The BZnONPs synthesis, characterization, optimization and stability were based on UV-Visible, FTIR, XRD, FESEM, and EDX data. The BZnONPs were tested against S. aureus. Treatment of zinc acetate with Dimocarpus longan leaves extract resulted in formation of BZnONPs, which exhibited the absorbance signal between 350- 359 nm. Optimization study established 0.05 M zinc acetate, 6 ml of DLL aqueous extract, pH 12, and 2 h stirring time as parametric requirements for BZnONPs synthesis. Stability study of BZnONPs exhibited absorbance at 340 nm. The BZnONPs were characterized based on broad and shifted FT-IR bands, XRD signals (at 2θ values of 31.70◦ , 34.33◦ , 36.19◦ , 47.45◦ , 56.52◦ , 62.78◦ , 67.88◦ and 72.45◦ ), size range from 42.07-61.33 nm in FESEM, and elemental zinc 74.22 % in EDX spectrum. The BZnONPs exhibited high inhibitory response towards S. aureus. Present study establish that BZnONPs synthesis using Dimocarpus longan leaves aqueous extract is a facile method and reports that BZnONPs could be potential remedy for PI.</p> Shivkanya Fuloria, Chiam Sin Ru, Neeraj Paliwal, Sundram Karupiah, Kathiresan Sathasivam, Sameep Singh, Khyati Gupta, Neeraj Kumar Fuloria Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Media optimization for C-phycocyanin production in Plectonema sp. using response surface methodology and central composite design <p>Cyanobacteria represent the richest sources of phycobiliproteins with especial reference to C-phycocyanin (C-PC), which in turn holds exhaustive therapeutic implications. Screening of several cyanobacterial strains namely Anabaena sp., Nostoc muscorum, Cylindrospermum sp., Plectonema sp., Scytonema sp., Spirulina sp., Synechococcous sp. and Tolypothrix sp. was carried out for their C-PC producing capacity, however the produced quantity of C-PC varies greatly among different strains. Owing to the crucial role of different media constituents on productivity of C-PC the current study was designed to optimize most appropriate media composition for augmented CPC production by selected superior producer. 36 factorial central composite design (CCD) dependent response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to estimate the important medium components attributed with influencing C-PC productivity. RSM analysis of five independent coded factors including Na2CO3, K2HPO4, NaNO3, citric acid and EDTA were analyzed preceded by recognition of efficient variables for algal components production by Plectonema sp. Investigation of results revealed that the eminent medium components were NaCO3 (0.4 g/L); NaNO3 (0.5 g/L); K2HPO4 (2.8 g/L); citric acid (0.08 g/L) and EDTA (0.01 g/L) respectively. The optimized combination yielded 0.5536 mg/ml of C-PC. The increment of C-PC yield is R-Sq = 88.2%. Thus, our study led to the recognition of critical nutritional component that can be used further for enhanced productivity of C-PC.</p> Arbab Husain, Fahad Khan, Khwaja Osama, Sadaf Mahfooz, Adeeba Shamim, Saheem Ahmad, Alvina Farooqui Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Drug Utilization Evaluation in Dermatology Department: A Study in the Ambulatory Care Settings <p>The main aim of the study is to evaluate the prescribing pattern of drugs prescribed in the ambulatory patients attending the dermatology department. This was a prospective observational study conducted for a period of 6 months. Patients who were receiving treatment in the dermatological outpatient department and willing to participate were included in the study and patients in the inpatient dermatology department and also with other co morbid conditions were excluded from the study. A total of 306 cases were collected and among them, about 112 (36.6%) were males and 194 (63.4%) were females. During the study period, majority of the patients were in the age group of 21-30 years (41.2%). The most commonly prescribed classes were found to be Antibacterial drugs 312 (22.1%) followed by Antifungal drugs 258 (18.3%) and Anti-histamines 206 (14.6%). Among the antibacterial, Antibacterial soaps (35.3%) were more commonly prescribed followed by the antibiotics Mupirocin (12.8%) and Clindamycin (11.9%). In case of Antifungals, Ketoconazole (25.2%) was most commonly prescribed drug followed by Fluconazole (14%) and Clotrimazole (14%). Among the Antihistamine drug class, Levocetrizine (76.2%) was most commonly prescribed followed by Hydroxyzine (12.2%). The drug Prednisolone (26.4%) was most commonly prescribed among Corticosteroids, followed by Mometasone furoate (23.6%) and Hydroquinone (13.1%). Periodic evaluation of the prescribing pattern of the drugs can improve the quality of prescriptions. It is the responsibility of the clinical pharmacist to perform the drug utilization studies in order to know the drug prescribing patterns and also to know the prevalent disease conditions at a particular point of time. Clinical pharmacist should create awareness regarding the personal and community hygiene which would result in the prevention of dermatological diseases.</p> Ramam Sripada, Mounika P, Vineesha G, Hemanth Kumar V, Gandhi P S T N, Usha Kiran P, Dasaratha Dhanaraju Magharla Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on Parental Perception and Satisfaction towards Occupational Therapy Holistic Approach on Treatment and Service Delivery <p>To highlight how holistic occupational therapy processes contribute to the level of parent’s perception and satisfaction, improve the therapist’s level of care, update therapist about client understands of their services, increase client’s awareness of different modes of occupational therapy treatment services. Quantitative descriptive cross-sectional study design, POC-20 Questionnaire is used to measure the processes of care questionnaire with parents ticking each column of items according to their perception and satisfaction. MPOC-20 question output from the interview results shows the treatment care services that enable parents to understand how the therapist takes effort and satisfied them day to day life. Therapist expressed their confidence in the holistic approachability to manage the child’s behaviors and act as the family center-point of contact for their ongoing care. This research clearly demonstrates the value of the holistic approach, parent and child place on receiving their service care close to home and how the therapist uses their holistic approach to enable this. The success of this study demonstrates this model of care can be implemented in other services across the world.</p> Christopher Amalraj Vallaba Doss, Syed Mohamed Sadath, Palanivel R M, Muhil Sakthivel, OLA Olatunji, Malik Khurram Shahzad Awan Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study To Assess The Knowledge And Practice of Foot Care Among Diabetic Clients Attending Diabetic OPD <p>Diabetic foot is one of the most common and distressing complication of diabetes resulting to major physical limitation, psychological and fiscal significances for the patient and their families. Great information and skill on regards to diabetic foot care will lessen the danger of diabetic foot difficulties and that will diminish the odds of removal of the limb. A descriptive study was adopted for assessing the level of knowledge and practice of Foot care among diabetic clients. A total of100 diabetic clients were selected using purposive sampling technique. Data were gathered utilizing self-structured questionnaire by a structured interview method. The outcomes portray that majority of the diabetic clients, 61% had inadequate knowledge, 28% had moderate knowledge and only 11% of the diabetic clients had average knowledge. The examination also uncovers that 23% of the diabetic clients had good practice and 77% had poor practice. The mean knowledge and practice score were 5.82 ± 2.53&amp; 6.97±1.18 respectively. There is the strong connection (r= 0.698, p=0.0001) between Knowledge and Practice. There is statistically significant association of demographic variables noted with the knowledge and practice of foot care between age, Gender, Educational Status, Occupation, Duration of Diabetes, Current Diabetes Treatment, Presence of Co morbid (P values&lt;0.001).</p> Cecyli C, Thamupriyadharshini Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Stability indicating assay method for the simultaneous estimation of Empagliflozin and Metformin HCl by RP-HPLC method <p>A Specific, Linear and Precise reversed phase- HPLC was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Metformin HCl and Empagliflozin and the column used is Zorbax SB Phenyl with length, Internal diameter and Particle size of 250mm, 4.6 mm and 5µm respectively. The Mobile phase is Phosphate buffer: ACN: Methanol in ratio 45:25:30. 1.0 ml/min was the used flow rate and the wavelength was adjusted to 220nm for detection. The retention time for Empagliflozin was found to be 5.5min and for Metformin was 9.3min. Both the APIs exhibited good linearity revealing correlation coefficient(R) of 0.9999. The percentage recoveries for Metformin and Empagliflozin was found to be 100.0 – 100.9% and 100.3 – 102.4% respectively which was found to be within the limit. Forced degradation studies were performed and the developed method has suitable specificity as no interference is observed with impurity spiked sample and placebo of Drug Product. The proposed drug products were subjected to various types of stress conditions according to ICH Q1 guidelines like acidic, alkaline, neutral, peroxide, and Thermal conditions. The degradation products were well resolved from the main peaks , thus indicating the stability- indicating nature of the method. The method was validated with respect to system suitability, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness according to ICH guidelines and the proposed RP-HPLC Method was accurate, precise and linear for the simultaneous determination of Metformin and Empagliflozin in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations.</p> Supriya Reddy K, Chandan R. S., Sai Charan A, Akshay N Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical Efficacy of Fluoride-releasing Dental Adhesive on Restricting White Spot Lesion: An in vivo Study <p>White spot lesions (WSL) and demineralization is a common complication after the orthodontic treatment. This study aims to explore and evaluate the clinical efficacy of fluoride and-fluoride, releasing self-etching adhesives on enamel demineralization and assess the influence of saliva as a predisposing factor for WSL. The study design is a randomized clinical trial. A sample size of 50 patients was taken, there are two groups for the study-Group A (Control Group)-Teeth on which orthodontic brackets are bonded with nonfluoride releasing self-etching adhesive (G Bond) which will be the control group. Group B (Experimental Group)-Teeth on which orthodontic brackets are bonded with Fluoride releasing self-etching adhesive (Bond Force) which will be the experimental group. Materials containing fluoride help to improve the oral health of the experimental group. However, using Paired t-test get mean and standard deviation values also estimate the correlation coefficient values; the mean effect is improved for non-fluoride patients. Products such as topical Fluoride are not the only factors that help to control the incidence of WSL.</p> Christopher Amalraj Vallaba Doss, Akshay Tandon, Syed Mohamed Sadath, Palanivel R. M., Muhil Sakthivel, Malik Khurram Shahzad Awan Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-diabetic and nephrotoxicity effect of Aegle marmelos leaf on alloxan-induced diabetic rat <p>Aegle marmelos is widely found in india. The leaves, roots, fruits, bark, and seeds are extensively used in Ayurveda. . A. marmelos is mainly used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Alloxan (150 mg/kg b.w) was used in the Wistar rats for making the diabetic model. The oral administration of leaf extract of Aegle marmelos ( 200 and 400 mg/ kg b.w) was given for four weeks. The effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Aegle marmelos leaf extract on serum blood glucose as well as kidney function test [urea, uric acid, albumin, protein, and creatinine] were measured in the alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In the acute toxicity study, the ethanolic leaf extract of Aegle marmelos leaf was non-toxic at 2000 mg/kg in rats. The level of albumin and protein had significantly increased along with the serum glucose and urea, uric acid levels when they were observed and reduced in diabetic rats treated with both doses of ethanol leaf extract of Aegle marmelos as compared to diabetic group. Histopathological studies were revealed toward normal. Ethanolic extract of Aegle marmelos leaf possesses the significant anti-diabetic and rejuvenating capability of kidney function tests.</p> Mohd. Sufiyan Siddiqui, Gaurav Sharma, Asha Sharma Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Cloud point extraction method for the sensitive determination of metoclopramide hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage forms <p>In this work, a simple and very sensitive cloud point extraction (CPE) process was developed for the determination of trace amount of metoclopramide hydrochloride (MTH) in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method is based on the extraction of the azo-dye results from the coupling reaction of diazotized MTH with p-coumaric acid (p-CA) using nonionic surfactant (Triton X114). The extracted azo-dye in the surfactant rich phase was dissolved in ethanol and detected spectrophotometrically at λmax 480 nm. The reaction was studied using both batch and CPE methods (with and without extraction) and a simple comparison between the two methods was performed. The conditions that may be affected by the extraction process and the sensitivity of methods were carefully studied. Using optimal conditions, the linearity of calibration curves was in the range of 0.4-13 and 0.05-4µg/mL and limits of detection of 0.044 and 0.028 µg/mL of MTH for batch and CPE methods respectively. Average recoveries for samples were detected to be between 97-101 %for both methods, with the relative standard deviation (RSD %) best than 2.7 % and 4.5 % for both methods, respectively. The suggested methods were applied successfully for assay of MTH in commercial pharmaceutical tablets.</p> Wasan A. Al-Uzri, Hind Hadi Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pattern of Possible Drug-Drug Interactions among Different Specialties at an Indian Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital <p>To study the pattern of possible drug-drug interactions among different specialties at an Indian tertiary care teaching hospital. The present study was a retrospective study where the inpatient case records of psychiatry, chest &amp; tuberculosis, gynecology &amp; obstetrics and orthopedics were included. By using the software Micromedex 2.0, all the collected cases were screened for possible DDIs and the severity of the interactions was classified into minor, moderate and major. A total of 205 cases were screened for possible DDIs and about 120 (58.5%) cases were observed to be with possible DDIs. Among all the departments, moderate polypharmacy was observed to be more in the prescriptions (41.7%).A total of 314 possible DDIs were observed and most of the possible DDIs were of moderate severity (64.1%). Majority of the possible DDIs were found in the department of gynecology &amp; obstetrics (42.4%) followed by the psychiatry department (29.6%). In order to reduce the DDIs, rationale prescriptions must be prescribed by considering the risk benefit ratio. Clinical pharmacists should take the responsibility in assisting all the prescribers for screening the possible DDIs in the prescriptions there by preventing them and providing a better pharmaceutical care in various specialties.</p> Ramam Sripada, Suresh Kumar S V, Devanna N, Ravindra Reddy Kandula Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 GENES and In-Stent Restenosis: Review <p>The initiation of coronary stents is a vast landmark in the practice of interventional cardiology. The vascular injury sustained during the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) leads to a complicated inflammatory and repairing process. Therefore, stent restenosis arises. Diabetes mellitus is the highest-risk clinical predictor of ISR. Genetics has an important role in the development of ISR. There is a suggested association between the appearance of stent restenosis and certain genetic polymorphisms. Examples of these single nucleotide polymorphisms are endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS), the angiotensin converting enzyme gene (ACE), the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene (AT1R), TGF-β, and VEGF. CYP2C19 variants can help change the medical strategy to a more individualized therapeutic regimen either by altering the therapeutic dose depending on the genotype or using an alternative drug that does not worsen the patient’s case. However, eNOS polymorphism produces gene expression alteration leading to ISR following stent placement. In addition, the deletion-allele of the ACE genotype increases the risk of ISR; however, the I allele decreases the risk. Moreover, the D/I polymorphism is not an independent factor of ISR in patients administering ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor antagonists. Furthermore, studies on large sample sizes are required to decrease the harmful adverse effects of stent restenosis by detecting these allele gene polymorphisms.</p> Tarek A. Abdelaziz, Randa H. Mohamed, Gehan F. Balata, Omar Y. El-Azzazy Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 23 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Cone Beam Computed Tomography (Cbct) and Endodontic Microscopic Assessment of C-Shaped Canal Systems in Mandibular Second Molars <p>By knowing the anatomy of the tooth including root canal, dentists also have gathered physiologically anomalous requirements for effective root canal treatment. An exceptional morphology is present in the root canal system known as the C-shaped root network. A substantial volume of evidence already has come out on C-shaped root canal systems. The analysis provides an extensive description of root through root canals in the form of C. Characteristics of this exceptional morphology were studied mainly focused on macroscopic, microscopic and functional measurements including odontogenetic tooth shape analyses. To trying to clarify the clinical nature of C-shaped root canals, we sought to isolate them both. In addition to summarizing existing experiences, another of the objectives of this investigation was to find evidence that supports our interpretation of the C shaped root canal network. In fact, new advances in 3D mapping techniques help clarify the reliable etiology of the physiology of the Cshaped root canal network. Studies of extreme scenarios such as C-shaped root anatomy or morphology with rectangle and squared channels will also help us gain the wide range with root morphologies found in man’s teeth which eventually result in better care outcomes for patients and dentists and their satisfaction.</p> Sudha Mattigatti Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 23 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of functional outcome of treatment for distal femur fractures <p>In the past few decades man has taken traveling to high speeds with flexed knee joint with much of impacts taken first by patella then femoral condyles and tibial condyles in different positions and proportions and with vast increment in technology, travel modalities and industrialization there have been advantages and disadvantages too like easier and faster traveling but road traffic accidents too. Such accidents and falls resulting in loss of lives and disabilities. In recent years with the advancement of technology and facilities, wide use and trend of open reduction &amp; internal fixation has been apparent. This study evaluated the functional outcome of treatment for distal femur fractures. Patients were operated from 5 days to 35 days. Mean injury to surgery duration was 13.24 days patients were operated between 80 min to 160 min with mean time for operative procedure was 112.4 minutes, Open fractures were seen in 14(56%) closed fractures were seen in 11(44%). There were 14(56%) intra articular fractures and 11(44%) extra articular fractures. Comminution was present in 16(64%) fracture patterns in our study. All patients were operated with distal femur condylar locking compression plate. AO type C 3 fractures 7(28%) were most common type of fractures. Knee mobilization was started as early as within 2 weeks. Average time was 7.68 weeks. Functional outcome was analyzed according to the NEERS knee scoring system, 10(40%) observed excellent result, 5(20%) observed good results, 7(28%) observed fair result and 3(12%) observed poor results.</p> Vilas S. Mane Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 23 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in the RBCs of new borns <p>This study we attempt to search the need for a newborn screening program for G6PD deficiency because of high prevalence in some areas and no such study was done in part of Maharashtra. Also routinely administered vitamin K prophylaxis can cause hemolysis in G6PD deficient newborns and may prove potentially fatal, which can be prevented if babies are screened for G6PD deficiency. The current study was a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Red Blood Cells of born live neonates in tertiary care hospital. The research was performed at a tertiary care hospital with the 350 newborns, showing the age distribution of newborns revealed that the highest number of newborns was in the age group of 0-10 hours (96.29 percent). Of the 350 newborns, 181 (51.71 percent) were females and 169 (48.29 percent) were males and the ratio of females to males was 1.07:1. Many newborns had between 2500-3000 g (52.86 percent) of birth weight led by &gt; 3000 g (28 percent) and &lt; 2500 g (19.14 percent). The majority of newborns were Hindu by religion (67.14%) followed by Muslims (22.86%), Buddhists (6%), as well as other religions (4%). Most of the newborns came from 1st gravida (42.86%) and led by 2nd gravida (37.14%)</p> Surbhi Garg, Joag G. G. Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 23 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Computed Tomography in Evaluation of Renal Masses <p>At present there are various ways to recognize and evaluate kidney mass. A systematic methodological approach is needed to ensure a complete assessment of the suspected kidney mass, because each x-ray modality has relative strengths and weaknesses for an accurate diagnosis. Despite the lack of sensitivity and specificity, intravenous pyelography (IVP) remains the original diagnostic method in many cases because it plays a role in the assessment of hematuria. Intravenous pyelography with or without nephrotomography can detect a lot of kidney mass and provide information about kidney function. As the modality of imaging has expanded extensively, the measurement of adverse renal mass has improved significantly. The heterogeneous development, necrosis or calcification of such a by-of renal cell carcinoma is strongly suggestive. This research describes early-stage accidental renal cell carcinoma as correlated with symptoms of patients with renal cell carcinoma. It has significant implications on therapeutic strategies such as partial nephrectomy, etc. and increases the recovery of premature lesions. It suggests that the renal mass requires monitoring at age over 40 and high-risk classes such as the background of renal cell carcinoma, VHL, etc. The most common and successful modality for the measurement and characterisation of renal weight remains computational multidetector tomography (MDCT). The diagnostic efficiency of RCC in characterising and predicting the severity of disease is vastly enhanced by MDCT scans with an increase in spatial resolution and the potential to provide multiplanar and 3D recreations.</p> Shrishail Adke, Dinesh Potdar Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 23 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Cardiac Functions in Chronic Alcoholics <p>The present observational study was conducted to evaluate the cardiological manifestations in chronic alcoholic in relation with Electrocardiographic and 2-Dimensional Transthoracic Echocardiogram and Doppler findings. In Present study we observed most common 2-D echocardiographic finding being Grade 1 Diastolic Dysfunction (i.e. 28.35%), followed by Left ventricular Dysfunction (i.e.7.87%) being second most common finding, followed by mild Pulmonary Hypertension (i.e. 5.51%). In present study, the observed most common Electrocardiographic finding being sinus rhythm ( i.e. 34.6%) followed by second most common finding being atrial fibrillation (i.e. 13.38%) followed by sinus tachycardia ( i.e. 11.18%) so most common abnormal elctro-cardiographic finding is Atrial fibrillation. The present study was crosssectional, descriptive, hospital based observational study to assess cardiac function in chronic alcoholic by use of Electrocardiogram and Two Dimensional Transthoracic Echocardiogram and Doppler function. Duration of Study is 18 months and Study Setting is conducted in patients admitted in wards and ICU under Department of Medicine, Krishna Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Karad. There is Study Population is all alcoholic patients admitted in wards and ICU during the period from October 2016 to March 2018 under Department of Medicine, Krishna Hospital and Medical Research Centre Karad with alcohol consumption duration more than 5 years.</p> Purushottam Narayandas Toshniwal, Virendra C Patil Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 23 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Computed Tomography in Predicting Severity of Acute Pancreatitis <p>The current study was based on Computed Tomography (CT) findings and results. We found 63% of patients with acute interstitial edematous pancreatitis, and we found 37% of patients with acute necrotic pancreatitis in 46 cases. Based on our findings, we observed bulky pancreas among 26 cases (56.52%), 17 cases (36.95%) of pancreatic necrosis, 9 cases of pancreatic atrophy, 11 cases of pseudocyst, and 9 cases of peri-pancreatic fluid. When we evaluated the Modified CT Severity index among the study cases, we observed that 19.56% cases have mild index, the majority (56.52% cases) have moderate index while 23.91% have severe index. We also found that majority of the cases were clinically cured and discharged, i.e., 47.82%. 19.56% of the total study subjects reported recurrence of episodes of pancreatitis, while 30.43% of the total patients turned into chronic pancreatitis. This study presents a cross-sectional hospital-based analytical study carried out among 46 cases of AP referred to under the radiology department for further diagnostic evaluation, in a tertiary healthcare facility in Maharashtra. The present study Data Source included all the AP patients referred to the radiological department in a tertiary health research center. They met the standards for inclusiveness, which assented to the analysis. Type of study is Hospital analytical based study. The study duration is 18 months. Data collection was done through semi-structured, pre-designed, and pre-validated proformas in patients meeting inclusion requirements that included disease history, clinical outcomes, investigative records, and descriptions of surgical interventions.</p> Kapil P. Sawarkar, Pramod Shah Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 23 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 MPI score assessment of perforation peritonitis patients <p>The most widespread clinical emergency in India is perforation peritonitis. Following improvements in operational procedures, antimicrobial treatments, and care in ICUs, peritonitis control is often very complicated, complicated, and challenging. MPI provides the highest precision of risk-assessment such that specific predictions for patients with peritonitis could be estimated. The objective of this research is to determine the prognosis for perforated peritonitis patients using the peritonitis index from Mannheim. It is also targeted at a) assessing the results in Mannheim peritonitis test perforation cases b) evaluating elevated incidents of perforated peritonitis on the Peritonitis Scale with Mannheim. C) Determining the function of the Mannheim Peritonitis Index in decision-making on peritonitis surgery. This research measured the diagnosis of perforated peritonitis patients utilizing peritonitis score of Mannheim’s Index. In the present study, we observed that the majority of the study subjects were males (65.38%), and many of the cases ranged from the age group of 46-55 years (25%), as well as 36-45 years (23.07%). The majority of the cases had duodenal perforation (42.30%), followed by gastric perforation (28.84%), appendicular perforation (13.46%), filial perforation (9.61%), jejunal (3.8%), colonic perforation (1.9%). We observed that the majority of the study subjects reported the MPI score between 21-29 (46.15%), followed by (38.46%) cases who reported MPI score of more than 29, and 15.38% who reported MPI score less than 21.</p> Harshawardhan Vidyasagar Saygaonkar, Nerlekar H V Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 23 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of impact of ors with zinc & probiotics supplements in curing acute diarrhoea <p>Information about diarrheal diseases, their determinants in India, and prevention and control strategies must be reviewed in light of recent developments to ensure better planning and organization of public health services. In childhood, especially in developing countries, diarrhoea is most frequent. This research analyses the usage of ORS and measuring agents in diarrhoea management and care. To test the effectiveness of application of Zinc plus Saccharomyces boulardii(as probiotic) to WHO-ORS as well as to equate these results with WHO-ORS only. Currently, probiotics, in particular, in severe bacterial diarrhoea, are used in various preventive and treatment areas. In this analysis the regulation of vomiting between the three groups was not substantially different (p&gt;0.05). In the ORS+Probiotic Group and ORS+Zinc Group, the patients were shown to be completely hydrated slightly earlier than the ORS group (p &lt; 0.0001). But for the first day, ORS+Zinc Group and ORS+Probiotic Group greatly maintained the lack of stool frequency in contrast with the ORS Group patients. The incidence of losing stool in patients from Probiotic Group were also found to control considerably more quickly. Furthermore, in patients from Probiotic group, the mean length of diarrhoea was fewer. In our research, in the first 48 hours of care, children who were probiotic-present were more vulnerable to diarrhoea with stronger outcomes between 72 and 96 hours, and to increase continuity as well as shortening stays.</p> Palak Vaghela, Langade R. A. Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 23 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Dermaroller and Prp In Post-Traumatic Facial Scar Treatments <p>In the present study follow up kept on immediate post-operative day and at one week to evaluate pain, bleeding and inflammation. Final follow up at two months for assessment of aesthetic score by three independent personnel. Pain and inflammation were more associated with Group B compared to Group A, but there are no statistical significance differences among this groups (P value- 0.074 and 0.136 for pain and inflammation respectively on immediate post-operative day. Chi-square test). Final follow up assessment of aesthetic scores at two months calculated by Chi- square test and comparisons of two groups for aesthetic scores done by Independent t-Test. All three personnel gave higher aesthetic score to Group B but statistically this was not significant (P-value 0.287, 0.129 and 0.400 by Observer 1, 2 and patients respectively. Chi-square test). The mean aesthetic score given by Observer 1, 2 and patient was higher associated to Group B but statistically this was not significant (P=0.526, 0.055 and 0.232 independent t-Test).</p> Alpesh, Jumale V P Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 23 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Gingival Phenotypes Amongst Male Dental Students at Kulliyyah of Dentistry, IIUM, Malaysia <p>The aim of the present study was to investigate the periodontal phenotypes among young Malay males with different gingival biotypes. Forty-seven systemically and periodontally healthy young Malay males participated in this study, where 25.5% were diagnosed with thin gingival biotype and 74.5% of thick biotype. The periodontal phenotypes were measured through clinical parameters presented by the gingival thickness (GT), gingival width (GW), papilla height (PH), and crown width/crown length ratio (CW/CL). Three clusters were identified through K-means cluster ing analysis based on the parameters of the periodontal phenotypes. Cluster 1 represents narrow crown form and the average CW/CL, GW, PH and PD were 0.69, 2.92, 4.55 and 2.16 mm, respectively. Cluster 2 displayed an average of 0.76, 4.29, 4.96 and 2.14 mm for CW/CL, GW, PH and PD, respectively. Cluster 3 represents wide crown form and the average displayed for CW/CL, GW, PH and PD were 0.80, 4.85, 3.73 and 2.23 mm, respectively. There were significant differences between the three clusters (p&lt;0.05) with respect to the GW, PH and CW/CL. This study demonstrates the difference in gingival phenotypes between young Malay males. The GW has a signiϑicant positive linear correlation (p&gt;&lt;0.05) with CW/CL and negatively correlated with PH.&gt;&lt;0.05) with respect to the GW, PH and CW/CL. This study demonstrates the difference in gingival phenotypes between young Malay males. The GW has a significant positive linear correlation (p&lt;0.05) with CW/CL and negatively correlated with PH.&gt;&lt;0.05) with CW/CL and negatively correlated with PH.</p> Wan Muhamad Hanif Wan Ghazali, Mohd Fariss Mohd Ghazali, Wisam A. Kamil, Suhaila Muhammad Ali, Munirah Yaacob Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 23 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Production of Silver Nanoparticles by Escherichia coli: Green Approach <p>Physical and chemical approaches to synthesize nanoparticles are not suitable for safer medical usage. Thus, green method could be a suitable approach to produce safe and non-toxic nanoparticles. In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by Escherichia coli and its biological activities were determined. The produced bacterial biomass (supernatant) was mixed with silver nitrate to produce silver nanoparticles. Escherichia coli acting as reducing agents to produce nanoparticles. The colour changes from colourless to brown was observed to indicate the formation of silver nanoparticles. It was further reconfirmed using UV-Vis Spectroscopy, where the peak at 300 nm confirmed the formation of AgNPs. The antimicrobial and cytotoxicity activity of synthesized nanoparticles was tested. At 1 mg/ml concentration, the nanoparticles were effective against all the micro-organisms tested, Bacillus subtilis (12.7±2.5 mm) Staphylococcus aureus (13.7±2.3 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.3±2.3 mm) and Aspergillus niger (12.7±2.1 mm). With decreasing concentration, the antimicrobial activity also decreased. Similar results were obtained when the nanoparticles were tested for cytotoxicity ability on HeLa cells. With increasing concentration, more of the tumor cells were inhibited. Based on the result obtained, it can be concluded that Escherichia coli can be used in the production of silver nanoparticles. It was found that synthesized nanoparticles possess effective antimicrobial and cytotoxicity activities. Thus, these properties could make them an advancing field in the medical world.</p> Sivanjale Ravindrakumar, June Yeoh Lee Xin, Hanan Rahman SK, Sabrina Harudsamy, Shamala Marimuthu, Suguna Selvakumaran Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 23 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Therapeutic Efficacy of Mimosa Pudica - Aegle Marmelos formulation on Diabetes Mellitus <p>In the present study, the antidiabetic formulation was evaluated for the invitro antidiabetic, antioxidant and a pilot invivo study was conducted with a mixture of herbal powders, i.e. Mimosa pudica L and Aegle marmelos (L) Corr. The formulation was screened for its antioxidant activity using DPPH free radical assay and inhibitory effect against the α- glucosidase and lipase compared with the standard. Assays were carried out at the concentration varying from 50 – 500 µg/ml (antioxidant activity) and 20 – 100 µg/ml (antidiabetic). Results of the present study have clearly indicated that the formulation possesses significant α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition property ranges from 41.4% - 12.42% in the different concentration of aqueous extract and similarly pancreatic lipase inhibition potential at 50% with value of 100µg /ml revealed the significant activity. Moreover, the formulation administered in the diabetic patient reduces the glucose level of fasting and postprandial level, notably; thus, it indicates that it is a promising drug candidate that proves antidiabetic activity.</p> Anitha V, Rajarajeswari, Bupesh G, Vasanth S, Tirumalai Vasan P, Sahoo U, Pitambar Humane Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 23 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of nurses’ knowledge, attitude and perception on cardiac rehabilitation program at a tertiary care teaching hospital <p>Cardiac rehabilitation is very essential for patient who suffer from cardiac diseases to improve their quality of life during pre and post hospitalization period. The main objectives of this research was to assess the knowledge, attitude and perception of nurses on cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP), and relate the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, qualifications and years of experience with their knowledge, attitude and perception on CRP. The study was carried out using a structured validated questionnaire consists of 46 items measuring socio-demographic details, knowledge, attitudes and perception of nurses on CRP. The 6-point Likert’s scale was used to record individual’s responses for the questionnaire which varies from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Female, aged between 21 and 40 years predominantly dominates in our study with the basic diploma education in nursing. There was a significant different between age, education, and years of working experience of nurses with their knowledge on CRP, however, no significance difference was observed between age, sex, education and years of working experience with their attitude and perception towards CRP. In this study the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines was used for reporting the observational study findings. The study findings suggest that the role of nurses in providing endorsement to patients regarding CRP in hospitals is a major indicator that is bound to improve participation rates in CRP which will enable the patients to avail better healthcare and reduction in morbidity and mortality related to cardiovascular deaths (CVDs).</p> Kumudah M, Ashah M, Palanisamy S, Karthikayini K, Akila S Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 24 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Acute and Sub chronic Toxicological evaluation of ethanolic leaf extract of Sida acuta Burm.F in Wistar albino rats by analyzing biochemical, heamatological and histochemical parameters <p>Sida acuta burm.f belongs to Malvaceae, the mallow family and enjoys tropical and pantropical distribution. The plant is usually known as wireweed in the countryside, and it is highly medicinally valued traditionally and ethnobotanically promised. The species have literature reports on scientific attributes like abortifacient, anthelmintic, diuretic, anti-rheumatic, antipyretic and wound healing properties. The present study is concerned with acute and sub-chronic toxicity evaluation of ethanolic extract of Sida acuta Burm.f leaves in Wistar albino rats. Acute toxicity evaluation was conducted for 14 days. Acute doses of 100, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg BW were administrated to test groups of animals under consideration on the first day of experimental evaluation with three animals in each of total six groups along with control. For the remaining 13 days, animals were observed for noted behavioural changes and body weight were recorded respectively for 7<sup data-id="superscript-1">th</sup> and 14<sup data-id="superscript-2">th</sup> day of experimental analysis. At the end of the trial period, all the animals were euthanised, and various biochemical parameters and histopathological examination were carried out to assess the toxicity of extract. The present study revealed that the ethanolic extract of Sida acuta Burm.f leaves is non-toxic up to 2000mg/kg body weight. Subchronic toxicity evaluation was conducted for 28 days with several doses 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500mg/kg BW. Control rats without any treatment were maintained during the entire period of experimental analysis. The results of subchronic toxicity parameters indicate no significant changes to the biochemical parameters (glucose, urea, uric acid, creatinine, AST, ALT and Cholesterol) haematological and histopathological observation in comparison to the control groups. Based on subchronic toxicity parameters data, effective doses (200 and 400mg/kg BW) is determined for further cancer (colon) study in Wistar albino rats.</p> Perumalsamy Muneeswari, Sri Rashmy Madathi, Kannappan Poornima Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 24 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Enhanced Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesised Using Symplocos Racemosa <p>The green synthesis methods for the nanoparticles are economically feasible. It does not require any adverse effect causing agents such as usage of temperatures, toxic chemicals, energy, high pressure in the scientific and medical applications. Oral pathogens such as Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus sp is the major causes for many oral diseases. The different types of antibiotics are used for the controlling of many oral diseases. In this tudy we enhance the activity of nanoparticles by adding antibiotics to control the oral pathogen growth in invitro. The silver nanoparticles are prepared from Symplocos racemosa plant extract. To study and compare about the enhanced antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesised using Symplocoa racemosa. The plant extract was prepared by using double distilled water. The microorganisms such as Streptococcus mutans, and Lactobacillus sp were chosen and cultured in respective culture media. The silver nanoparticles synthesised is introduced into cultured petri plates to observe the changes. The zone of inhibition of the growth of microorganisms was studied. The effect of the prepared silver nanoparticles is compared using effect with the normal antibiotics. As a result, it is evident that there is an increase in zone of inhibition comparing the normal antibiotic effect. Thus it can used as drug of the choice in future.</p> Nirubama K, Rajeshkumar S Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 24 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Plyometrics and lifestyle effects on bone mineral density among premenopausal women: demographic and physiological analysis <p>Bones have a numerous significant functions in the body such as supporting and protecting various organs of the body. Osteoporosis is a disease of bone characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue, that leads to enhanced bone fragility and increased likelihood of fractures. Osteoporosis may be caused due to lower than the normal peak bone mass. Low bone mass results in faster rate of bone porosity and predisposes to osteoporotic fractures. Plyometrics is one of the most effective types of exercises for stimulating bone growth .The aim of the study was first to evaluate the effectiveness of plyometrics benefits on physiological parameters of osteoporosis among premenopausal women. Second to find out the association between the physiological parameters of osteoporosis among premenopausal women with selected demographic variables. The research approach was a Quantitative approach. Design adapted for the study was a true Experimental design with one control group and one experimental group. Data collected from 40 self help group women who were the members of kanchi sangamam from a selected area at chennai.sample were collected by using simple random technique.Based on the inclusion criteria and availability of premenopausal women, they were allocated into the control group (n=20) and experimental group (n=20)..plyometrics was given to the experimental group for 12 weeks. The control group did not receive an intervention. it was analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics The study determined there is significant changes in physiological parameters of osteoporosis among the experimental group(p&lt;0.001).as compared to the control group The study concluded that was an improvement in bone mineral density at the end of intervention.</p> Golda sahaya Rani R, Aruna S, Vijayaraghavan R Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 24 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis and antibacterial screening of new N-Substituted-9H-β-carboline 6-amine derivatives <p>β-Carboline is also known as nor-harmane. It is a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compound formed in plants and animals as Maillard reaction products between amino acids and reducing sugars or aldehydes. These tricyclic nitrogen heterocyclics play a vital role in medicinal chemistry, due to significant biological activities of their derivatives. It is also a key pharmacophore present in a large number of natural tricyclic alkaloids. Current work is reported with the synthesis and antibacterial activity screening of a new series of N-Substituted-9H-β-carboline-6-amine derivatives. The title compounds were synthesized according to the well known Pictet Spengler reaction in three steps by taking 5-Chlorotryptamine and glyoxalic acid as starting materials. This is an acid-catalyzed intramolecular condensation of an iminium ion and an aromatic C-nucleophile which resulted in the formation of 6-Chloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-2-ium-1-carboxylate (3). Oxidative decarboxylation and aromatization of compound 3 with iodobenzene diacetate led to the 6-Chloro-β–carboline (4) which were treated with different mono substituted amines gave the title compounds (5 a-J). Structures of the synthesized entities were confirmed spectroscopically (FT-IR, <sup data-id="superscript-1">1</sup>H NMR and Mass) and screened for antibacterial activity against various pathogenic bacterial strains ( Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) by disc diffusion method. The title compounds showed moderate to good antibacterial activity.</p> Alivelu Samala, Srinivasa Murthy M, Krishna Mohan Gottumukkala Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 24 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Cynodon dactylon Mediated Synthesis of Selenium Nanoparticles and Its Antimicrobial Activity Against Oral Pathogens <p>is a genus of plant in the grass family. It is found in the tropical regions and is also known as grass, Bermuda grass and Indian Doab. It is a herb extensively used in Indian system of medicine. It has many health benefits and is useful in controlling hypertension, skin diseases and diabetes. Selenium particles have an excellent anti-cancer, , antioxidant, photo reactive property. The size of SeNPs ranges from 30nm to 200 nm. These particles can be used in arthritis, cancer, diabetes etc. To prepare the selenium particles using Cynodon , fresh Cynodon was dried and made into a fine powder and powder mixed with distilled water. Selenium were synthesized using plant extract and sodium . Anti microbial activity against oral pathogens tested usingagar well diffusion method. The diameter of zone of inhibition was recorded on each plate. The change was indicative of the formation of SeNPs that was further confirmed by . The Cynodon mediated SeNPs showed high anti microbial activity against all the three micro-organisms especially Candida and S.. Therefore, diseases can be prevented as it is very effective in inhibiting the growth of the colonies.</p> Akansha Kishen, Rajeshkumar S, Preejitha V. B. Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 25 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Cumin in Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with respect to its Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Property <p>Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic disturbances associated with carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and relative or absolute insulin depletion. Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) leads to the increased lipid and decreased total antioxidant capacity followed by development of chronic complications due to oxidative stress. Cumin is one of the medicinal herbs which are being studied for antioxidant, antibacterial and effects. purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cumin on status, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in patients with T2DM. Two hundred patients with T2DM were selected in the randomized control trial, of which 100 subjects were enrolled as the study group was given 500 mg of cumin powder in capsule form daily along with their drug medication () for 3 months period while 100 subjects on medication of drug () were selected as the control group. Fasting plasma glucose, serum levels of lipid in the form of (MDA) and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) were measured at baseline and also after a period of 3 months intervention period. The result showed a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose level (FPGL), serum MDA and significant rise in serum TAC in study group by the end of 3 months of cumin supplementation period. Supplement action of cumin leads to improve , antioxidant and decrease oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes patients and could be useful in the management of T2DM.</p> Anup S. Hendre, Ajit V. Sontakke, Rohan S. Phatak, Sangita R. Patil, Suvarna T. Jadhav Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 25 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Galectin3 and CD16 play an important immunological role in patients infected with Salmonella typhi. <p>Enteric fever caused by Salmonella typhi (S.typhi) is one of the most dangerous diseases in developing countries. The main aim of this work is study the immunological role of Galectin3 and CD16 in human infected with S.typhi. A total number of 60 outpatients infected with acute IgM and chronic IgG S.typhi were included in this study, serum concentration of Galectin3 and CD16 were measurement by Enzyme-linked Immune Sorbent Assay (ELISA) for each patient. The results proved that there was significant increase (P = &amp;lt; 0.0001<sup data-id="superscript-1">***</sup>) in serum concentration of CD+16 between patients with acute S.typhi (IgM) (17.760 ± 0.72773 ng/ml) and healthy individuals (13.690 ± 0.36638 ng/ml). Also, there was significant increase (P = &amp;lt;0.0001<sup data-id="superscript-2">***</sup>) in serum concentration of CD+16 between patients with chronic S.typhi (IgG) (20.348 ± 1.1848 ng/ml) and healthy individuals (13.690 ± 0.36638 ng/ml). Also; there was significant increase (P = 0.0011<sup data-id="superscript-3">**</sup>) in serum concentration of Galectin3 between patients infected with acute S.typhi (IgM) (9.1485 ± 0.30444 ng/ml) and healthy individuals (7.1058 ± 0.50831 ng/ml) and there was significant increase (P value= 0.0004<sup data-id="superscript-4">***</sup>) between patients infected with chronic S.typhi (IgG) (9.5004 ± 0.38143 ng/ml) and healthy individuals (7.1058 ± 0.50831 ng/ml). Conclusion: Natural killer cell (CD16) and Galectin3 have an important immunological role in patients infected with acute and chronic S.typhi infection. Therefore, Galectin3 and natural killer cell have synergistic immunological effect against S.typhi infection.</p> Eman hamza mohammed, Ahmed abduljabbar jaloob aljanaby Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 25 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of additive components with separate introduction of antagonistic components on gastrointestinal microorganization and microelements content in mouse blood serum <p>Taking into account the data on higher biological availability of chelate compounds of microelements in comparison with their inorganic salts, a liquid feed additive for cattle with the content of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and diacetophenonyl selenide (DAFS 25) in the form of stable microemulsion and chelates of manganese, iron, cobalt, and zinc was developed. The biochemical and physiologically antagonistic components of the additive are divided into two separate liquid mixtures for separate, alternating ingestion on white laboratory mice, histological methods evaluated the effect of different doses of the additive on the micro organization of the components of the stomach wall, small and large intestine in different terms of the experiment. The additive was introduced into animals individually daily per o s during one month in doses of 0.06, 0.12, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2 g/kg. The control animals received an equivalent amount of physiological solution. The availability of trace elements of the developed product is estimated by analysis of blood serum on the zinc, iron, manganese, cobalt content by atomic-adsorption spectrometry. Examination bodies and blood for analysis were selected at the time of slaughter in accordance with generally accepted requirements. The dosage of the additive, which has the most effective influence on the growth of the concentration of injected micronutrients in the serum of mice in comparison with the control, was determined. It was found that the components of the additive have the most pronounced effect on zinc and iron content in the dose of 0.3 g/kg.</p> Dmitry S. Berestov, Marina S. Kulikova, Yuri G. Vasilev, Ivan S. Ivanov, Yuri G. Krysenko, Vyacheslav B. Milaev, Elena V. Maksimova, Sergey Yu. Smolentsev Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 25 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Preservatives Stability: Stability Study of Parabens under Different Conditions of Stress Degradation <p>Preservatives are used in a wide field of application to maintain the quality of products. They are used to deal with the chemical, physical and microbiological problems and the constraints of the development of several formulations. In this work, we tested the stability of antimicrobial preservatives which are the parabens under different stress degradation conditions to evaluate their degree of effectiveness. The tested parabens were incubated in different solutions at different pH, Temperatures, light conditions, and presence or absence of sucrose in solution (create a medium similar of syrups). The HPLC was used for the assay, by a validated method for the parabens assay and the statistical analysis of the data is carried out by JMP software. The results show a direct influence of temperature and pH on the level of parabens, while the influence of light remains negligible. The increase in temperature gives a degree of immunity of parabens levels, especially with the extreme values of pH. This study is one of the first studies of forced decomposition of parabens carried out under the various conditions suggested. The results give an idea of the stability profile of the tested parabens and suggest a model of the conditions of conservation and use of these products in different domains and under different conditions.</p> Ismail Bennani, Madiha Alami Chentoufi, Miloud El Karbane, Ibrahim Sbai El Otmani, Amine Cheikh, Abdelkader Laatiris, Jaouad El Harti, Mustapha Bouatia Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 25 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Epidemiological study on some endemic parasitic diseases to know the efficiency of the health system in the holy province of Karbala <p>The increased incidence of the parasites is associated with various factors, including lack of community health awareness, unsafe, inadequate disposal of human waste, lack of safe drinking water, low socioeconomic status, and health system performance. To determine the prevalence of some endemic parasites such as intestinal parasites five years ago, so the study take protozoa parasite Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, and one intestinal helminth pinworm Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) and the correlation of infections with age and sex in Karbala city. This study took cases examined in hospitals and health centers of the districts and the centre of the holy city of Karbala using the database of the Ministry of Health's Transitional Diseases Centre. It was conducted between 2015 and 2019 to study the efficiency of a health system and the levels of risky infectious diseases. Between 2015 and 2019, the conducted study was on three intestinal parasitic diseases. The study showed a significant difference in the level of infection with pinworm parasites. Infection of Enterobius vermicular increased by 32.8% in 2019 compared to previous years. In the meanwhile, Giardia lamblia decreased by 4.6%, followed by Endameba histolytic a by 3.6%, while the incidence of tissue amoeba parasites increased in 2015, followed by pinworms 2.4% and G.lamblia 2.9%. The study showed a significant difference. The studies also recorded a significant increase in the age group. Some of them were between the ages of more than one year and up to less than 45 years. This difference may be due to variation in sample size, seasonal variation, gene amebiasis, giardiasis, pinworm, parasite ral and personal hygiene, and public health services.</p> Al-Zubaidi Hanan Abbas Majeed, Zainab Abed Muhsin AL-Haboobi, Shaima Abd Muhsin AL-Haboobi Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 25 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 To study the efficacy of co-crystallization technique in enhancing the bioavailability of oral hypoglycemic agents <p>The bioavailability of the drug is mainly governed by factors like partition coefficient, solubility Pka, etc. The modification of these physicochemical properties can be done to enhance the bioavailability and thus effective therapy can be achieved. This research deals with the advantages of co-crystals over salts, solvates (hydrates), solid dispersions and polymorphs. A pharmaceutical co-crystal is a single crystalline solid that incorporates two neutral molecules, one being an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the other a co-crystal former. In the present study co-crystals of Metformin Hydrochloride and Glimepiride were prepared using different co-formers. Different ratio of urea, succinic acid and tartaric acid were used to design the co-crystals. They were formulated by two different methods- cooling crystallization and solvent evaporation. The prepared co-crystals were evaluated for microscopic characters, product yield, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Micromeretic properties, drug content, dissolution study of co-crystals, stability studies. The results indicated that co-crystals prepared by using a suitable co-former can definitely enhance the dissolution rate ultimately leading to enhanced bioavailability. Out of three co-formers used to design the co-crystals, succinic acid is found to be more effective. Moreover the bioavailability of Glimepiride is more enhanced as compared to Metformin Hydrochloride as it belongs to BCS class II.</p> Saumya Das, Aukunuru Jithan, Raghunadha Gupta Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 25 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Free radical scavenging activity of Maranta arundinacea assisted selenium nanoparticles <p>Selenium nanoparticles have role in toxic waste removal and bioremediation. In a recent study, biosynthesis of many metal and metal oxide nanoparticles by different plant extracts was found to be stable even after wet heat sterilization process. In some studies, biosynthesis of silver, gold, and selenium nanoparticles using microorganisms and plant and parts. In this present study we have synthesized selenium nanoparticles using arrow root and analysed for its free radical scavenging activity. 20 mM of sodium selenite was prepared using 60 mL of distilled water and 40 mL of Arrowroot extract. It was kept in the shaker. Readings were taken for 3 days. Centrifugation was done at 8000 rpm. Pellet was collected and was used for antioxidants activity that is free radical scavenging activity. The antioxidant property of arrow root mediated selenium nanoparticles are comparatively higher than the standard antioxidant property. Calculations were done on the basis of reading that was obtained. This study proves that there is antioxidant activity that is free radical scavenging activity adopted by selenium nanoparticles extracted from arrow root.</p> Apurva Choudhary, Rajeshkumar S, Anita Roy, Lakshmi T Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 25 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A study to assess the effectiveness of manual pressure on lumbar region to reduce pain during Intra Muscular Injection among Infants <p>Pain is an undesirable tactile and emotional experience related with real or potential tissue harm. Pain prompts people to seek health care more often than any other symptom. It is one of the most important areas of care because people cannot function fully when they are in pain. Pain prompts people to seek health care more often than any other symptom. Painful procedures in the hospital are blood collection, intramuscular injection and intravenous injection etc. this procedural pain is relieved by non pharmacological measures. Procedural pain is the most common cause for pain during provision of nursing care. So as the part of nursing profession, it is our responsibility to use effective strategies to reduce procedural pain. Especially in infant’s routine immunization, bruises and childhood illness mean that pain is a part of everyday experiences of all children and infants. Because infants cannot describe their pain and emotions, it is important to observe the behavioural response of the children to assess the pain. So the present study is done to determine the effectiveness of manual pressure on lumbar region to reduce pain during intramuscular injection among infants in selected hospital, Thiruvalur. Quantitative approach with quasi experimental design was adopted to conduct this study with 60 infants who were selected with purposive sampling technique. The data was collected using structured questionnaire to assess the demographic variable and FLACC pain rating scale for assessing the pain level. The results of the study are out of 60 samples (56.6%) had moderate pain and (43.4%) had mild pain in the experimental group.</p> Kala Barathi S, Merlin P Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 25 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of oral administration of peppermint and coriander extracts on cognition in Scopolamine induced rat model of amnesia <p>Herbs and spices have been shown to be very effective in the management of the neurological disorders. They have neuroprotective actions that prevent the deterioration of the memory and other cognitive functions in the neurological diseases. Peppermint (menthe×piperita, also known as M. balsamea wild) is a hybrid mint, a cross between water mint and spearmint. Peppermint consists of several medicinal components and research was testified safety of consumption of the peppermint. The study compared the memory-boosting and regaining effects of oral administration of peppermint and coriander extracts. 36 male and female Wistar albino rats were assigned into three groups randomly that is control, coriander and peppermint groups, respectively. A control group (n=6) received neither peppermint nor coriander administered (milk was administered). Peppermint group (n=6) received peppermint extract. Coriander group (n=6) received coriander extract. Amnesia rat model was prepared by the administration of as intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine. The R-maze and T-maze tasks was conducted as mentioned in the literature. Mean trials of acquisition is significantly less (P&lt;0.01) in the peppermint group. The number of mean trials of retention is significantly less (P&lt;0.01) in the peppermint group. The mean trials for retention of the coriander group is significantly (P&lt;0.05) less than the peppermint group. The study results support a positive impact of coriander and peppermint on cognition. The study recommends further detailed studies to support the administration of these extracts in the management of neurological diseases that deteriorates cognition.</p> Jasira Sirajudheen, Sai Sailesh Kumar Goothy, Mukkadan J K Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 25 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing the Infant Breastfeeding experience of Women in Cuddalore District of Tamilnadu, India <p>Breastfeeding is useful for both the mother and child, and it is known as an effective method to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality. This study intended to reveal the infant breastfeeding experience of women in Cuddalore district, Tamilnadu, India, as well as to explore the problems from breastfeeding among them. A Qualitative study design was adopted, and 20 breastfeeding women in the Pediatric ward of Rajah Muthiah Medical College &amp; Hospital (RMMCH), Cuddalore district, Tamilnadu, India were selected using purposive sampling. Data on demographic variables, physical and social dimensions of breastfeeding mothers were collected using a semi-structured interview schedule and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results showed that 95% of mothers had no previous education about breastfeeding. All the selected mothers had experienced latching difficulty and burping problem and also received adequate family support from their mother and relatives. Other breastfeeding difficulties such as lack of milk secretion, pain over the breast, breast engorgement, headache, fatigue and disturbed sleep were also identified among mothers. All 20 mothers did not participate in any social gathering about breastfeeding. This study revealed the difficulties faced by mothers in physical and social dimensions and recommended the need for social initiatives to encourage breastfeeding.</p> Suganya Sweetlin P, Palanivel R M, Kamala S, Vinoth R, Esther Prema S, Muhil Sakthivel, Vijay Amirtharaj S, Sudha V Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 27 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Use of Flunex and Ceftonite drugs for inflammation of the uterus in cows <p>Currently, in connection with the active development of dairy farming in Russia, the main requirement is to increase the dairy productivity of cattle and improve the quality of primary products. Despite the successes achieved in studying the causes of the development and pathogenesis of endometritis, the development of prevention methods, the frequency of their manifestation, especially in highly productive dairy herds, has no tendency to decrease. We conducted an experiment to study the effectiveness of the Flunex biogenic preparation with the Ceftonite gynecological suppositories in a comparative aspect with other known preparations with acute catarrhal-purulent endometritis. When conducting the experiment, before determining the therapeutic efficacy of the above drugs, anamnestic data were collected, the general condition, fatness and physique of the animal were determined. When using the tissue preparation Flunex with the gynecological suppositories Ceftonite for therapeutic purposes, with acute catarrhal-purulent endometritis of cows, recovery is faster than when using natural colostrum in combination with ichthyol suppositories.</p> Sergey Yu. Smolentsev, Ivan I. Kalyuzhny, Alexander M. Semivolos, Alla V. Egunova, Aleksandr M. Gertman, Andrey A. Elenshleger, Ivan A. Nikulin, Yuriy N. Alekhin Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 27 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pragmatic Toxicity Profiling of a Salubrious Polyherbal Combination of Tinospora Cordifolia, Withania Somnifera, and Boerrhavia Diffusa in Swiss Albino Mice <p>Acute and subacute toxicity screening of novel entrants in the stream of polyherbal formulations opens new doors towards the scientific approach of establishing them in the clinical market. Toxicity profiling asserts the humongous pharmacological potential that the natural herbs hold and establishes their safety profile. To exemplify this statement, this study further deals with acute and subacute toxicity studies of an olive oil-based polyherbal combination (PHC). This combination has been developed with the view that it proves to be clinically effective in diabetic cardiomyopathy and neuropathy. However, until now, the acute and subacute toxicity studies have been done on the developed PHC, and experimentally effective dose combinations have been identified. The follow-up part of this research includes the screening of the PHC against specific in vivo screening models in its initial stages. This research paper strictly summarises the acute and subacute profile of the salubrious polyherbal combination. Three herbs with strong literature background were selected: Tinospora cordifolia, Withania somnifera and Boerrhavia diffusa; and their crude extracts were prepared. The reported ED<sub data-id="subscript-1">50</sub> values of each of these plants were selected and mixed in 5 different combinations and subjected to Acute Toxicity studies. It was followed by the 28-days subacute toxicity screening of 9 different combinations that were elucidated from the acute toxicity study results. The findings were supported with recovery group studies to conform to any late toxicity symptoms of the polyherbal combination. The findings of this study helped in reaching some pathbreaking conclusions on the polyherbal combination designed.</p> Arshiya Shamim, Hefazat H Siddiqui, Tarique Mahmood, Mohd Haris Siddiqui, Paramdeep Bagga, Farogh Ahsan, Mohammad Shariq, Saba Parveen Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 27 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Apoptosis induction of crude water soluble Momordica charantia (chinese and indian bitter gourd) in human lung cancer cell and zebrafish embryo <p>A therapy which can target apoptosis will be effective for cancer treatment. This preliminary study attempted in vitro and in vivo to target apoptosis capability of Momordica charantia extracts. Here, we describe that the crude hot and cold extraction of two varieties (Chinese and Indian) of M.charantia, induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cell line A549. This was obtained from the cell viability assay where crude extracts were incubated for 24 hours and tested with 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay. The inhibitory concentration, IC<sub data-id="subscript-1">50</sub> was obtained from the cell viability graph and further used in the upstream assays. The apoptotic morphology was presented by the crude extract-treated cells with a comparison to a positive control cisplatin. The percentage of apoptosis was obtained from a flow cytometric analysis using Hoechst 33342. Induction of apoptosis in vivo was tested using the extracts on dechorionated zebrafish embryo for 24 hours and monitored up to 72-hour post fertilization. Induction of apoptosis in A549 by crude water extracts revealed a decrease in cell viability giving a low IC<sub data-id="subscript-2">50. </sub> The IC<sub data-id="subscript-3">50</sub> of cisplatin was 17.3 µg/ml, Chinese Hot Aqueous was 32.5 µg/ml, Chinese Cold Aqueous was 28.1 µg/ml, Indian Hot Aqueous was 36.9 µg/ml and Indian Cold Aqueous was 26.7 µg/ml significant to the control.The initiation of apoptosis by the crude water extracts was also evidence in vivo in zebrafish embryos with results demonstrating significant changes morphologically. There is a potential for the Indian Cold Aqueous to act as a chemo preventive agent as it has the overall best IC<sub data-id="subscript-4">50</sub>, percentage of apoptotic cells and changes in the morphology of cell and the zebrafish embryo.</p> Siroshini K Thiagarajan, Thandar Ei, Kokila Vani Perumal, Nurul Husna Shafie, Daryl J Arapoc, Hasnah Bahari Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 27 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge, Attitude, And Perception On Elder Abuse Among Healthcare Professionals And Healthcare Students In Malaysia <p>In Malaysia, elder abuse is recognized as a form of domestic violence, which is widely occurring among the geriatric population across the country. However, most of the cases remain undetected and silent, which makes it very hard to assess. The knowledge, attitude, and perception of healthcare professionals and healthcare students about elder abuse play a vital role in recognizing and reporting the cases. This study was conducted to assess their knowledge, attitude, and perceptions toward elder abuse. prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted using a questionnaire. A total of 151 participants were included in two groups as healthcare professionals and healthcare students. The questionnaire was distributed to the respondents and the data collected were analyzed using the Chi-square test for the dichotomous variables and to look for the association between independent variables. analyzed data showed that 60 healthcare professionals and 91 healthcare students have a considerable level of attribute in each category.The participants were found to possess the basic information but not the adequate one. As both types of participants play a major role in the healthcare of the nation, it is mandatory to implement and other means to update and educate themselves.</p> Ganesh Pandian Balasubramanian, Ng Yen Ping, Sireesha Paruchuri, Yeo Xiang Hua, Tan Wun Chi, Loong Kah Kay, Tew Mei Mei, Yap Cheng Hoon Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 27 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of the chemical compatibility of two active substances and stability of their solution <p>The metabolic field aiming at theoretical and applied analysis of metabolic processes of different levels to be the basis or the background of many diseases has been actively developing for the last decade. Especially, the concepts of the role of the cell energy metabolic imbalance during various pathologic processes that are based, first of all, on the mitochondrial deficiency have been actively developed.The irreversible cell damage when affected by the disturbing agents occurs from the moment of damage of organelles- the ATP generating cell systems. The paper studies the opportunity of creating the combined dosage formulation containing two active pharmaceutical ingredients (succinic acid and butafosfan) based on their chemical compatibility. The literature contains no information concerning the use of butafosfan and succinic acid in the same dosage formulation. Butafosfan improves the blood glucose disposal that stimulates the energy metabolism and accelerates metabolic processes due to the ADP-ATP cycle stimulation. Succinic acid can directly improve the energy-synthesizing function of mitochondria by increasing the succinate delivery and consumption by ischemic cells, participate in implementation of the succinic acid quick oxidation by succinate dehydrogenase, as well as activation of the mitochondrial respiratory chain leading to the ATP quick resynthesis. One of the obligatory phases of research is identification and study of physical and chemical properties of the active ingredient, compatibility assessment of the active ingredient and excipients, and in case of combination drugs - also compatibility assessment of ingredients themselves. To choose the necessary conditions during the solution technology development, the chemical properties, stability and compatibility of these pharmaceutical substances were studied.</p> Olga A. Gracheva, FazilA. Medetkhanov, Dina M. Mukhutdinova, Ilsur G. Galimzyanov, Alfiya R. Shageeva, Damir R. Amirov, Bulat F. Tamimdarov, Sergey Yu. Smolentsev Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 28 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Quantification of related/degraded impurities in Tolvaptan drug substance by HPLC <p>A reverse phased high performance liquid (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of (TLP) drug substance and it impurities TLPRC01, TLPRC02, TLPRC03, TLPRC04, TLPRC05 and TLPC06 using an analytical column Unison UK-C18, (250mm x4.6mm, 5µ) maintained at 30<sup data-id="superscript-1">o</sup>C±2<sup data-id="superscript-2">o</sup>C. The wavelength was set at 265 nm. Flow rate was maintained as 1.0 ml/min with injection volume of 10 . All the could be separated with run time of 60 min. The peaks of are well resolved with the resolution of 2.0. The results of all the validation parameters showed that the developed method is well confined to the limits of ICH guidelines. Degradation studies showed that the mass balance of in all conditions is in the range of 98 to 102 %. The accuracy of six impurities TLPRC01, TLPRC02, TLPRC03, TLPRC04, TLPRC05 and TLPC06 found in the range of 80-120%. The proposed method is able to quantify the related compounds present in drug substance and also able to see the assay of drug substance in presence of degraded impurities without the loss of purity of drug substance and other impurities. The method has proved to be robust by introducing changes in the conditions.</p> Rao P. Y. G, Sreenivasa Rao B, Suresh Reddy K. V. N, Sudhakar .Ch. Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 27 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Association between lipid profile and other biochemical parameters with growth hormone in children and adolescents with short stature <p>Short stature is a general term that usually accompanies a lack of growth hormone among people, and is more common among children. In this study, some kidney functions and lipid profile tests were evaluated in children and adolescents with short stature to find any relationship between the disturbance in these parameters and the etiology of short stature. A total of 60 short stature patients with a growth hormone deficiency, age range between 4-18 years, along with 60 age-matched healthy volunteers, were included in this study. Serum levels of GH, IGF-1, urea, and creatinine, as well as lipid profile, were determined, and then statistical analysis was performed on the collected data. The obtained results indicated a significant decrease in serum levels of GH and IGF-1 (p &lt;0.01) in patients compared to control values. The results also indicated a substantial increase in serum levels of triglycerides and VLDL, mainly seen in children, and reported non-significant differences in HDL, LDL, and urea levels for GHD patients compared to control values. Additionally, the results showed a significant increase in the creatinine level of adolescent patients only. This study concluded that there is a clear relationship between disturbances in creatinine levels and the promotion of GHD in short stature patients. Current work has demonstrated that anomalies in the lipid profile, especially triglycerides and VLDL, are closely related to the causes of short stature. Finally, and most importantly, we can suggest that triglycerides and VLDL may help identify patients at an early age who are at risk of short stature, especially children.</p> Saja S. Falih, Falah S. Al-Fartusie, Noor T. Tahir Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 27 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antibacterial activity of Methanol and n-Hexane extracts of fruit casings of Quercus rubra against multi-drug resistance pathogenic bacteria isolated from patients with burn infection <p>This study was designed to investigate the ability of methanol and extracts of fruit casings of Quercus against pathogenic bacteria isolated from patients with burn infection. Three concentrations of methanol and extracts of Quercus were done (100, 200 and 400) mg/ml. Thirty eight samples were collected from Medical Burn Center in Najaf . Males and females in different age groups. The results indicated that there were 42% , 22% , 18% , 8% E. , 6% and 4% . Seventeen antibiotics were selected in antibiotics sensitivity test. 10mg was the best antimicrobial effect. The results showed that all three concentrations had good antibacterial effect. It has also been shown that methanol solvent is more effective on bacteria than solvent. Also, the results showed that P. and S. has the highest rate of inhibition diameter with methanol solvent (38.123 ± 0.07 and 35.133 ± 0.092) mm respectively. K. was the highest rate of inhibition diameter by n- solvent 32.4 ± 0.07mm. Methanol and extracts of Quercus can be regarded as a potential antibacterial against aerobic pathogenic bacteria isolated from patients with burn infection. Therefore, Fruit casings of Quercus may be considered as a raw material for the manufacture of ointment for treatment of burns infections.</p> Dhafer Rahman Abed Al-janabi, Enas Abd al-Raouf Ammar Semysim Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 27 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Cryotherapy on Pain Reduction During Arteriovenous Fistula Puncture Among Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis <p>Dialysis is performed as critical life support when the patient is suffering acute and chronic kidney failure. The study focus on to determine effectiveness of on pain reduction during AV fistula puncture among patients undergoing . The population comprised of patients in . Experimental Research design was utilized for this study. The investigators assess the pain on AV fistula puncture among the patients with the assistance of numerical pain rating scale, Sixty samples (30 experimental group and 30 control group)were selected by probability simple random (Numerical table method)sampling technique, the data was gathered through the Numerical Pain Rating scale and demographic variables. The pain on AV fistula puncture of the experimental group and control group were calculated by paired’ test for experimental group (‘t’ = 18) and in control group, (‘t’ =1.5). This proves that there is a significant difference in test and post test levels of pain on AV fistula puncture in the experimental group at 0.05 levels. It indicated that the given was effective. The implication of the findings indicated that given was effective for pain reduction during AV fistula puncture among patients. : , pain on AV fistula puncture, patients. implication of the findings indicated that given was effective for pain reduction during AV fistula puncture among patients.</p> Thamu Priyadharshini N T Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 28 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Features of isolation of the anthrax pathogen depending on the type of nutrient medium <p>The purpose of the work is to develop a nutrient medium for differentiation of bacillus from soil aerobic bacilli. In order to achieve the set goal, we used the method of introduction into the environment of cultivation of microorganisms separated from animals and objects of external environment (water, soil, feed, air, scrapes from different surfaces suspected of contamination by their bacillus ) of nutrient substrate sucrose, used by bacteria of Bacillus genus for synthesis of product of their metabolism, a sign absent in bacillus . This feature is essential for identification and differentiation of bacillus from closely related saprophytes. To identify and differentiate the bacillus , the microbes isolated from the external environment were cultivated in a nutrient medium consisting of agar (MPA) and () synthesis of sucrose in the amount of 10% to 100 ml of melted agar. The proposed nutrient media was prepared as follows. agar (500 ml) was melted at 100<sup data-id="superscript-1">0</sup>C, 10 g of sucrose was added per 100 ml of medium and after the complete dissolution of sucrose, the nutrient medium was poured into dishes and used for sowing the studied material for identification and differentiation of grown crops. The efficiency of the method has been tested in production experiments with positive evaluation. For this purpose, soil samples taken from the territory of old cattle cemeteries were fractionally sown on MPA and for 16-18 hours at 37<sup data-id="superscript-2">0</sup>C and examined crops for the presence of matte and rough (R-form) colonies.</p> Nariman S. Sadykov, Ramzi N. Nizamov, Elmira N. Mustafina, Marina Yu. Gallyamova, Timur R. Mustafin, Albert K. Galiullin, Iva I. Zadorina, Sergey Yu. Smolentsev Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 28 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Formulation of Fast Disintegrating Tablet Paracetamol Employing Selected Super-disintegrant <p>The objective of this research was to investigate paracetamol FDT formula with potato starch and xanthan gum or glycine or ac di sol combination that can produce the best tablet quality. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. Superdisintegrant such as Glycine, Ac di sol, Xanthan Gum, and Potato Starch Extract was optimized as 1-19 % on the basis of least disintegration time. Binders such as HPMC were optimized along with optimized superdisintegrant concentration. 3,5% HPMC was selected as optimum binder concentration on the basis of least disintegration time. Granule parameters included in the analysis were flowability, angle of repose, Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio, and loss on drying (LOD). Tablet parameters included in the analysis were hardness, friability, disintegration time, dissolution, wetting time, and absorption ratio. The result was analyzed by Design Expert program to decide the combination of superdisintegrant that can provide the best tablet qualities. The result showed that potato starch 15.162% and xanthan gum 4,838%, potato starch 15,050% and glycine 4,950%, and potato starch 18.390% and ac di sol 1.610%. Combination of superdisintegrant that can provide the best tablet qualities. It was concluded that, by employing commonly available pharmaceutical excipients such as superdisintegrants, hydrophilic and swellable excipients and proper filler, a fast disintegrating tablet of Paracetamol in tablet dosage form, were formulated successfully with desired characteristics.</p> Eva monica, Rollando Rollando, Rehmadanta Sitepu, Devi Rusvita Khoirul Nisah, Laurensia Nina Irawati, Sinta Dwi Larasati Listio Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 28 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis And Characterization Of Novel Pyrimidine-4,5-Diamine As Anticancer Agent <p>Unlike latent cells, cancer cells supply deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates to cells continuously and thereby, prop up the uncontrolled cancer growth. Pyrimidine has been concerned in the separation of leukemic cells, known as adenine bioisosteres, as well as its biological activities, especially its anticancer properties. In this context, a novel series of N<sub data-id="subscript-1">5</sub>-(3-substituted benzylidene)-N<sub data-id="subscript-2">4</sub>-phenyl pyrimidine-4,5-diamine [5A-5F] / N<sub data-id="subscript-3">5</sub>-(2-substituted benzylidene)-N<sub data-id="subscript-4">2</sub>,N<sub data-id="subscript-5">2</sub>-dimethyl-N<sub data-id="subscript-6">4</sub>-phenyl pyrimidine-2,4,5-triamine [5a-5f] were synthesized by using the starting ingredient formimidamide/4-(dimethylamino) benzimidamide and sodium ethoxide. The synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, <sup data-id="superscript-1">1</sup>H NMR, and Mass spectral analyses and screened for their biological studies. In the present study, pyrimidine derivatives and their insilico modeling were done by using c-Src kinase and p38 MAP kinase complex followed by the evaluation of their anticancer activity. The screening of synthesized scaffolds possessed significant activity against HeLa cell lines and showed similar activity compared to standard Cisplatin. Among all the synthesized compounds, N<sub data-id="subscript-7">5</sub>-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-N<sub data-id="subscript-8">4</sub>-phenyl pyrimidine-4,5-diamine 5A, N<sub data-id="subscript-9">5</sub>-benzylidene-N<sub data-id="subscript-10">4</sub>-phenylpyrimidine-4,5-diamine 5C, N<sub data-id="subscript-11">5</sub>-benzylidene-N<sub data-id="subscript-12">2</sub>, N<sub data-id="subscript-13">2</sub>-dimethyl-N<sub data-id="subscript-14">4</sub>-phenyl pyrimidine-2,4,5-triamine 5c, and N<sub data-id="subscript-15">5</sub>-(4-methoxy benzylidene)-N<sub data-id="subscript-16">4</sub>-phenyl pyrimidine-4,5-diamine 5E showed the highest significant anticancer activity. Based on the study, it was observed that substituents such as 4-hydroxy, 4-fluoro, 4-nitro, 4-methoxy, and 4-methyl are important to produce a biological effect. Moreover, among these substituents, N<sub data-id="subscript-17">5</sub>-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-N<sub data-id="subscript-18">4</sub>-phenyl pyrimidine-4,5-diamine exhibited the highest anticancer activity followed by unsubstituted derivative N<sub data-id="subscript-19">5</sub>-benzylidene-N<sub data-id="subscript-20">4</sub>-phenylpyrimidine-4,5-diamine, which delivered significant anticancer activity.</p> Maturi Someswara Rao, Tadiboina Bhaskara Rao, Cherukumalli Purna Koteswara Rao, Nagaraj Maddur Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 28 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Formulation and Evaluation of Functional food Health mixes <p>Over the last few consumer’s interest in health and functional foods has increased considerably in industrialized countries thus offering an opportunity for sector to add value to agricultural commodities. Today the world appears to be increasingly interested in the health benefits of foods and have begun to look beyond their basic nutritional benefits to prevention of disease and health enhancement. Traditional systems of medicine owe their significance to the components that have their origin in plant sources and most of them were associated with routine food habits. Functional food is any fresh or processed food claimed to have a health-promoting or disease-preventing property beyond the basic function of supply of nutrients. functional food is any food or food ingredient that provides health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients it contains. Food supplementation is one of the effective ways of improving the health status of weavers by means of increasing the serum calcium level, regulating the blood glucose and blood pressure. Keeping all these points in mind the investigator selected low cost, locally available ingredients and foods familiar to the community to formulate food supplements to manage diseases like diabetes, hypertension and disorders. The functional foods are , flax seeds, , blue berry, carrot, vegetables, fish, garlic, whole grams, oats, oranges, spinach etc. The present study was carried out to formulate and preparation of health mixes, assess the nutrient content of health mixes, analysis of anti nutritional factors of health mixes. Overall findings revealed the functional food health mixes are reduced the risk of CVD, Diabetes , hypertension, cancer and osteoporosis.</p> Usharani R, Lakshmi U K Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 28 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Secondary Metabolites from Leaves of Polyalthia lateriflora and Their Antimicrobial Activity <p>The study aimed to isolate and identify the phytochemical components of Polyalthia lateriflora leaves and evaluate the antimicrobial activity. Six well-known compounds, including three triterpene lupeol (1) betulinic acid (2), β-Sitosterol-β-D-glucoside (3) and three oxoaporphine alkaloids O-methylmoschotaline (4), liriodenine (5) and atherosperminine (6). Structural elucidation of compounds were established through spectroscopic techniques such as 1D and 2D NMR (<sup data-id="superscript-1">1</sup>H and <sup data-id="superscript-2">13</sup>C, DEPT, COSY, NOESY, HMBC, HMQC), IR and LC-MS. The isolated compounds and crude extracted were tested for their antibacterial potential against several microorganisms including P. aeruginosa, E. coli, s, S. aureus, B. subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its showed significant inhibition toward the organisms species with different concentration range.</p> Saripah Salbiah Syed Abdul Azziz, Ahmed Kareem Obaid Aldulaimi, Saadon Abdulla Aowda, Yuhanis Mhd Bakri, Ali Arkan Majhool, Rawdha Mohammed Ibraheem, Tamara Kareem Obaid Aldulaimi, Hamidah Idris, Chee Fah Wong, Khalijah Awang, Marc Litaudon, Fauziah Abdullah Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 28 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Identification of a novel inhibitor for the Bromodomain (BRD4) through a receptor-based drug discovery approach <p>Recently, the demands on the drug discovery process have increased drastically because of the need to apprehend a novel target which might be both pertinent to cause disease and chemically tractable. The emergence of bioinformatics and computer strategies have given room to analyse conditions at the molecular level. The present work was to perform a molecular docking analysis and ADMET study of different δ-carboline derivatives with bromodomain (BRD4) receptor using receptor-based drug discovery approach. Based on the literature, 60 compounds were designed and subjected to molecular docking for the inhibition of brd4 receptor. The results showed that Compound 34 received the highest binding affinity with BRD4 receptor. Hence eight compounds were selected based on docked pose determined using AutoDock/Vina with the minimal energy of above -5.1. Then ADMET study was carried, in that, all the eight compounds had middle to high BBB permeability. During metabolism, all compounds except compounds 37, 42 and 47 showed no inhibition of CYP2C99 in the liver. Analysis of drug-likeness profile showed almost all compounds eligible in CMC rule, violation rule of CMC, MDDR rule with the value of 1 and violations of WDI showed 0 value. Such findings strongly implied that derivatives of δ-carboline could serve as lead molecules to inhibit BRD4, and this could lead to the future development of the right candidate for cancer research.</p> Arivukkarasi Varadharajan, Raman Rajeshkumar, Chandrasekar MJN Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 28 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesised Using Maranta Arundinacea Root Extract <p>The main aim of this study was to employ Maranta arundinacea root extract in the synthesis of Zinc oxide nanoparticles and check the antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effect. The use of nanotechnology in medicine especially for drug delivery is shown to have numerous benefits. Nanoparticles are being used to lessen toxicity and facet results that capsules may additionally impose on the patient. The zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized using different plant extract used for many biomedical applications such as anticancer activity, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, antifungal activity and many more applications used in medicine ( Diagnosis and drug) Plant mediated organic synthesis of nanoparticles has been gaining importance because of its simplicity and eco friendliness. Maranta arundinacea mediated Zinc oxide nanoparticles were initially synthesised and characterised by UV-Visible spectrophotometer and TEM. Further the Maranta arundinacea mediated ZnoNPs were subjected to DPPH assay to determine the antioxidant activity. Maranta arundinacea mediated ZnoNPs were biosynthesised with ease and showed good antioxidant and cytotoxic activity . This study concludes that Maranta arundinacea mediated ZnoNPs nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an effective antioxidant. Hence, it may be employed in large scale production and may be used in many medicinal applications where there is a need for antioxidant.</p> Aparna J, Rajeshkumar S Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical and chromatographic characterization of Mimosa diplotricha Wright ex. Sauvalle ethanolic leaf extract and assessment of antioxidant potential and anti-proliferative effect on colorectal cancer (HCT-116) cell lines <p>Present study aims to evaluate phytochemical and chromatographic profile, along with antioxidant and anti proliferative properties of Mimosa diplotricha ethanolic leaf extract. Qualitative screening of phytoconstituents by consecutive solvent extraction in increased polarity basis and standardization of potential extract based on phytochemical elution profile was done. Selected secondary metabolites like phenols, flavanoids, tannins and alkaloids were quantified in ethanolic extract. Chromatographic profile was determined by HPTLC and GC-MS analysis. In vitro antioxidant potential was assessed by DPPH, superoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and reducing potential of the respective extract were also determined. Anticancer potential was confirmed by cytotoxic screening in colorectal (HCT-116) cancer cell lines by MTT assay. Qualitative phytochemical analysis and chromatographic profile reveal a phytoconstituent rich profile for the ethanolic leaf extract. The amount of, phenols (56 ± 0.57 mg/g), flavanoids (27 ± 0.76 mg/g), tannins (33 ± 0.15 mg/g) were quantified as equivalent of gallic acid, quercetin and tannic acid standards respectively and alkaloids (2.51 ± 0.47 mg/g of extracted plant material) were expressed based on respective analysis. Results also reveal convincing antioxidant potential for respective extract. In vitro cytotoxicity confirmed by MTT assay represents an IC<sub data-id="subscript-1">50</sub> value of 97.82 µg/ml. From the above results it can be concluded that M.diplotricha has got pharmacologically significant phytoconstituents and therapeutic active ingredients as evident in HPTLC and GC-MS analysis. This is further supported by considerable antioxidant and anti proliferative properties observed in respective assays.</p> Sri Rashmy Madathil, Poornima Kannappan, Devaki Kanakasabapathy, Sincy Varghese, Perumalsamy Muneeswari Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Chrysin exerts anti-oxidant properties and restores motor function in MPTP induced mouse model of Parkinson disease <p>Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder. It is characterized by a loss in substantianigra and striatum of dopaminergic neurons. The present study is to measure the antioxidant activity of chrysin and to assess behaviour in MPTP mice model of Parkinson's disease. Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice divided into six groups (n=9). Different concentration (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) of chrysin was administered for five consecutive days, MPTP administered 80 mg/kg (2 X 40 mg/kg 16 h interval) via intraperitoneal. After 48 hours of MPTP injection, a behavioural assessment was performed. After behavioural analysis, animals were sacrificed, and brains were collected. Collected brains were subjected for the analysis of Molecular studies, Biochemistry and Histopathology. Chrysin increased Glutathione peroxidase and Nitric oxide activity compared to MPTP induced mice. Similarly, when compared with the MPTP treated group, TRX 1 also increased in chrysin treated (100 and 200mg/kg) groups. It shows chrysin's antioxidant scavenging activity, and these modifications lead to major behavioural changes in mice treated with chrysin, these results being comparable with standard drug L-Dopa. All the groups were compared with the control groups. The results evidenced that chrysin protects neurons by modulating the antioxidant mechanism against MPTP induced Parkinsonism.</p> Alagudurai Krishnamoorthy, Murugan Sevanan Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of some new charge transfer complexes as a combination model <p>The present work includes design and synthesis a new model of charge transfer complexes from simvastatine which is antihyperlipidemic drug as acceptor with angiotensin receptor blockers(candesartan ,losartan ,valsartan ,telmisartan ,irbesartan) as donors and characterization the models by UV, FT-IR ,HNMR spectrophotometry , it shows change in spectral peaks which refer to formation of charge transfer complexes. And study the effect of interaction on availability of drugs with the time , different PH and different concentrations. Which shows the variability in availability of drugs in combination (charge transfer complexes) due to PH , concentration, and time changing, this variability in availability mostly effect on simvastatine which mean decrease or absence the availability of simvastatine and increase the availability of angiotensin receptor blockers ( mostly not absolutly). Beside this we study the evaluation of biological activity of combinations and compare with the biological activity of simvastatine alone on the lipid profile of rabbits , by induced hypercholesterolemia in rabbits for two weeks (except the positive control group) and gave the drugs for four weeks and measuring the lipid profile changing in order to improve the change in the efficacy of simvastaine alone and simvastatine in combinations and this variability due to donor-acceptor interaction (charge transfer interaction)</p> Mohammed Sabah kadhi al zwaed, Raheem Jameel Mohaisen, Khawla Salman Abd al rasool Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 DLBS1033 treatment for ischemic stroke patients and clinical outcomes: systematic review of randomized controlled trial study <p>DLBS1033 is a lumbrokinase earned from extraction of earthworms, Lumbricus rubellus. Lumbrokinase has 2 main activities: fibrinolytic and fibrinogenolytic – these activities reduce blood viscosity and platelet aggregation. With all of those properties, DLBS1033 will be a promising agent in patients with ischemic stroke. The objective of this research is to identify the advantage of DLBS1033 in ischemic stroke patients' clinical outcome. We used Pub Med, Cochrane, and Clinical Key as our major database for this systematic review. &amp;quot;DLBS1033&amp;quot;, &amp;quot;lumbrokinase&amp;quot;, and &amp;quot;stroke&amp;quot; keywords selected to particularize the search. The 2 authors calculated each of the studies using Jadad score. Only certain studies with scores above 3 will be included for further review using PRISMA checklist. There were 27 studies relating to DLBS1033 or lumbrokinase and stroke. Further examination by 2 authors resulted in 23 articles being removed leaving 2 studies. Subjects in all of the said studies are ischemic stroke patients; predominantly male patients. All of the said studies compare DLBS1033 with standard therapy; either utilizing DLBS1033 as an additional therapy or as a separate therapy. Clinical outcomes were measured using NIHSS and BI. Compared to standard therapy, DLBS1033 proved successful in improving clinical outcomes among patients with ischemic stroke. It's also found to be safe with none serious adverse events and significantly has lower bleeding events.</p> Rizaldy Taslim Pinzon, Vanessa Veronica Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Histopathological study of endometrial Samplings <p>The present study was a two-year prospective cross-sectional study done to diagnose and categorize lesions of endometrium on endometrial sampling included a total of 153 cases, of which 111 were curettage samples, and 42 were biopsy samples. Of the 153 cases, the indication for performing endometrial sampling was AUB in 131 cases and infertility in22 cases. Primary infertility constituted 64% of all the facts of infertility.AUB was common in perimenopausal age group, and infertility was commonly seen in 20-30 years age group and characteristic in multiparous Precursor lesions were the most widely recognized diagnosis on histopathology in23.7. In the category of regular physiological pattern, 72.2% of cases were in the reproductive age group, —36.3 % cases presented with inability to conceive and clinical diagnosis of infertility. Tumour like lesions had a majority of cases (55.5%) in the perimenopausal group. Intermenstrual bleeding was the most widely recognized symptom of presentation.All the cases of malignant lesions were in the post-menopausal age group and all cases presented with post-menopausal bleeding. About 80% of cases were correctly diagnosed clinically. Endometrioid endometrial carcinoma was seen in 60% cases, followed by carcinoma extending from cervix in30 % cases and carcinosarcoma in 10% cases.</p> Nanda Patil J, Sujata Kanetkar Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Clinicohematological Study Of Anemia In Geriatric Patients <p>The present study was conducted in the Hematology section of the Department of Pathology over two years. Two hundred and seventy-three geriatric patients diagnosed as anaemic as per WHO criteria were included in the study—maximum 51.2%number of cases from the age group of 60-65 years. Geriatric anaemia showed slight male preponderance (52.4%) over females (47.6%). Lowest haemoglobin value observed was 3.4 gm/dl, while the highest value was 12.3 gm/dl in males and 11.9 gm/dl in females. Most of the study population presented with moderate grade anaemia (47.6%) Patients requiring hospitalisation (71.8%) outnumbered the patients treated on OPD basis (28.2%). Among the hospitalised patients, moderate grade (51.5%) was common Generalised weakness was the most common symptom (69.6%) followed by fatigue (62.2%). There was a significant association (p= 0.009) observed between the severity of anaemia and dyspnoea Underlying malignancy (20.1%) was the most common comorbid condition among the anaemic subjects. Amongst the 148 cases of anaemia of chronic disease, 120 cases (81%) had normocytic normochromic blood picture, and the majority of the cases had mild anaemia (75 cases-50.6%). Iron deficiency was 2<sup data-id="superscript-1">nd</sup> leading cause of geriatric anaemia (15.3%); presenting with moderate grade anaemia in a majority (69%). Chronic blood loss was the most common contributing factor for iron deficiency anaemia (61.9%). The incidence of anaemia is quite high among elderly patients, more so when associated with chronic diseases and malignancies. Despite modern diagnostic advances, geriatric anaemia remains underreported and inadequately investigated.</p> Sangita Pawar, Kshirsagar N S, Gayatri Patil Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Polyendocrine deficiency as a diagnostic challenge - A retrospective clinical study <p>Polyglandular polyendocrine syndromes (PSs) are an assorted collection of infrequent ailments considered by autoimmune motion contrary to more than one endocrine organ, though non-endocrine organs can be affected. The deficiency of parathyroid is quite rare without surgery. This article summarises clinical, epidemiological, and serological, data of patients with PSs. Multifaceted diagnostic difficulties and treatment choices required that the patient be admitted to the hospital for a rather long period, namely for six weeks. Three diabetic patients with various thyroid disorders such as lymphocytic thyroiditis involving parathyroid glands manifesting with severe hypothyroid and hypo-parathyroid status were studied with an occurrence of dengue viral aetiology as a precipitating factor. Further, the patients were investigated for the determination of antibodies against thyroglobulin and microsomal antigens by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. They were also tested for Parathyroid Hormone and 25-hydroxy vitamin D. After three months, all the three hormonal status were brought to normal with substitution and maintenance therapy, and patients were reviewed after six months were found to maintain with the dose. To conclude, thyroiditis may progress during the progression of dengue fever and should be counted as a manifestation of expanded dengue syndrome.</p> Ambujam Govindasamy, Suganya Kannan, Maheshwari Narayanan, Vikram Arun Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Intramuscular Dexmedetomidine Versus Midazolam as a Premedication Before Surgery <p>Getting comfort and solace is an increasingly important idea in 21st century. The getting of progressing development and capacities directly deals with an unrivaled choice for pediatric surgeries.It was a randomized, twofold outwardly disabled, comparable equivalent social affair study including 60 patients, spread also 30 each in Group 1 (concentrate calm Midazolam) and Group 2 (control pack Dexmedetomidine). Sedation achieved in the dexmedetomidine pack was more than that practiced in the midazolam gathering. Extremely (90% versus 56%) P regard 0.0074 was found. 21 out of 30 in the midazolam pack achieved honorable parent piece disquiet score took a gander at and 28 out of 30 in the dexmedetomidine gathering. 18 out of 30 in the midazolam pack achieved exceptional spread request score and 27 out of 30 in the dexmedetomidine achieved tasteful spread affirmation score. An unquestionably fundamental number of youths in pack Dexmedetomidine achieved beguiling spread validation score of 1 or 2 when isolated and bunch Midazolam. wake up score were desperate down where 14 out of 30 in the midazolam get cultivated great wake together score. A consistently noticeable number of children in wrap Dexmedetomidine achieved wake up score of 1 or 2 when isolated and pack Midazolam. Post usable absense of wretchedness was less required in the dexmedetomidine gathering. Study was viewed as that Dexmedetomidine can be used as an unmatched drug broke down than midazolam as an intramuscular premedication in pediatric age.</p> Dhanshri Kale, Saudamini Gandhi Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Transportal Verses Transtibial Femoral Tunneling Techniques for Acl Reconstruction <p>Purpose of study was to look at the practical and clinical results of transportal and transtibial approaches for penetrating of femoral passage in arthroscopic ACL reconstruction.The prospective study which was conducted at department of orthopedics. All patients worked with arthroscopic ACL age were screened using the thought and shirking measures, instructed consent was taken and the willing patients were fused . Total eighty patients who were operated were remembered for this examination.The mean age of the patients was 26.0 years in bundle I and 24.3 years in pack II.Average time of patients were 26 in the transportal gathering and 24.3 in the transtibial gathering.The majority of males i.e. 90% males in transportal group and 86.6% males in the transtibial group. Majority of ACL tears were on the right side 58% in both the groups.In both the groups’ medial meniscus injury was more commonly related with ACL tear as compared to lateral meniscus tear, 30% in the transtibial group and 23.3% in the transportal group.The average IKDC score, Lysholm knee score, pain on VAS score of transportal patients was basically higher than transtibial patients at a half year improvement .Complication of frailty was progressively ordinary in transtibial patients, 11(36.7%), when stood out from transportal patients, 9(30%), in any case this differentiation was not imperative [P=0.58].Arthroscopic ACL Reconstruction using transportal and transtibial methods of femoral tunneling are both amazing modalities of treatment in patients with ACL lacking knees.</p> Sandip Patil, Sapan Vora Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of microbiological quality and contamination level of Hospital water samples collected from storage points <p>Drinking water contamination at the level of storage points poses a potential threat to the hospital environment as it can lodge some resistant pathogenic microorganisms that may cause hospital acquired infections. The study analyzed the physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of drinking water samples collected from the main water storage points from ten different local hospitals in and around Visakhapatnam using standard protocols. The samples were processed within 2 hours after collection and the identification of pathogenic bacteria was performed through Most Probable Number (MPN) method, cultural characteristics and biochemical reactions. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out by Agar well diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. In the current study, all the tested ten water samples cross the permissible MPN count indicating that the water samples were not potable for drinking purpose and needs further and better disinfection procedures. Among the isolated pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibited highest sensitivity to antibiotics imipenem (50%) and tetracycline (50%) and resistance towards other tested antibiotics, whereas E.coli showed 100% susceptibility to imipenem and 100% resistance to ampicillin. Out of ten isolated strains of Proteus species, majority have exhibited 80% resistance to ampicillin and Tetracycline and 80% sensitivity to imipenem. All the four isolated strains of Shigella species expressed 100% resistance to ampicillin and 75% sensitivity to imipenem, meropenem, azithromycin, linezolid, vancomycin and chloramphenicol. The five isolated strains of Vibrio species showed 100% resistance to ampicillin and 80% sensitivity to imipenem, doxycycline and tetracycline. Greater part of the isolates were multidrug resistant isolates.</p> Rajani Chowdary Akkina, Payala Vijayalakshmi, Vidyullatha Peddireddy Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 To Evaluate Optic Nerve Head Changes In Patients With Primary Open Angle Glaucoma <p>The early discovery of optic nerve head changes via careful assessment prompts initial finding and the board of essential open point glaucoma. The current examination was attempted to break down to the optic nerve head in patients of open point glaucoma regarding visual field defects.110 eyes of 60 patients were concentrated in this cross-sectional investigation. The mean age of the patients was 58.26±10.44 years, with 30 males and 30 females. 15% of the patients were suffering from hypertension. The mean IOP among the eyes was 18.63 ±4.17 mm of Hg. The mean vertical C/D ratio was 0.61 ±0.12. 89.09% of patients had a medium disc size. The R/D ratio among patients showed that majority of eyes having RD ratio of 0.01-0.1 (30.91%). HPA grades showed that 32.72% had severe visual field defects. 97.30% of eyes had a contiguous visual loss as compared to noncontiguous (2.70%). The nasal field was mostly affected by 51.35%. DDLS has a stronger correlation with Mean Defect than Vertical C/D ratio and with HPA classification than the Vertical C/D ratio. DDLS to be a simple, brisk, modest and precise strategy to record ONH harm. It seems, by all accounts, to be better than the C/D proportion for optic plate assessment.</p> Viraj Pradhan, Karambelkar V H Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 30 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of micronuclei in cervical pap smear <p>Carcinoma of the cervix is a common cause of mortality in women regardless of effective screening methods. Screening for (MN) in cells has been one among the tests used in cancer screening. Several containing cells rises in carcinogen- exposed tissues much earlier than the symptoms. Here in this study usefulness of (MN) in screening cervical lesions was evaluated. We studied comparison of MN score among different cervical lesions and the significance of the difference in the score. We evaluated 406 cervical smears, categorized them using the “Bethesda 2014 system&amp;quot;. Mean MN scores among the different cervical lesion categories were compared, and the differences were studied statistically for its significance. Results showed a gradual increase in mean MN score with increasing severity of the cervical lesion and the differences in these scores were statistically significant (P &amp;lt; 0.05) among all the categories, with significantly higher mean MN scores in high grade squamous wounds and invasive carcinomas (IC)than others. We concluded that the MN test could serve as an additional and practical screening test in conjunction with the conventional cervical Pap smear for cervical cancer screening.</p> Sujata Kumbhar, SujataKanetkar, Avinash Mane, AkankshaGore, Parneetkaur, Ankita Dad Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 30 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of ultrasound and four hourly cryotherapy application in the treatment of bicipital tendinitis- a randomised clinical trial <p>The purpose of this appraisal was to consider the effect of ultrasound and four hourly cryotherapy application in the treatment of bicipital tendinitis. In this prospective randomized clinical assessment, Thirty individuals were enrolled in the group A, and thirty specific individuals were picked into the get-together B group. In group A, Ultrasound for 7 mins – 2:8 – 1.5 w/cm2 and for group B, Sham Ultrasound for 7 mins – 2:8 – 1.5 w/cm2 with cryotherapy for 20 min 4hourly given. Pain severity, Pressure Pain Threshold and functional disability were assessed in all participants before and after two weeks of treatment. Group A had 12 males, and 15 females and Group B had nine males and 18 females. Pre and post interventional mean and standard deviation for group A was 7.37+1.21 and 7.33+1.30. Whereas pre and post interventional mean and standard deviation for group B was 7.33+1.30 and 1.70+0.60. Pre interventional analysis of data of group A and B showed no significant difference. Whereas post interventional analysis of data showed an extremely significant difference between group A and group B. Results revealed that participants with bicipital tendinitis respond more favourably to ultrasound therapy with cryotherapy for 20min four-hourly than ultrasound alone.</p> Amrutkuvar Rayjade, Varadharajulu G, Radhika Chintamani, Trupti Yadav Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 30 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Morphometry of human tricuspid valve: A cadaveric study <p>The cardiovascular system consists of a pump represented by the heart and blood vessels, which provide the route by which blood circulates to all parts of the body. William Harvey, in the 17th century, discovered that blood is pumped away from the heart, but it all returns to the heart after circulating in the body. A right ventricular function can be compromised by pressure or stress, often secondary to the right heart valve or muscle pathology. The valves maintain unidirectional flow and permit increased pressure to develop in the chambers. The tricuspid valve consists of three tissue flaps. It separates the right atria and the right ventricle. To measure morphometric measurements of an individual leaflet of the tricuspid valve of cadaveric human hearts. The material for the present study comprised of 50 formalin-fixed adult human hearts (35 males and 15 females) which were obtained from the Department of Anatomy from various medical colleges in Maharashtra. Statistical significant difference was found for the height of anterior and posterior leaflets between male and female hearts. The length of the septal leaflet was also found to be statistically significant between male and female hearts. The study will be helpful for cardiac surgeons in providing data for tricuspid valve complex, leaflets, cords and papillary muscles.</p> Kirti Chaudhary, Amey Dhatrak, Brij Raj Singh, Ujwal Gajbe Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 30 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The spinal adjuvent - intrathecal nalbuphine as effective as intrathecal fentanyl <p>Opioids are favoured as adjuvants to local anaesthetics for spinal anaesthesia. The present study was aimed to compare the clinical efficiency of intrathecal nalbuphine with fentanyl as an adjuvant to 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine. 100 adult patients of either sex, ASA grade I and II, aged 18–60 years were randomized into two groups of 50 each to receive either fentanyl 25 μg (Group BF) or nalbuphine 500µg (Group BN) with 3 ml 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine, making drug volume to 3.5 ml in each group. Sensory and motor block characteristics, duration of analgesia, VAS score, haemodynamic and side effects were recorded. The sensorimotor characteristics were comparable and found no significant difference between the two groups, (P&gt;0.05). The time duration for adequate analgesia in group BN was 366.40 ± 37.32min, and in the group, BF was 361.39 ± 43.96min, (P= 0.567). In both, the groups, quality of analgesia during the procedure was excellent in a maximum number of patients (96% each group). Sedation score, hemodynamic and respiratory rate changes were comparable between the two groups. In group BF, 4 (8%) patients complained nausea/ vomiting, pruritus was observed in 2 (4%), intraoperative hypotension in 3 (6%) and bradycardia in 2 (4%) and post-dural puncture headache in 2 patient (4%). In group BN, only bradycardia was observed in 3 (6%) patients. Nalbuphine and fentanyl were found to be equally efficient, but nalbuphine had a lower side effect profile, readily available as it does not come under the Narcotic act. However, we suggest Nalbuphine-bupivacaine combination as a better alternative than fentanyl-bupivacaine combination.</p> Pratibha Deshmukh, Medha Sangawar, Nikita Dhumne, Vivek Chakole Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 30 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Location and Staging of Tumours in Patients of Gastric Carcinoma at a Tertiary Hospital <p>Cancer is also known as the captain of death for humanity. It ranks second only after heart disease leading to death worldwide. In India, the incidence of gastric cancer is considered low and variable in different parts of the world. Gastric carcinoma plays an essential role in determining its management also its location gives some idea about the etiopathogenesis; hence this study was undertaken to study the situation and staging of tumours in patients of gastric carcinoma. This was a prospective study in which 50 patients of gastric adenocarcinoma admitted in the department of surgery at a tertiary hospital were studied. Out of 50 patients studied, 36 were males, and 14 were females. Even though the mean age for male patients is slightly higher than female patients (62 versus 60), the most common location of the tumour was the antrum (88%) followed by the cardia (6%) while the body had just 4% of the tumours and 2% of the tumours were diffused. The most common stage for tumours was stage II (88%), followed by stage III (12%). There were no tumours in stage 1 and IV. Most patients were males who presented in early-stage II with antrum being the most common location of the tumour.</p> AvinashRinait, Yashwant Lamture R, Pulavarty Prateek, Dilip Gode Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 30 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Estimation of percent wound area reduction over a period of four weeks among diabetic foot ulcers <p>Foot ulcers are the most commonly experienced,fearful complications of diabetes which can frequently be life or limb-threatening.Several factors can lead to the occurrence of foot ulcers in diabetics.Prevention and proper management of DFUs are the prime most important in the care of patients with diabetes. It is essential to predictthe wound healingtime in managing the diabetic foot ulcers.The main objective of the study is to examine the reduction in wound area over four weeks in achieving more than 50 % Percentage Area Reduction (PAR) as a clinical outcome.Twowound irrigation methods were used for irrigating the wounds. Assessment of the wound area was done and comparedon achieving more than 50 % reduction in ulcer area at the end of four weeks. The studyused a descriptive comparative design with a control group. DiabeticFoot ulcerpatients (N = 160) from a private hospital were randomly allocated into 80 in each group (Neem solutionirrigation and Normal saline irrigation groups). In both groupsSurface area of the wound was measured using a disposable wound ruler with standard calibrations at baseline and then at the end of each week till four weeks are completed. Data were analyzed in SPSS20 software while considering p&lt; .05 as statistically significant.The mean Wound surface area of the Normal saline group was 18.41 at the end of the first week and 14.04 after four weeks verses 19.84. The above-quoted scores in the Neem solution irrigation group were 14.68 and 6.92, respectively, against 17.13(p &lt; .05).At the end of 4 weeks, the mean per cent reduction in area from baseline of DFUs irrigated with Neem solution was 72.4 % and with Normal saline was 48.7 %. Ulcers irrigated with neem solution had a 28.7 % greater mean reduction in area from baseline when compared with the normal saline control group at the end four weeks (p&lt;.05).</p> Jayalakshmi M Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 30 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A preliminary investigation of anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of various extracts of Vernonia anthelmintica in relation to the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease <p>The complexity of the underlying pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and substandard results of existing treatment, demands persistent research for the development of new therapeutics. As natural antioxidant has attracted considerable attention on this regards, the present study evaluated and validated antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase activity of Vernonia anthelmintica seeds. Different extracts were collected after sequential extraction of plant seeds by using pet ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water as solvents. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was tested by using superoxide, nitric oxide (NO) and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays, whereas, acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibition property was assessed by Ellman’s method. Results revealed that all the extracts produced some degree of both the activities in a concentration-dependent manner. While pet ether extract exhibited weakest, methanolic extract displayed potent radical scavenging and anti-cholinesterase properties in all the assays with IC<sub data-id="subscript-1">50</sub> of 159.71 μg/ml against AChE inhibition and 98.51, 120.22 and 170.79 μg/ml against superoxide, NO and DPPH radical scavenging assays respectively. Presence of an array of secondary metabolites with modest flavonoid and phenol content in the methanolic extract is accountable for these desired activities. Collectively, reports from our experiments covey that V. anthelmintica possess significant AChE inhibitory and antioxidant property and thus can be further evaluated in search of potential disease-modifying therapeutic for management of neurodegenerative diseases like AD.</p> Swati Som, Justin Antony, Palanisamy Dhanabal S, Sivasankaran Ponnusankar Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 30 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of diaphragmatic stretch technique on diaphragmatic excursion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease <p>Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable pulmonary disease that has extensive pulmonary and pathological adaptations. Few of these pathological changes are airway , persistent airflow limitation, finally leading to pulmonary hyperinflation. The diaphragm, which is the primary muscle of inspiration, is put through an excessive load due to the hyperinflation leading to its flattening, shortening and contraction at a mechanical disadvantage. These changes may lead to an increase in the work of breathing, a reduction in exercise tolerance and functional capacity, which makes it a potential target for therapeutic intervention. This single group and post-intervention study are aimed to find the effects of Diaphragmatic stretch technique on a diaphragmatic excursion in patients with mild or moderate COPD. The intervention was performed on the patients for two sets consisting of 10 breaths each with a 1-minute interval in between. The outcome measures recorded were diaphragmatic excursion and chest expansion which were taken before and immediately after the intervention. Results of the study showed a positive and statistically significant increase in the outcome measures following the intervention. The Diaphragmatic Stretch Technique has a considerable influence on patients with mild or moderate COPD without causing any or adverse effects.</p> Aishwarya Nair, Krishnaprasad K M, Gopala Krishna Alaparthi, Shyam Krishnan, Santhosh Rai Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 30 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Optimisation of growth conditions for maximum degradation of poly βhydroxyl butrate by two soil fungi <p>Poly β- hydroxyl butrate (PHB) is a polymer produced by bacteria and can be used safely in different modern application to replace biobased plastic which has adverse effects on the environments. This study is aimed to isolate some fungi for PHB degradation and optimise the growth conditions for maximum degradation. Contaminated soil samples were collected from the industrial area of Jeddah and used for fungal isolations. All fungal isolates were screened for PHB biodegradation on solid agar medium. Out of 20 isolates, 2 isolates were the most active in PHB degradation. They were identified as Trichoderma asperellum NM 6, and Aspergillus fumigates NM10 using morphological and molecular methods. The effects of some growth factors on growth and PHB degradation by the two isolated fungi were determined. Growth was measured by either CPV (ml) or dry weight (g/l) while PHB degradation was detected by depolymerase assay (U/ml). Presence of yeast extract (2.5 g/l) and glucose (1 g/l) enhanced both growth and PHB degradation by the two isolates. Similarly, adjusting medium pH at 7-7.5 and incubation at 25°C after for five days led to maximum growth and PHB degradation. The presence of PHB in growth medium enhanced both growth and PHB degradation and the maximum growth (CPV ml or dry weight (g/l) were in medium containing 0.5 g/l of PHB for both tested fungi. The maximum growth, measured by either CPV (ml) or dry weight (g/l), was in the medium that was inoculated with 10x10<sup data-id="superscript-1">6</sup> spore/ml for the two tested fungi. In conclusion, PHB degradation by the two tested fungi was similar. It was affected by the same physical and biochemical factors and optimisation of these conditions enhanced both growth and degradation process by the two tested fungi.</p> Magda M. Aly, Fardos M. Bokhari, Mona O. Albureikan, Nuha M. Alhazmi Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 30 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 In vitro assessment of natural extract as irrigant on root dentin microhardness <p>To determine the effect of a natural extract of of 2.5% concentration on the of root canal when used as an irrigating solution. This was an in comparative study where and twenty intact single-rooted teeth were selected and with a diamond bur to get an apical-coronal length of 10 mm and were randomly separated into three groups as per the used; Group 1 (control): Irrigation with Normal saline, Group 2: Irrigation with Smear Clear solution, Group 3: Irrigation with 2.5% extract solution. were prepared using Pro Taper Universal Rotary Files with intermittent irrigation with the respective irrigating solution. The teeth were then embedded in acrylic resin and subjected to Vicker's Hardness test, and the data obtained were analyzed using one way ANOVA. When Group 2(51.80±9.80 VHN and 52.66±5.28 VHN) was compared with Group 3(44.98±4.34 VHN and VHN) the values showed a statistically significant difference (p&lt; 0.05).When Group 3 (44.98±4.34 VHN and VHN) was compared with Group 1(65.37±8.80 VHN and 67.74±9.56 VHN), the values did show a statistically significant difference (p&gt; 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, teeth irrigated with normal saline showed the least reduction in followed by irrigation with leaf extract solution and Smear Clear.</p> Sneha Mali, Abhijeet Phase, Nootan Mali Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 31 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Micro spect in vivo bio-distribution study of azithromycin ophthalmic in situ gel <p>Azithromycin (AZT) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic and is found in ocular tissues when administered systemically. AZT inhibits RNA-dependent protein synthesis and hence has effective bactericidal capability against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are the primary causative organisms for bacterial infection. In situ ophthalmic gels are systems which undergo a sol-to-gel transformation when instilled in eyes. In situ gels overcome the shortcoming of ophthalmic drops as they get washed out and diluted due to tear fluid. The aim and objective of present study was to formulate in situ ophthalmic gelling systems of Azt and determine in vivo ocular residence time in rat eyes of Tc<sup data-id="superscript-1">99 </sup> labelled Azt by Micro SPECT. The in situ gel was formulated using Poloxamer 407, which is a temperature-induced gelling agent and HPMC K4M, which is known to increases mucosal adhesivity and enhance viscosity to facilitate sustained release of drug. The formulations developed were evaluated for pH, clarity, viscosity, gelling capacity and % drug release. The selected formulation was subjected to isotonicity and In Vivo Bio-distribution studies. Experimental studies on compatibility showed no interaction between polymers and AZT. AZT was found soluble in PB6.8. All formulations were found clear immediately after preparation and after sterilization &amp;amp; pH after gelation was satisfactorily in the range of 6 to 7. Viscosity and Gelation capacity of in situ gel increased with increase in polymer concentration. Formulations F2 showed desired results w.r.t viscosity, gelation capacity, drug release. In Vivo Biodistribution studies of Tc<sup data-id="superscript-2">99 </sup>labelled AZT by Micro SPECT showed there was a significant increase in ocular residence time of in situ gel when compared with Tc<sup data-id="superscript-3">99 </sup> labelled marketed solutions.</p> Manish Wani, Swati Jagdale, Vishal Bhujbal, Akshay Baheti, Ashwin Kuchekar Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 31 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of in vitro release kinetics of Capsaicin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles using DDSolver <p>The present aim is to evaluate the release profile and its release kinetics of encapsulated capsaicin from chitosan nanoparticles using the software DDSolver. The release study was performed by using a dialysis technique in PBS solutions with different pHs (1.2, 6.8 and 7.4) to mimics the different gastrointestinal tract and circulatory system pH ranges as a releasing medium. The nanoparticles were prepared using o/w emulsification and ionotropic gelation technique under optimal condition obtained from response surface methodology (RSM) design as described in our previous study. These nanoparticles were around 180 nm in average hydrodynamic size and encapsulation efficiency percentage around 70%, respectively. In vitro drug release study suggested that the chitosan nanoparticles can potentially use to controlled and sustained release of capsaicin over at least 96. The kinetic release analysis results by DDSolver software indicated that Weibull model was suggested to be the best dynamic models with highest R<sup data-id="superscript-1">2</sup><sub data-id="subscript-1">adjusted</sub> and model selection criteria (MSC) and lowest Akaike information criterion (AIC), respectively, for capsaicin loaded chitosan nanoparticles. The release mechanism of capsaicin from nanoparticles was found to be Fickian diffusion. The results suggest that the chitosan nanoparticles can be applied for the controlled and sustained release of capsaicin in the gastrointestinal tract and circulatory system.</p> Narissara Kulpreechanan, Feuangthit Niyamissara Sorasitthiyanukarn Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 31 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), Oxidative Stress and its role In HIV Infection <p>Throughout several regular cell cycles, reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role. When ROS values are high, and when the defence mechanism (antioxidants) cannot neutralise, they harm and modify the part of biological molecules. They also act as signalling molecules which generate a spectrum of disease.In this study, we reviewed existing oxidants, oxidative stress, and their relationship with infection by human immunodeficiency virus in patients, and the effects of oxidative stress in patients with HIV.Our prospect is to do a clinical study on HIV patients and estimate oxidative parameters like nitric oxide, total antioxidant level and correlate them with CD4 count and viral load which may be helpful during monitoring and giving efficient ART to the HIV patients. And also the importance of ROS in infection has been established through clinical and in vitro studies. Here we review the role of oxidative stress in HIV pathogenesis, the impact of ROS on immune responses in HIV patients, and ROS-mediated regulation of HIV infection. Future studies on the interplay between ROS and HIV infection may offer a new strategy for prevention and treatment.</p> Sunita S Patil, Vaishali S Patil, Arvind Gulbake Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 31 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 “Pharmaco-chemical Characterization and Evaluation of In Vitro Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activity of Ethanolic Flower Extract of Clerodendrum paniculatum” <p>Quantitative and qualitative analysis of different components and antioxidant and activities of the extract of flower (CPF) were analyzed in . identification of of flower was also identified by GC-MS analysis. assess the biochemical features of CPF. solvent extraction of CPF was performed using solvents in increasing order of polarity (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water) and solvent with maximum profile was standardized for further analysis. Quantitative analysis of selected secondary metabolites like tannin, , alkaloids, and of the flower extract was done by UV . In antioxidant assays and in efficacy of the flower extract were analyzed by respective in assays. identification of in CPF was identified by using GC-MS analysis revealed secondary metabolites in the extract, and further analysis of the extract was performed. Quantitative estimation revealed an accountable amount of secondary metabolites like (47.66mg/g acid equivalent), (24mg/g equivalent), (41mg/g equivalent), and alkaloids (1.79mg/g of extracted plant material). analysis (GC-MS) also confirmed convincing compounds in the extract. From in antioxidant and assay, the IC<sub data-id="subscript-1">50</sub> value of the extract of CPF was measured and compared with standard, and from the results, it was evident that the extract had significant in antioxidant and activity. the above results, it can be confirmed thatCPF has got significant and therapeutically active ingredients, as evident in analysis. This is further supported by considerable antioxidant and properties observed in respective assays.</p> Sincy Varghese, Kanakasabapathi Devaki, Poornima Kannappan, Sri Rashmy Madathil Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 31 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The UV light effects on pectinase production of Pantoea sp. bacteria <p>The highest pectinase producing isolate A3 out of forty isolates of Pantoea sp. bacteria was subjected to physical effects by using UV light to change in their ability for producing of pectinase, the results appeared increasing their activity and production in some of the mutants more than wild type bacteria, the increase was ranged between 14 to 20% in specific activity between bacterial mutants compared with wild type bacteria. Also, the two highest enzyme-producing isolates were tested for their susceptibility against a group of antibiotics (Rifampin 50mcg, Imipenem 10mcg, Vancomycin 30mcg, Amoxicillin 25mcg, Chloramphenicol 30mcg, Trimethoprim 5mcg, Nitrofurantoin 100mcg, Nalidixic acid 30mcg), results appeared different susceptibilities ranged between resist for amoxicillin,and Nalidixic acid, and sensitive for other antibiotics. The susceptibilities of studied bacteria to some antibiotics were different between resist and sensitive, which considered an indicator of dangerous to human life. The study was aimed to increase the ability of these isolate in producing this enzyme which plays an essential role in different industries in food, cosmetics manufacturing and scientific research, besides, their ability in resisting some of the common antibiotics to confirm the transferring of genetic materials between bacteria that isolated from soil samples, which is considered crucial in the microbial genetics. The study appeared there were apparent effects on the genes that responsible for enzyme production either for increase or decrease their activity and creation of an enzyme, which belong to using physical effects to improvement these feature in bacteria.</p> Mohmmed Lefta Atala Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 31 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nitrate Reductase Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Characterization <p>Nanoparticles of enzyme Nitrate reductase (NaR) a soluble homodimer enzyme of ∼100 kDa polypeptide with cofactors – FAD, heme-molybdopterin (Mo-MPT) and electron donor NAD(P)H, catalyses the reduction of nitrate to nitrite has been synthesised. Nanoparticles of Nitrate reductase enzyme have been prepared by chemical desolvation method including glutaraldehyde cross-linking to form the nanoaggregate. Characterisation of NaR nanoparticles has been made by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), UV-Visible Spectroscopy and by electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopic Study (EIS). TEM study revealed the size of globular aggregated was in the range of 20–30 nm. UV Visible spectroscopic studies depicted that the absorption of NaR NPS is much higher at 560 nm than that of the free enzyme, which showed maximum absorption at 540 nm. NaR NPs aggregates formed were more active, highly stable, have a higher shelf life and can be reused repeatedly. Enzyme nanoparticles with 10-100 nm dimensions and exhibit unique physical, chemical and catalytic properties due to increased surface area. Nitrate reductase nanoparticles can be used as a biochemical tool to increase protein production and grain yield by promoting amino acids production in plants. The synthesised NaR NPs are used in the fabrication of enzyme-based nanosensor in the detection of nitrates in drinking water and serum samples.</p> Shelly, Minakshi Sharma Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of different doses of Tamoxifen Drug on kidney of Albino male rats: Histopathological and biochemical study <p>The Tamoxifen (TAM) is an effective anticancer drug; it is a hormonal treatment against estrogen necessary for the growth of cancer cells. The study was conducted to estimate the effects of TAM on some physiological and histological parameters. We used for 40 rats of the strain albino rat [Rattus norvegicus] divided into four groups. A total of three groups were given different TAM doses (30, 40, 50mg/kg) of the body weight four times a week during 10 weeks period. The control group was injected with physiological solution (Normal Saline 0.9%). At the end of dosage duration, the blood was collected for some biochemical parameters (kidney functions) investigation. The test results showed significant differences in the treated groups as three groups revealed a significant increase in Urea, Uric Acid, Creatinine levels. The kidney tissues histopathological examination of in the TAM groups showed histological changes which increased in accordance with elevated doses administration in comparison with the control group. The histological changes were inflammatory cells infiltration, blood congestion, pyknic and necrotic nucleus in glomerulus with massive degeneration in epithelial of renal tubules, and deformed of architecture of renal tissue. In addition, massive infiltration of mononucleosis adjacent dilated blood vessels with hemorrhage in tubule and necrosis of tubules that exhibited pyknic and necrotic nucleus in glomerulus as well. As well as the exhibited small granulomatous lesion with large dilated of blood vessels and necrotic tubules with great granulomatous trauma containing from accumulation of macrophages and lymphocytes with vacuolar degeneration of tubules and massive necrotic of glomerulus with thickness of bowman capsule.</p> Abed H. Baraaj, Aqeel H. Qasim Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of Embelia tsjeriam-cottam (Roem. & Schult.) A. DC. in Calcium Chelation <p>Embelia tsjeriam-cottam A. DC., commonly known as Vaividang, belongs to the family Myrsinaceae. Embelin, obtained from E. tsjeriam-cottam (an alternative source to Embelia ribes), is having diverse biological activities and used as anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer and antioxidant. The present study aims to investigate the efficacy of Embelia tsjeriam-cottam fruit extract to chelate calcium under in vitro conditions. The findings of the study point to the possibility of using Embelia tsjeriam-cottam fruit extract as herbal calcium chelator, a substitute to EDTA. Embelia tsjeriam-cottam fresh fruits were shade dried and powdered. Fruit extract was prepared in 90 per cent ethanol by cold extraction method. Approximately 0.5 M CaCl<sub data-id="subscript-1">2</sub>.2H<sub data-id="subscript-2">2</sub>O solution was combined with 50 ml of an appropriately diluted fruit extract. The mixture was kept undisturbed for 24 hours under ambient temperature. After the incubation period, the mixture was centrifuged at ambient temperature at 4500 rpm for 15 min. The centrifugate was used for estimating leftover calcium ions. Calcium ions present in centrifugates was determined using complexometric titration with standardised EDTA solution as the titrant. Excess EDTA is challenging for the kidneys to eliminate and can even lead to kidney failure in extreme cases. It is evident that Embelia tsjeriam-cottam,has strong Ca2+ chelating properties, can be used as an alternative to EDTA in chelation therapy treatments.</p> Sebastian A, Jomit T. Mathew, Tojo Jose, George K V, Antony V T Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Influence of Aloe Vera Juice on Lipid Profile at Prediabetes Patient in East Pontianak Primary Health Care Center, Indonesia <p>Aloe is a medicinal plant in Indonesia, which is often used as traditional medicine. The purpose of this study was to find out the influence of Aloe juice administration on changes in lipid profile (HDL, LDL, Triglycerides) in East Pontianak Primary Health Care Center. This study used quasi-experimental. This study used sampling on 36 people in 2 groups. In the treatment group, there was Aloe juice administration of 250 ml/day for 15 days while in the control group there was no Aloe juice administration. HDL level in the intervention group had an increase of 14.89 mg/ whereas in the control group had an increase of 1.22 mg/, where there was no significant difference between the intervention group and control group (p&amp;gt; 0.05), LDL level in the intervention group had a decrease of 10.56 mg/ while the control group had a decrease of 5.94 mg/ where there was no significant difference between the intervention group and the control group (p&amp;gt; 0.05) and triglyceride level in the intervention group had a decrease of 8.78 mg/ whereas in the control group had a decrease of 3.50 mg/ where there was no significant difference between the intervention group and the control group (p&amp;gt; 0.05) which means intervention group and control group had no significant differences. The mean HDL level had an increase while the LDL level and triglyceride level had a decrease.</p> Muhammad Faisal, Rahayu Indriasari, Meta Mahendradatta, Rukman Abdullah, Masrianih, Bohari Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of endothelins and matrix metalloproteinases in various pathological disorders and their antagonism at a better treatment modality in modern medicine <p>Chronic disorders or diseases like hypertension, diabetes-mellitus, cancer, heart failure, pulmonary hypertension are becoming more prevalent nowadays even at a younger age. Various methods have been introduced to determine several diseases out of which the concept of measurement of endothelins and matrix metalloproteinases and the usage of endothelin receptor antagonist as a way of treatment either singly or combinedly with other drugs has achieved more importance. By the usage of serum matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and endothelins we can determine the people who are at risk of developing hypertension, type2 diabetes, heart failure, atherosclerosis, cancer, pulmonary hypertension and can also assess the range of complications that are going to occur in the individual. These elevated levels cause remodelling after a period of time. Hence, the detection is done through a method in which few factors like endothelins and MMPs of our body are measured through a blood sample, maximum benefits can be obtained in individuals who have a significant family history of developing hypertension and other conditions In this review we have discussed about various effects of endothelins in different conditions, and also to know if these conditions can be improved or not by using endothelin receptor antagonists.</p> Patta Prashant, Ramu Gogisetty, Vyshnavi Tallapaneni, Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Estimation of Heavy Metals in Selected Medicinal Herbs <p>Worldwide nearly 80% of peoples are using the medicinal plants for basic illness due to the presence of primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, minerals and inorganic salts. Some Inorganic minerals available in plants are useful for health and have therapeutic value and some heavy metals are dangerous for health and may cause damage to internal organs. In view of that, the present study designed to quantitatively evaluate the presence of inorganic minerals like Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc and Copper and heavy metal like Mercury, Arsenic, Lead, Cadmium, Selenium, Cobalt and Chromium in selected medicinal herbs using Flame photometric method and tomic absorption method There is a limitation for the presence of heavy metals in herbal drugs, The distributions of these metals are not uniform all areas, so before using for formulation development all herbs should be taken for the estimation of heavy metals. In this study an attempt to estimate the inorganic elements and heavy metals present in some of the important medicinal plants like Moringa oleifera Lam, Achyranthes aspera Linn, Scoparia dulcisLinn, Achyranthes aspera Linn. Castus pictus Linn, are mostly used in traditional medicines. Based on the analysis, the result shows the minerals like Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc and Copper were present in considerable quantity e and heavy metals like Mercury, Arsenic, Lead, Cadmium, Selenium, Cobalt and Chromium were within the limit as per WHO standard values. ed plants are containing heavy metals were within the limit as per WHO standard. Further these medicinal plants can use for new herbal formulations.</p> Ida Christi V E, Krishnaprabha C, Blesson Sha Fogarty N I, Sangilimuthu A, Kumutha D Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluate the Potency of Misoprostol for Management of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Maternal Women <p>The present study to investigate the extent of use of misoprostol in postpartum hemorrhage. To evaluate the knowledge of prevention and treatment of managing PPH among health care providers. To educate the pregnant women and midwives on the treatment approaches for PPH. The present study was conducted in RVS Institute of Medical Sciences, Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh. In the wards of obstetrics and gynecology, especially in the postnatal ward. The materials required for the study are collected from the gynecology and obstetrics department of the hospital included in the study. The study details with all the details of aim, objective, methodology, inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria, expected outcome have been submitted to the ethical committee, and after getting a positive opinion from the institution ethics committee(IEC) towards the study, the work has been started. The study included about 316 maternal women. All the women included in the study have been administered with Misoprostol after giving birth to the neonate to prevent the occurrence of atonic PPH, which is the most widely seen complication resulting in birth of maternal women.The common side effects observed in the maternal women were vomiting, which was reported in 27 women out of 316 women. Diarrhea was reported in 12 women out of all study population. Shivering was accounted in 167 women, thus, shivering is the major side effect noted with administration of misoprostol. One women was reported with an elevated diastolic blood pressure of &amp;gt;100 mm of Hg out of 316 women. Manual removal of placenta was necessitated in 19 women. Misoprostol was administered in all the women (n = 316) after 4- 5 hours of delivery. However, it’s needed to increase the mandatory guidelines for management of various complications accounted during delivery to prevent maternal mortality rate.</p> Shaheedha S M, Hemalatha S, Ramakrishna Borra Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Folic Acid And Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Anemic Adolescents <p>Adolescents may enjoy nourishment trends, macrobiotic weight control plans and semi-starvation regimens in calories, nutrients and minerals. Protein need in a juvenile for every unit body weight is higher than that of grown-up; however, not exactly a quickly developing newborn child. Adolescence has higher nutrient and mineral needs contrasted and individuals all things considered other life stages. A community-based cross-sectional study of 200 school going anaemic adolescents of age group 10 – 19 years. A predesigned semi-organized survey was readied dependent on the audit of writing on Adolescent iron deficiency. The study included 200 anaemic adolescents belonging to two schools, 89 were males, and 111 were females. Male: female ratio was 1.25:1. Among a total of 200 participants, 122 anaemic adolescents belonged to early adolescence. The mean age of anaemic adolescent participants of this study was 13.19 years with a standard deviation of 1.23. among the participants, 137 anaemic adolescents took a vegetarian diet, and 63 anaemic adolescents took a mixed diet. There were three participants underweight according to BMI classification, and 190 had normal range of BMI, 132 adolescents had moderate anaemia (Hb- 8.0 to 10.9 ). Majority of 66.5%(133/200) had Vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia, 72.5%(145/200) had folic acid deficiency anaemia, and 58.5% (117/200) had combined Vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency anaemia. Prevalence of anaemia in adolescent is a significant public health concern. Supplementation with not only iron and folic acid but also Vitamin B12 may be need of the day. Besides supplementation adequate education regarding quality food, cooking practices and health education is also necessary to be emphasized in adolescents.</p> Mayank Jain, Girish Ganesh Joag, Kshirsagar V Y Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Analysis of Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis Utilizing Azelastine and Fluticasone <p>The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of topical therapy in patients with allergic rhinitis by fluticasone propionate as well as corticosteroid propionate in conjunction with fluticasone propionate alone. The study aims to evaluate the efficacy of topical treatment on people with Allergic Rhinits (AR). The medicines propionate fluticasone and antihistamine corticosteroids and propionate fluticasone alone were administered to patients with allergic rhinitis. AR was tested. A comparison of the effectiveness of topical treatment with Azelastine of fluticasone propionate and Fluticasone to suppress Allergic Rhinitis symptoms was assessed. Significant disruptions in the quality of living, health as well as function are linked with potentially severe allergic rhinitis. The most prevalent form of recurrent rhinitis is allergic rhinitis, impacting between 10 and 20% of the world population. Statistics show that there is an exponential increase in this condition. The common signs of human rhinorrhea, sneezing, coughing, respiratory inflammation, vomiting and weeping of skin, palatal scratching and ear coughing are considerably higher(* P=.001). The average symptom value (84,14 per cent) was significantly minimised during the test by Fluticasone propionate nasal spray. The intensity of complication decreased substantially by the administration of fluticasone propionate + azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray often functions (91.16 per cent). A mixture of Fluticasone propionate and Azelastine hydrochloride is better than Fluticasone propionate nasal spray to relieve the reactions of Allergic Rhinitis.</p> Raisha Dalvi, Abhay D Havle Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Automatic Segmentation of Lung Cancer Using Fuzzy K-Means Algorithm <p>Treating malignant growth in the beginning times gives greater treatment choices, less intrusive medical procedure and expands the endurance rate. Finding lung disease just as liver malignancy at a beginning period is a difficult assignment since there are hardly any manifestations right now larger part of the cases are analyzed in later stages. In this paper, an augmented method of segmentation is proposed using the Fuzzy K-means algorithm to observe the initial stage of lung cancer from the human chest X-Ray images. Initially, the investigator used strategies like Histogram Equalization for image improvement, Watershed technique for segmentation and Edge detection for Extraction, etc. Existing Approaches decline to provide certainty in a problem-solving time operation. The datasets are collected from LIDC-IDRI and Kaggle. In this, 100 training dataset input images are taken for training the model: 80 Cancerous images and 20 non-cancerous images. To evaluate the data 20 images are taken. The detection means classifying tumour into three classes (i) non-cancerous tumour, (ii) Less affected tumour (iii) Highly affected tumour. Hence, a new technique to detect lung carcinoma nodules using median filters, Fuzzy K-means clustering for segmentation and SVM (Support Vector Machine) as the classifier is planned on this work. Hence, this way is profitable to the medical instruments producing industries and additionally guide the radiologist for the early analysis of cancer.</p> Umamaheswari S, Bakiyalakshmi R, Stuti Joshi, Swapneel Chowdhury, Vibhor Kumar Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical evaluation, HPTLC analysis and in-vitro antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Grewia hirsuta collected from Western Ghats forest <p>In-vitro antioxidant action of hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Grewia hirsuta (HAEGH) has been examined using one, “1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free from radical scavenging” actions. The plant collected from the forest of the Western Ghats region of Karnataka province. The motive for plant collection from a specific location is the plant of forests exhibits the variation in growth, quantity, and quality of their active ingredients and secondary metabolites due to influence ecological factors like effect changes in location, soil, climate, etc. The work corresponds to preliminary phytochemical investigation for diverse phytoconstituents and quantitative phytochemical analysis of total phenolic, flavonoids &amp;amp; alkaloids content (TPC, TFC &amp;amp; TAC respectively) was evaluated with advanced methods. “HPTLC (High performance thin-layer” chromatography) fingerprint investigation was achieved for qualitative determination of the likely number of elements present in the hydroalcoholic extract. In-vitro antioxidant activity of HAEGH has been determined through hydroxyl radical scavenging assay that exhibited strong dose-dependent antioxidant activity as compared with standards compound, ascorbic acid. The IC50 value of HAEGH found, 25.90 % inhibition and for ascorbic acid, it was 17.68%. The Preliminary phytochemical estimation found presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, phenol, proteins, diterpins and quantitative phytochemical analysis estimation of TPC, TFC &amp;amp; TAC found to be 3.627%, 4.059% &amp;amp; 5.671% respectively. HPTLC analysis of HAEGH at 354nm reveals the presence of a compound with Rf value 0.44 compare with Rf value 0.46 of quercetin. These outcomes indicated that the hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Grewia hirsuta plant contains phytoconstituents that exhibit antioxidant activity possible because of the existence of bioactive compounds.</p> Dattatraya Kature, Gaurav Gupta, Ritu Gilotra Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 RP-HPLC-DAD determination and quantification of Quercetin and Luteolin in plant extracts of Merremia aegyptia and Merremia dissecta <p>Medicinal plants produce various useful metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins etc those are widely used for the preparation of various pharmaceutical products, or as food additives. A simple and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) seperation method has been developed for determination and quantification of the flavonoids, quercetin and luteolin simultaneously, from methanolic extracts of Merremia aegyptia and Merremia dissecta after optimization of extracting solvent and chromatographic conditions through HPLC coupled to a Diode Array Detector(DAD). HPLC analysis estimated contents of the quercetin to be 20 ng/µl in M. aegyptia stem and 13.2 ng/ µl in M. dissecta callus whereas luteolin was found to be 0.4 mg/ml in M. dissecta callus. From the previous published literature, it appears that this is the first report of quantification of these flavonoid compounds as they have not been reported earlier in both the species under study.</p> Ridhi Joshi, Rishikesh Meena, Preeti Mishra, Vidya Patni Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Antioxidant activity and Phenolic contents of Kinnow mandarin leaf extracts <p>Kinnow mandarin is a major citrus fruit crop in India. This study was designed to evaluate Total Phenol content (TPC), Total Flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity of vegetative and fruit associated leaves extracts of Kinnow at three different times of the year. The results revealed variation in all three parameters chosen: total phenol, flavonoid content as well as antioxidant capacity between vegetative and fruit associated leaves and during different time periods of the study.The TPC and TFC were highest for fruit associated leaf phase II (9.49 ± 0.075 GAE /g dw and 7.74 ± 0.125 QE mg /g dw respectively) whereas antioxidant activity 31.49 ± 0.025 mg AA/g dw was highest for fruit associated leaves phase I extracts. The TPC,TFC and DPPH free radical scavenging activity among the leaf extracts of Kinnow indicated that some non- phenolic components also contributed to the total antioxidant activity in Kinnow leaves extracts examined in the present investigation. To the best of our information, this is the first experiment presenting comprehensive data on TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity for Kinnow leaf extracts. The study further envisaged that the Kinnow leaves may be important sources of antioxidant for food and pharmaceutical industries.</p> Rajat Bhola, Ramesh Joshi Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Isoflavones Protective Mechanisms Against Cardiovascular Diseases <p>Isoflavones are polyphenolic compounds and a class of phytoestrogens naturally present in plants belongs to legume family and also quantified in fruits, vegetables and beverages.Soybean is rich source of isoflavones. Their chemical structure is similar to endogenously available female reproductive hormonal substance estradiol,and cellular targets are estrogen receptors. After bind to the estrogen receptors isoflavones exert estrogenic and anti-estrogenic action based upon circulatory levels of estradiol. Cardiovascular diseases are leading cause of death in most of the developing countries and they may occur due to the structural and functional changes in either cardiac muscle or smooth muscle of the vasculature and both. Common cardiac diseases are heart attack, coronary heart disease, hyperlipidaemia, angina pectoris, hypertension. Many epidemiological studies data revealing that consumption of soy protein and soy enriched diet correlate with preventive chances of cardiovascular disease. The United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and other countries declared that everyday consumption of food enriched soy along with low fat may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease. In this review we attempt the mechanism based cardioprotection of isoflavones in different cardiovascular diseases.</p> Vadivelan Ramachandran, Raju Bairi, Kalirajan Rajagopal, Manogaran Elumalai Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Wound and its Management – An Ayurvedic perspective <p>Shalya Tantra is a significant branch of Ayurveda. The name of the sage-physician Susruta is well known in the field of surgery. Many surgical and para-surgical techniques have been described for the management of various diseases. Vrana is one of them which have been managed by a human being from starting of civilization. Under the circumstances, the first thing which the man came across was the injury from different sources which was causing Vrana (wound). The wound is very common in both developed and developing countries. It is a breach in the normal tissue continuum, resulting in a variety of cellular &amp;amp; molecular sequel. A wound is a major health problem because the incidence of severe complications is high &amp;amp; financial resources are limited. Vrana is an important chapter of Shalya Tantra due to its involvement in many surgical conditions. This, phenomena of Vrana is not only limited to the cutaneous lesion but may also extend up to muscles blood vessels, ligaments, bones, joints, visceral organs and other vital parts of the body. The diagnostic criterion has been dealt in a very detailed manner by Acharya Susruth. In this article, efforts have been made to throw light on the pathology of Vrana, its classification, diagnosis, and it’s healing.</p> Supriya Gupta, Kothainayagi B, Neeraj Kumar Gupta, Anupam Sharma Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Validating the properties of Ranunculus sceleratus Linn. by performing spectroscopic techniques and modern chromatography <p>Ranunculus sceleratus Linn. is one of the well-known medicinal plants, being used from the ancient time in India and commonly called as “Jal dhaniya”. It belongs to Ranunculaceae family derived from two Latin Words “Rana” means frog and “unculus” means little and referred together as “little frog” and also species sceleratus for cursed. It is an aquatic perennial herb. It consists of a herbaceous hollow stem, firm tap root, branched rhizome and leaves having a smooth upper side. The green plant is toxic for livestock and uncomfortable to human skin. This plant can grow up to 0.60 m tall, and also used as a food, medicine and possess other uses. Ranunculus sceleratus Linn. is commonly spread in the temperate and cold region in Global distribution (Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Sri Lanka and India). According to Bentham and Hooker classification “Genera Plantarum”, this plant belongs to the division Polypetale of Dicotyledones which processes more than 600 species. The Phytochemical screening was performed according to API norms, in addition to this UV VIS, FTIR, TLC and HPLC test were also carried out for further validation. The spectroscopy and chromatography examination revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenols and various other Phytoconstituents in Ranunculus sceleratus Linn. The spectroscopy and chromatography validation can help us it for medicinal and commercial purposes.</p> Madhulika, Dwivedi K N, Sangeeta Gehlot Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Fruit Formulation Mediated Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles <p>To determine the free radical scavenging activity of fruit formulation mediated zinc oxide nanoparticle. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are widely known for their antimicrobial agent, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, antioxidant and optic properties. Oxidative degradation of lipids, proteins, food and cosmetics involves a radical-chain reaction with release of free radicals. These free radicals are extremely reactive and can even attack relatively stable molecules like the DNA bases. With a recent rise in diseases associated with increased oxidative stress, a good antioxidant seems to be the need of the hour. Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Punica granatum and Elettaria cardamomum extract. Characterisation of the nanoparticles using UV–Visible spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscope. It is followed by the DPPH radical scavenging assay to determine the antioxidant activity. With an increase in the concentration of zinc oxide nanoparticles, there was an increase in the percentage of inhibition. When compared to the standard, the zinc oxide nanoparticles showed increased antioxidant activity even in small concentrations. Punica granatum and Elettaria cardamomum mediated Zinc oxide nanoparticles showed considerable antioxidant property even in small quantity when compared with standard vitamin C. Further studies need to be carried out to check for its potency as a prophylactic agent.</p> Tahoora Taskeen. L, Hannah R, Rajeshkumar S Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemicals Analysis and Antimicrobial activity of leaf and stem of Ipomoea staphylina Roem. & Schult <p>Ipomoea staphylina Roem. &amp;amp; Schult.A plant belonging to Convolvulaceae is commonly found on hedges and bushes in the forests and wastelands. It is a perennial, woody and glabrous shrub with pink flowers. Traditionally Ipomoea staphylina is used for respiratory disorders. Traditionally genus Ipomoea is used as purgative, dyspepsia, anthelmintic, bronchitis. Medicinal plants are the primary sources of medicines in Ayurvedha, Siddha, and Folk medicine systems. In India, about 95% of all modern drugs are derived from medicinal plants and very likely most of these medicines are used by people to cure many ailments. The Ayurvedic literature Sarangdhar Samhita&amp;quot; highlighted the concept of polyherbalism to achieve greater therapeutic efficacy. The active phytochemical constituents of individual plants are insufficient to meet the desirable therapeutic effects.When combining the multiple herbs in a particular ratio, it will give a better therapeutic effect and reduce the toxicity. Most of them are active even at a low dose and safe at a high dose. Thus they have superior risk to benefit ratio. Based on this the present study deals with physicochemical, phytochemical studies such as and biochemical estimation of medicinal plant of a combined mixture of polyherbal Ipomoea staphylina., also study evaluates the ethanol and methanol extracts of leaf and stem for their preliminary phytochemical analysis, antibacterial and antifungal activity. In the study of the phytochemical analysis reveals the presence of carbohydrate, protein, flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids. The Ipomoea staphylina of ethanolic leaf and stem extract showed potent antimicrobial activity in all the tested concentrations against E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger.Ipomoea staphylina could be exploited as a valuable source of antibacterial agent enriching with known antimicrobial compounds. Further studies needed for future drug development to treat various infectious diseases by microbes.</p> Niranjan M H, Prabhurajeshwar Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 08 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Chemical constituents and anti Helicobacter pylori effect of ethyl acetate fraction from Sanchezia nobilis Hook.F <p>The leaves of Sanchezia Nobilis Hook. F grown in Vietnam are extracted with ethanol then distilled for ethanol retrievement under low pressure. The ethanol concentrate was shaken with n-hexane, then stirred with ethyl acetate and concentrated fractions were obtained. From the high ethyl acetate fraction, four compounds were isolated by normal phase and reversed-phase column chromatography. Their structures were determined by spectral analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques (1H, 13C, DEPT, COZY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY), High Resolution - Electrochewmical Ionization - Mass Spectroscopy (HR-ESI-MS), and identified by comparing with the recorded data. Among the isolated compounds, compound 2 (13-O-acetylfawcettimine) was first time isolated from nature; and mixture 1 (Fawcettidin), 3 (Apigenin) and 4 (Kaempferol) were first time isolated from the Sanchezia genus. The high ethyl acetate fraction of Sanchezia Nobilis Hook. F leaves were then evaluated for the anti-Helicobacter pylori (anti-HP) effect by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration method (MIC), which showed a good inhibitory, dose−dependent effect on Helicobacter pylori. The ethyl acetate fraction at 1/8 dilution showed a complete inhibitory effect on Helicobacter pylori for as long as 24 hours. At 1/128 dilution, the fraction only showed good results on inhibition after 24 hours.</p> Xuan Bui Thi, Loi Vu Duc, Duong Le Hong, Ngoc Tran Minh Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 08 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relation of Body mass index to Heart rate variability in female medical students <p>Heart rate variability (HRV) is a simple non-invasive, sensitive measure to evaluate autonomic system activity. Sympathovagal imbalance can explain increased incidence of sudden cardiac deaths associated with increased Body Mass Index (BMI). Understanding the mechanism that connects obesity and autonomic nervous system (ANS) functions is important because increasing obesity prevalence documented among men and women of all ages. The aim of the study is to assess the relationship of body mass index to heart rate variability in young females. In this study, 90 healthy female students, aged between 17-22 years were included. After calculating the BMI, subjects were divided into three groups. HRV was recorded for 5 min using INCO-NIVIQURE DIGITAL ACQUISITION SYSTEM VER.52.0. Low frequency (LF) component, high frequency (HF) component and LF:HF ratio were recorded and the relation between BMI, HF, LF and LF:HF ratio were analysed using ANOVA test. In this study, LF:HF ratio in overweight females was found to be high and parasympathetic was decrease when compared to normal weight and underweight females. Raised BMI is associated with reduced HRV, which correlates with decreased parasympathetic activity and sympathovagal imbalance, thus increases the chances of cardiac autonomic dysfunction and eventually leading to cardiovascular disease in overweight female.</p> Adlin. K. Kazia, Sangeetha A, Mahammad Rafi V, Prem Kumar S, Vishnuprasaath S, Vijayalakshmi B Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 08 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using citrus sinensis peel extract and their application as antibacterial agent <p>Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) have attracted huge importance due to their distinctive chemical, biological and physical properties. Silver nanoparticles are widely synthesized by the chemical method, which involves the use of toxic chemicals which affects its applications. The bio-reduction method, in comparison with chemical method is more economic and eco-friendly. In the present work, the bio-based production of Ag-NPs was done by using peel extract of orange (citrus sinensis), which played a role of reducing and stabilizing agent. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was optimized by one factor at a time (OFAT) with respect to peel extract concentration, silver nitrate concentration and reaction temperature. The green synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transforms infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Disk diffusion method was used for the study of antibacterial activity of the bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles against the bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results showed that at a peel extract concentration of 6%, the temperature of 60<sup data-id="superscript-1">o</sup>C and silver nitrate concentration of 0.1M, the synthesis of Ag-NPs was effective. The orange peel synthesized Ag-NPs showed effective antibacterial activity against both bacteria. However better activity was observed against bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. The results confirmed the synthesis of Ag-NPs using peel extract of citrus sinensis and its role as antibacterial agent.</p> Sharanappa A, Anil R. Shet, Laxmikant R. Patil, Veeresh S. Hombalimath, Santosh Kadapure Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 08 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in treatment of non-resectable hepatocellular carcinoma: comparative study between conventional TACE and drug eluting bead TACE <p>To compare tumour response and complications of conventional TACE with lipidol versus DEB-TACE in the treatment of non-resectable HCC.Prospective non randomized comparative clinical trial was performed for patients receiving TACE at interventional radiology unit in Radiodiagnosis department in Zagazig university hospitals. Forty patients were included in this study, 16 patients were treated with drug eluting beads TACE and 24 patients were treated with conventional TACE.Follow up triphasic CT was performed 1 month after the procedure, we found that complete response was 6 cases (25 %) in c TACE group, and 4 cases (25%) in drug eluting bead TACE group, Partial response was achieved in 11 cases (45.8%) in c TACE group, and in 8 cases (50 %) in DEBs-TACE group, Cases with stable disease were 5 cases (20.8%) in c TACE group, and it was 3 cases (18.7%) in DEBs-TACE group, progressive disease is noted in two cases (8.3 %) in c TACE group, and one case (6.2 %) in drug eluting TACE group. Complications were as follow: 18 cases (75%) with abdominal pain in c TACE group, and 6 cases (37.5%) with abdominal pain in DEBs-TACE group, Nausea and vomiting were noted in 13 cases (54.17%) in c TACE group and in 3 cases (18.75%)in DEBs TACE group, Alopecia was noted in 8 cases (33.3 %) in c TACE group and in one case (6.25%) in DEBs TACE group.There were no significant differences between two groups regarding tumour response after 1 month. Almost all complications were significantly lower in DEBs-TACE group than in c TACE group, especially with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and alopecia. Abbreviations: c TACE: conventional trans-arterial chemoembolization, DEB TACE: drug eluting beads trans-arterial chemoembolization, HCC: hepatocellular carcinoma, CR: complete response, PR: partial response, SD: stable disease, PD: progressive disease.</p> Amgad M.Elsheikh, Mohamed I.Teama, Afify F. Afify, Mohamed H.Abowarda, Hosam N.Almassry Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 08 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Concept of infectious diseases in Ayurveda <p>COVID-19, a disease caused by SARS-Cov-2 virus, has become pandemic and is spreading widely across the world, and resulted in deaths of millions in just few months. Statistically, it is noted that worldwide deaths has occurred due to outbreak of infectious diseases. There is list of epidemics caused by infectious diseases like Ebola, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), swine flu, bird flu, etc. But, spread of COVID-19 is much more remarkable in very short period of time. Modern system of medicine, do not have any definitive management. Now, we need to think about other systems of medicine to break this chain. So in Ayurvedic perspective, the COVID-19 can be considered as Aupasargika/ AgantujaVyadhi (Infectious disease). Present study aims to understand the principles of Ayurveda, in view of concept, epidemiology, etiopathology, prognosis, prevention and management of infectious diseases. It comprises of probable approaches of infectious diseases through Ayurveda. References established on data pertaining to available in Ayurveda classics, modern texts, peer review journals regarding the same. The speedily spread of COVID-19 is due to indulgence in the etiological factors, by people of this era. The onset period of this pandemic wasVasantaRutu(spring), hence KaphaPrakopa(vitiation of Kapha) is there. And the further pathogenesis is like ShwasanakaSannipatikaJwara(fever due to vitiation of all humors). So, Panchakarma (Internal purification), Rasayana Chikitsa (Rejuvenating treatment) and Sadvritta (Good regime) can be included in the management of such diseases. From this study it can be concluded that disease is produced due to an imbalance between physical and mental elements, as it reduces resistance of body against disease. If we cure or prevent this imbalance and the strengthen host's defense system by Ayurvedic drugs, lifestyle modifications, and diet modifications, the body will be immune to diseases.</p> Priyanka Shelotkar, Swapnil Borage Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 08 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Overview of Phytochemical Compounds and Pharmacological Activities of Ananas Comosus L. Merr <p>Ananas comosus L. Merr, known as pineapple, belongs to the Bromeliaceae family. This plant has been used as traditional medicine and continues until now in conventional herbal medicine. The pineapple was distributed in some countries such as China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and originated from South America. This article delved the scientific work about Ananas comosus focussing their usage as traditional medicine, chemical compounds and biological activities. All of the pieces of information were obtained from the scientific literature such as Science Direct, Google Scholar, Scopus and PubMed. Based on the literature survey,different parts of pineapple (Ananas comosus) are used in traditional medicine, used asan anti-inflammatory agent,anti-oedema, digestive disorder, antimicrobial, vermicide, and purgative. Phytochemical compounds from A. comosus have been provided, including ascorbic acid, quercetin, flavones-3-ol, flavones, and ferulic acid. The crude extracts of A. comosus have many pharmacological activities such as anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial. This discovery becomes possible due to scientific isolation and in vivo or in vitro analysis of A.comosus.</p> Hartati R, Suarantika F, Fidrianny I Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 08 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Review on Targeted Cell Therapy for Breast Cancer, Colon Cancer and Lung Cancer <p>Cancer mainly defined as a group of diseases lead to growth of abnormal cells anywhere in the body. Anything that potentially leads to the growth of abnormal cells in the body is called cancer. Cancer cells grow with potential to invade or spread in any parts of the body. Cancer can be caused by various agents and factors depending upon the type of cancer developed in the particular region. Chemical and toxic substance exposure, ionizing agents and genetic factors are majorly responsible for developing cancer cells in the body state or degree of disease is determined by medical uses such as biopsy which helps in diagnosis of cancer and determining its types and extent of cancer cells spread throughout the body. The molecular targets such as VEGF, oestrogen, protease activated receptor, BRAF has become major innovations towards drug discovery both naturally and chemically.Symptoms of cancer varies according to the types and extent of disease developed in body symptoms like fatigue, weight loss, change in bowel and bladder function, cough and skin tone are some of the early signs of developing cancerous cells in the body. In this study, we focussed the targets of leading cancers among male and female like breast cancer, lung cancer and colon cancer in drug discovery and development.</p> Jayashree V, Shamili M, Sathish Kumar N Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 08 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring its immunogenicity and antioxidant potential of protein from Mangifera indica and Syzygium cumini <p>India is considered to be one of the rich repositories of medicinal and aromatic plants, which are mainly used as starting raw materials for drug manufacturing and perfumery products. More than thirty percent of various medicinal plant species are routinely used for various medicinal purposes. In this study, our major objective is to evaluate its and antioxidant potential of protein extracted from leaves of these two medicinal plants, i.e. and Syzygium . In order to achieve this objective, studies were conducted and extracted protein from leaves (using Tris and acetone) and confirming its protein content through the Lowry test. In addition, (using the standard vaccine, i.e. Typhoid vaccine) and antioxidant (using DPPH [1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl] assay) based studies were evaluated using a variable concentration of protein. The results indicate that proteins showed effect against typhoid vaccine and also showed antioxidant effect as compared to control. In short, proteins serve as a natural antioxidant and also showed , which may be useful in preventing free radical-induced diseases and also claimed its properties as well. Overall, these studies reveal that protein possesses potential benefits in terms of (against specific protein antigen) and antioxidant effect.</p> Gurpreet Singh, Shubham Tyagi, Aashrika Gupta, Abhishekh Tripathi, Karishma Ghosh, Amit Gupta Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 08 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Screening of Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Fiber Levels of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas), Cassava (Manihot esculenta), and Binahong (Anredera cordifolia (Ten) Steenis) Leaves Extract <p>Generally, vegetables contain various vitamins, minerals, and pigments that have antioxidant activity and can neutralise free radicals before causing damage to body cells. The research aimed to analyse phytochemical, antioxidant contents, and fibre levels of leaves extract of sweet potato, cassava, and binahong. The study was experimental research utilising leaves of sweet potato, cassava, and binahong. The leaves were removed and analysed for contents of phytochemicals, antioxidant and fibre levels. Flavonoid compounds were obtained positively on the 5-blades leaves extract of Cassavas. Polyphenol and tannin were undoubtedly discovered on the single, and 3-blades leaves extract of Sweet Potatoes and also on the five, and 7-blades leaves extract of Cassavas. Interestingly, alkaloids and steroids were identified on leaves extract of binahong, the single and 3-blades leaves extract of Sweet Potatoes and also on the five and 7-blades leaves extract of Cassavas. Consequently, 7-blades leaves extract of Cassavas contains the highest level of antioxidants (IC50), which was 44.46% (90 ppm). Nonetheless, 3-blades leaves extract of Sweet Potatoes contains the lowest. The leaves extract of binahong had an average fibre content of 28.45%, followed by 5-blades cassava leaves at 26.59%, and cassava leaves at 25%. The extract of sweet potato leaves was able to be developed as a source of antioxidants. Moreover, it contained high fibres.</p> Nurdin Rahman, Fendi Pradana, St. Ika Fitrasyah, Diah Ayu Hartini, Ariani, Bohari Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 08 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Cytotoxic Effect of Aqueous and Ethanolic Bark Extracts of Alstonia Scholaris against Cervical Cancer Cell Line <p>Alstonia scholaris, a tropical evergreen tree belonging to the family Apocynaceae has traditionally been referred to have anti-cancer activity, but it has not been explored so far. Therefore, the study is aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effect of aqueous and ethanolic bark extracts of Alstonia scholaris against cervical cancer cell line (HeLa Cell line). The bark part of Alstonia scholaris was collected, dried, powdered and made to a coarse powder. Maceration was carried out for the bark of Alstonia Scholaris using two different solvents like ethanol and aqueous solutions. Both the extracts were collected, evaporated to dryness. The extracts were then investigated for the phytochemical screening and cytotoxic effect by MTT Assay using cervical cancer cell line (HeLa cell line). The phytochemical screening of both the extracts showed the presence of various phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, gums and mucilage. The IC50 value of Alstonia scholaris of aqueous extract was found to be 13.38µg/ml, whereas the IC50 value of ethanol extract was found to be 14.21µg/ml. According to the results obtained, it has been proved that the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Alstonia Scholaris bark showed the presence of significant phytoconstituents and also showed significant cytotoxic effect (MTT Assay) against cervical cancer.</p> Jayashree V, Akshara Rajeswari RS, Bharath M, Amaraegbu Paschal Izuchukwu, Lavanya, Haneef Sharif, Jeeva Raj Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant stress properties of methanol acetate and ethyl extracts of Tirmania Nivea and Tirmania Pinoyi <p>For thousands of years, truffles have been used as essential foods in different cultures around the world because of their rich nutritional value and their pleasant and characteristic smell. We have studied the effect of truffles (Tirmania Nivea and Tirmania Pinoyi) extracts on the antioxidant stress properties issued from the Moroccan desert. Antioxidant and anti-free radical activities were studied using three analytical methods: trapping capacity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, phosphomolybdate, and reducing ferric antioxidant capacity; in addition, phenol and flavonoid levels were measured. The results of the FRAP, DPPH and PPM tests of T. Nivea were respectively 4.112±0.217, 0.142±0.006, 2.235±0.110 mg/mL for methanols and 3.424±0.034, 0.137±0.025, 0.858±0.010 mg/mL for ethyl acetate extracts. The results of the tests of T. pinoyi were respectively 3.670±0.572, 0.102±0.004, 0.907±0.014 mg/mL for methanols and 3.404±0.096, 0.080±0.003, 0.693±0.057 mg/mL for ethyl acetate extracts. For this work, we propose a valorization of the Moroccan truffle in the prevention of oxidative stress.</p> Houda Attjioui, Hamadoun Abba Touré, Amine Cheikh, Hafid Mefetah, Mustapha Draoui, Mustapha Bouatia Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The efficiency of vaccination against cattle necrobacteriosis using an experimental vaccine with a new adjuvant complex <p>The purpose of the study was to analyze the effectiveness of the adjuvant complex based on saponin, glycerin and chitosan in the experimental series of an inactivated vaccine against cattle necrobacteriosis. 4 groups of animals (30 in each group) were selected for the study, aged 6 to 24 months. The first (1st) group consisted of calves 6 months old, the second (2nd) group consisted of animals 12 months old and the third group – animals 24 months old. The control 4 (fourth) group (non-vaccinated animals) contained 10 animals of each age group – 6, 12 and 24 months old. The animals were vaccinated using a needle-free injector at a dose of 0.4 cm<sup data-id="superscript-1">3</sup> in two points at a distance of 7–10 cm (0.2 cm<sup data-id="superscript-2">3</sup> each) twice at intervals of 4-6 weeks. Revaccinated after 6 months, with a single dose of 0.4 cm<sup data-id="superscript-3">3</sup> (at two points, 0.2 cm<sup data-id="superscript-4">2</sup> each). It was found that the vaccine with the multicomponent adjuvant had low viscosity and hardening temperature, moderate reactivity, high stability during storage, prolonged immunity in vaccinated animals. The immunity in animals was detected 21 days after the first vaccine administration and lasted at least 18 months after the last immunization. The necrobacteriosis incidence in animals of the control non-vaccinated group was 70-80%. During double vaccination, the average level of postvaccinal agglutinating antibodies in serum of experimental groups of animals was 312.08±74.12 – 62.13±69, 07. Humoral response in vaccinated animals provided reliable protection against Fusobacterium necrophorum disease within two years (observation period). Absence of disease symptoms in vaccinated animals during 2 years testified to the high preventive efficiency of the vaccine. The results obtained confirm the validity of the application of multicomponent adjuvant in inactivated sorbed vaccine as a means of specific prevention of animal necrobacteriosis.</p> Svetlana A. Gryn, Evgenia V. Markova, Valentina I. Klyukina, Nikolay V. Melnik, Roman N. Melnik, Mikhail I. Dunin, Igor V. Pavlenko, Maria S. Svyatenko Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of low back pain on fear of movement and functional activities <p>Fear is an uncomfortable feeling, which results from the proximity of actual threat or pain. A strong correlation exists between fear and pain. Kinesiophobia is the phobia of activity and physical movement, which results from a sensation of sensitivity to painful injury or reinjury. Low back pain (LBP) is among the frequent disorders of the musculoskeletal system. LBP is mainly due to bad postures and poor organisational ergonomics. Kinesiophobia has adverse effects on rehabilitation outcomes. So the systematic application of graded exposure to movements is recommended in patients with Kinesiophobia to prevent pain-related anxiety. We compared Kinesiophobia's impact on patients with both acute and chronic LBP. We aimed to find out the role of Kinesiophobia in patients having LBP. The survey-based research using Tampa scale of Kinesiophobia was conducted with cross-sectional design. It included participants of both genders,in the age group of 18-65 who were diagnosed with acute and chronic low back pain. Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, Evaluation Performa, NPRS and Goniometer were used as outcome measures for the study. The patients were thoroughly examined, and they were evaluated using the Tampa Scale. Scoring to 17-items Tampa Scale was performedin4-point Likert scale varying from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree.” After the inversion of items 4, 8, 12, 16, the final score was determined. The total score ranges from a minimum of 17 to a maximum of 68. It was concluded that Kinesiophobia plays a crucial role in LBP, especially chronic LBP.</p> Waqar M Naqvi, Laukik Vaidya, Kiran Kumar Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) among the newly diagnosed Prediabetes screened in selected districts of South India <p>Currently, 314 million people in the world are Prediabetes, and it is predicted that around 500 million would be burdened by the year 2025. Continuing education of diabetes and its complications is crucial, but it should be accompanied with regular assessment of Knowledge Attitude and Practice (KAP) among the high-risk population. That would play a cost-effective role in prevention and control of the disease.This study was carried out to assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among the newly diagnosed Prediabetes screened over selected districts of South India.This study was conducted through prediabetes screening camps over districts of Calicut, Wayanad and Malappuram in Kerala and The Nilgiris district in Tamilnadu from September 2017 to October 2019. A questionnaire survey was done as a part of a prospective open-label interventional study with 308 prediabetes individuals. Baseline characteristics of the participants were obtained, and their knowledge, attitude and practice regarding Prediabetes were assessed. The finding of the present study revealed 90% of the respondents had poor knowledge, 9% had average knowledge, and only 1% had good knowledge of Prediabetes. In the attitude assessment, only 1.9% had a strongly positive attitude, 14% had a positive attitude, 54% had neutral attitude while 17% had a negative attitude and 13% had a strongly negative attitude. Regarding healthy lifestyle practices, 35.4% had a deplorable practice that scored below 6. Around half of the population, 52.3% had poor practice, 12% had proper training, while only 0.3% had a perfect practice.Knowledge and practice regarding lifestyle modifications among prediabetes participants were found to be reduced.&nbsp;</p> Mohsina Hyder K, Raja D, Jithin Mohan, Ponnusankar S Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Concept of Airborne Infectious Disease in Ayurveda <p>Life of any living thing starts with the breath and ends with breathlessness. Health is defined as a state of equilibrium of normal functions of Dosha, Dhatu, and Agni with body, mind and soul. Health has not given importance until someone becomes sick. Due to intake of improper diet, lack of exercise, stress, &amp; global warming, pollution the health status of an individual is decreasing day by day &amp; they are getting easily prone to infectious disease. It comes with significant challenges &amp; creating a burden over medical &amp; health care system. Ayurveda is an ancient science which has already described such communicable disease with their causes, mode of transmission, prevention as well as treatment. Charak has explained about Janapadodhwansa &amp; its four reasons(Air, water, time, and region). Sushruta has already mentioned Aupsargikarogas that are infectious diseases. By adopting Ayurvedic measures such as following proper Dincharaya, Rutucharya, Sadvritta, Panchakarma, Shaman Cikitsa &amp; Rasayana, both physical and mental health, can be maintained. The main aim of this paper is to highlight the airborne disease mentioned in Ayurveda. This review has been done by compiling information from classic Ayurvedic texts – Charak Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, and Astanga Hirdaya. Apart from this, modern books, journals &amp; websites on preventive &amp; social medicine were also searched for this study. After extensive search, specific causative factors, pathology, symptoms &amp; various treatment regime has been narrated in scattered form by our Ancient Acharyas. The different Ayurvedic Samhitas serves as a source of getting knowledge about the airborne disease and ways to prevent it and cure it. By using these basic principles in this ancient science in a rational way, we can avoid &amp; overcome many clinical conditions described in contemporary science which has its self-limitations in treatment modalities.</p> Madhura Vinay Fadanavis, Punam Sawarkar Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Antibacterial Activities of Leaf Extract Acacia etbaica Schweinf Against Multidrug Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Human Pathogens <p>Acacia etbaica Schweinf belongs to the family Fabaceae widely distributed in Africa and various parts of this plant such as bark, leaves, flowers and roots are widely used as a folk medicine for curing of various ailments.This study was aimed to screen the phytoconstituents and evaluate the antibacterial activity of leaf extract of A. etbaica against selected multidrug resistant Enterobacteriaceae family. Leaves of A. etbaica were extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, and ethanol by sequential soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical screening of organic leaf extract of A.etbaica was carried out for the detection of phytoconstituents accountable for antibacterial activity. In vitro antibacterial activities of A.etbaica leaf extracts against selected Enterobacteriaceae family gram‑positive bacteria such as (B.subtilis, E.faecalis,S.aureus)and gram-negative (E. coli, K. pneumonia, V. cholera) were evaluated by agar well diffusion. The antibacterial potential of acetone and ethanol leaf extracts of A.etbaica were determined by 96 well plate broth dilution assay. Among the tested organic leaf extracts, both acetone and ethanolic leaf extract of A.etbaica showed a potentially broad spectrum of in vitro antibacterial activity against tested multiple drug resistant Enterobacteriaceae family gram-positive pathogens such as B.subtilis, E. faecalis , and S.aureus and gram-negative bacterial strains E. coli, K. Pneumonia and V. Cholera with significant MIC values. The significant antibacterial activity of both acetone and ethanolic leaf extracts of A.etbaica was due to the subsistence of secondary metabolites phytoconstituents such as flavonoids and phenolic compounds.</p> Tekleweyni Tadege, Kidu Hintsa, Tesfay Weletnsae, Gopalakrishnan V K, Muthulingam M, Kamalakararao K, Krishna Chaithanya K Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Identification of HIV virus in Najaf city, Iraq <p>Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (ADIS) is a disease of the human immune system that results in a decline in the efficiency of the human immune system step by step to leave people exposed to many infections and tumours. It caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The first appeared of HIV in West Central Africa in the late 19th or early 20th century. The direct contact from personal mucus membrane or bloodstream and physical fluid (blood, vaginal semen fluid and breastfeeding milk) containing the virus is the unique viral transmission route. Out of 80 blood samples were taken from different areas of Najaf city, Iraq, for ages from 20 to 60 years (males and females) to the period from 1/1/2019 to 19/12/2019. The surface antigen of the HIV was detected by the ELISA technique and mini VIDAS by a virus-specific kit. Out of 80 different patients by physical examination infected with ADIS: HIV viruses were the most incidences with 12 isolates (15%) while, there were 66 isolates (82.5%) were belonged to other infections and two strains (2.5%) were negative to any viral infection.</p> Thualfakar Hayder Hasan, Raad A. Al-Harmoosh, Huda Jameel Baker Al-khilkhali Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Physico-Chemical Analysis of Mango Juice Factory Efϑluent (MJFE) and its phytotoxic effects of Gingelly (Sesamum indicum L.) <p>The use of bottled fruit beverages has increased enormously. The increased consumption increases the public and sewerage industries. It also leads to various sewerage industries problems. The juice factories use large quantities of water which in turn produces large amounts of wastewater that is called ‘effluent’. This effluent contains a large amount of chemicals and organisms from fruits, sugars and additives like colours. The classical juice factory generates 10 litres of ‘effluent’ per litre of juice. Anextensive range of mangoes are used to make juice; the large quantity of effluent is discharged into nearby water bodies or open agricultural land. The researchers are working on the solution to avoid this. One of the researches we tried to solve the problem of using dilution methods was a physicochemical analysis of mango juice effluent and its phytotoxic effects on gingelly. The laboratory experiment was carried outon the phytotoxic effects of mango juice factory effluent (MJFE)on the growth of Gingelly (Sesamum indicum L.). The different concentrations of effluent(Control, 5, 25, 50, 75and 100%) were prepared, after the seeds sowing the mud pots the treatments were given, the germination percentage(G.P.), vigour index (VI), tolerance index (T.I.), phytotoxicity (P) were recorded in 7<sup data-id="superscript-1">th</sup>DAS. The growth parameters such as shoot length (S.L.), root length (R.L.), number of leaves (N.L.), total leaf area (TLA), fresh weight (F.W.) and dry weight (D.W.) were inspected on 30<sup data-id="superscript-2">th</sup> DAS of seedlings.The results were exposed after germination characters, and morphological parameters increased (up to5%) effluent concentration and after that declined in higher (above 25%) concentration of MJFE. Because the effluent is toxic, it contains large quantities of organic and inorganic chemicals and high intensity of BOD, COD and others.</p> Sivakumar V P, Lenin M Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Beta-Lactam market research: Progress, challenges and prospects <p>Antibiotics are robust medicines that are widely used from centuries together to treat bacterial infections such as UTI, Typhoid, and Cholera etc. The similarity between viral and bacterial infection has resulted in the misuse of these antibiotics, the result of which is the development of resistant strains. Such indiscriminate drug usage has been increasing in a vulnerable geriatric and pediatric population. The increase in per capita health expenditure has enhanced the global market of these class of drugs, and the scope is likely to shoot up in the coming years, paving the way for young investors to emerging. The Global market for antibiotics is highly competitive and has a large number of significant players dominating the market share. During the forecast period experts in the field have evaluated and segment to dominate in LAMEA (Latin America, Middle East and Africa) holding the majority of the Market share. However, Asia Pacific was found to be the highest region for contributing more revenues. Detailed market analysis for / was conducted by doing secondary research where the market segments were compared for antibiotics. The paper discusses several issues related to the area of medicines.</p> Bhavana B Bhat, Pavithra Pradeep Prabhu, Manisha Joshel Lobo, Anusha, Prathvi, Venkatesh Kamath Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Radiographic imaging evaluation of mandibular third molars among patients presenting to private dental college in South India <p>The most common reason for mandibular third molar impaction is due to reduced space between the distal part of the second mandibular molar and the anterior border of the ascending ramus of the lower jaw. The tooth that is impacted is commonly asymptomatic, or sometimes present with various pathological conditions causing pain and swelling as well as pus discharge. In our current study, we have assessed the patterns of Mandibular third molar impactions using the Orthopantomogram (OPG’s). OPG’s of 150 patients (91 female and 59 male) who were between 18-25 years of age and had impacted mandibular third molars was assessed for gender, the region having the highest frequency of impaction and the fashion of impaction of the mandibular third molars. The study shows Bilateral impaction was more commonly seen in 26.66% of the study population and case of unilateral impactions the most frequent site is particularly in left side 23.33% and in right 19.33% unilateral impactions. The mesioangular pattern of impaction was more common in both male and female and was followed by distoangular, vertical and horizontal patterns.The study showed that there was no gender bias in the presence of impacted mandibular third molars and that the mesioangular pattern of impaction was more common.</p> Jones Jayabalan, Jayakeerthana S, Muthusekhar MR Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antitumor, Antimicrobial activities and Phytochemicals Constituent of different Extracts of Pulicaria undulata (Forssk.) Oliver. Grown Naturally in Saudi Arabia <p>Antitumor and antimicrobial resistance are a habitual global issue, which continually demands finding new natural compounds to encounter the resistance. <span class="sc-emphasis" data-id="e-6082b4db3bdb" data-spx-ctl-id="editor_emphasis" data-offset="153" data-length="19">Pulicaria undulata </span>(Forssk.) Oliver. (Asteraceae family) has numerous promising medicinal properties. The recent work aimed at determination of antitumor effects of three extracts of <span class="sc-emphasis" data-id="e-4cfcb2ec03ea" data-spx-ctl-id="editor_emphasis" data-offset="336" data-length="11">P. undulata</span> on three types of human carcinoma; HEPG-2 hepatocellular carcinoma, MCF-7 breast carcinoma and HCT-116 colon carcinoma cell lines. Anticancer activity was assessed through studying the viability of the cancer cells and apoptotic pathway. Also, antimicrobial potency of different extracts was assessed against studied human pathogens (five Gram negative bacteria, two Gram positive bacteria and yeast). The results reveal that chloroform extract has different levels of cytotoxicity toward the three types of cancer cell lines. A considerable decline in cancer cell rates has been linked to increasing in concentration of plant extract. The half maximal inhibitory concentration IC 50 value was 3.01 µg/ mL for the HepG-2, 16.4 µg/mL for the MCF-7, and 7.4 µg/ mL for HCT-116. Followed by the ethyl acetate extract which showed strong cytotoxic activity against HEPG2 with IC 50 = 12.2 µg ∕ml and moderate activities against MCF7 and HCT 116 and recorded (IC 50 = 26.7 and 26.4 µg ∕ml, respectively). While the crude methanol extract recorded the lowest cytotoxic effect against HEPG2, MCF7 and HCT 116 with (IC 50 = 51.4, 105.1 and 86.7 µg ∕ ml, respectively). Chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts have a high antimicrobial activity more than methanol extract against the pathogens being studied. HPLC and GCMs Analysis identified numerous chemical compounds of <span class="sc-emphasis" data-id="e-11f830c7bbdc" data-spx-ctl-id="editor_emphasis" data-offset="1711" data-length="11">P. undulata</span> extracts with various therapeutic benefits. In conclusion, <span class="sc-emphasis" data-id="e-891e5335e56d" data-spx-ctl-id="editor_emphasis" data-offset="1782" data-length="11">P. undulata</span> has the potential to act as an antimicrobial agent against various pathogenic microbes and is a promising wild herb for the treatment of cancer.</p> Khulud M Alshehr, Madeha O I Ghobashy Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Anatomical Variations of Foramen Transversarium of 7th Cervical Vertebrae and Its Clinical Significance <p>Cervical vertebrae have a cardinal part that is a closeness of and through it passes the vertebral course, vertebral vein and sharp plexus of nerves. The vertebral course enters the of C6 and this way, the FT of C7, which transmits just the vein and nerve, might be near nothing or even occasionally absent. A vertebral channel may enter through C7 in 2% cases as necessities be combinations of this may affect the anatomical course of vascular and neural structures, and this way may cause over the top conditions. The explanation behind the investigation was to watch the anatomical mixes in the of seventh cervical vertebrae. Present work was carried on 156 dry seventh cervical vertebrae of cloud sex and age. We observed each for shape, symmetry, number or accessory and spicules. We observed nine different types of shape of . Round shapes of were present in 28.75 %, accessory in 28.84% and spicules in 12.17 % of vertebrae also noted incomplete FT in 5 vertebrae. Disclosures of present evaluation may be helpful for a radiologist in the comprehension of X-segments, dealt with and scans for spine specialists in preoperative arranging and for blocking injury of a vertebral vessel near to sharp nerves during the careful cervical approach.</p> Manoj P Ambali, Surekha D Jadhav Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of toxicity and teratogenicity of anti-psychotic drugs followed by determination of anti-psychotic property of Mangifera indica bark through behavioral assay on Danio rerio model <p>Psychosis is a gathering of genuine sicknesses that influence the brain. About 2% of the populace experiences psychosis worldwide. As of now accessible advertised medications like , has some genuine antagonistic impacts. there is no agreeable cure available for avoidance and the executives of psychosis. Thus, the interest in natural medication is expanding. We have correlated the toxicity of various synthetic drugs ( and ) with that of the mango bark extract and assessed the proficiency of the natural medicines by building up social test on model followed by the investigation of the chemical drugs just as herbal medications. Bradycardia, increased amount of deaths in embryos were observed during the toxicity monitoring of chemical medications, and in terms of bending of tail, , loss of blood circulation and death of eggs were also found in acute toxicity study. On the other hand, the mango bark did show a very high range LC50 value inferring low toxicity of the extract. Also, the extract did not show any significant and gave good results in the assay. With such high rate of toxicity and effect of chemical drugs on the fish embryo, it can be estimated to show some in humans too, as we have the right amount of similar genes with that of thus an alternative to such chemical drugs can be the mango bark extract which showed low toxicity rate and almost negligible and even its anti-psychotic property is not compromised. with further modifications and investigations, the mango bark extract can be thought of as an alternative to that of the current chemical drugs with the elimination of unnecessary .</p> Neeldeep Ganguly, Tamalika Chakraborty, Abhijit Sengupta Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 CSF analysis in a patient with meningitis with special reference to LDH <p>Acute infections of the nervous system are among the hugest issues in the medicine considering the way that early affirmation, gainful dynamic and speedy association of the treatment can be lifesaving. Standard routine assessment of CSF in meningitis doesn't commonly give speedy definitive information without a doubt. Therefore there was need for additional tests. The present study conducted in Department of Medicine. The study included clinical appraisal and CSF assessment of 65 occurrences of meningitis. Lumbar cut was done in each consistent case and CSF was assembled in sterile containers.In majority cases of meningitis sugar less than two third of blood sugars, and majority of TBM cases had sugar level between 40-60 mg%. Higher cell count was seen in pyogenic meningitis cases. In context to LDH levels among the different types of meningitis, significant increased CSF LDH levels was observed in TBM and PM as compared to VM and CM but no noteworthy distinction between TBM and PM. Overall conclusion of study was that estimation of CSF LDH levels is not only supplementary aid but diagnostic and differentiating aid for meningitis.</p> Shilpa Patil, Ajikya Bahulekar Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Bacterial and fungal isolates from endotracheal tube secretions culture and their antibiogram in patients with ventilator associated pneumonia <p>The study was undertaken to determine causative bacteria / Fungi and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of the isolates in patients with VAP. The study was conducted at the Department of Medicine. The duration of the study was two years. A total of 100 VAP cases were studied, sample collected was endotracheal aspirate. More the age, more the patient is prone to VAP but the role sex in occurance of VAP was not statistically significant in our study. VAP was considered when after 48 hours of intubation patient develops Pneumonia, Leukocytosis/ Leukopenia, Fever. Gram negative bacteria were the most common organism causing VAP. Acinetobacter Baumannii was the most notorious bacteria causing VAP contributes to 53% followed by Klebsiella species 16%, Pseudomonas species 15% were the most frequent bacteria causing VAP later followed by coagulase positive Staphylococcus 6%, Escherichia coli 4%, Candida 4% and Enterobacter Cloacae Complex 2%. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of gram negative bacteria isolated in our study including Pseudomonas species showed that most of them are sensitive to Colistin, Tigecycline, Meropenem and Amikacin followed by other drugs. In case of Gram Positive (Coagulase positive Staphylococcus) is sensitive to vancomycin and very rarely to Linezolid.</p> Nitin N Jadhav, Vasant Deokar Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A study of Estrogen Receptor, Progestrone Receptor and hER2/NEU expressions in cases of breast cancer in a tertiary care hospital <p>The study of Estrogen receptor, Progesterone receptor and HER-2/neu expressions in cases of ca breast was carried out over a period of 2 years at tertiary care hospital karad which included 101 breast cancer cases. Maximum numbers of patients (34.65%) were in the 41 – 50 years group. All patients were female. Family history was seen in 10 (9.90%) cases. Out of 101 cases equal cases were in the category of invasive breast carcinoma grade -II (46.42%) and grade- III (46.42%).While grade- I tumors comprised of 7.41% cases. Invasive breast carcinoma - no special type accounted for maximum cases (77.22%). Other histological types were medullary carcinoma (7.92%), mucinous carcinoma (2.97%). Out of 101 cases, 56.43% of breast cancer cases were positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors. Maximum number of HER-2/neu over expression 5/10 (50%) was seen in 41-50 years of age group.A positive correlation was found between ER and PR expression. Maximum number of triple negative cases were seen in medullary carcinoma (100%), metaplastic carcinoma (100%) followed by invasive breast carcinoma .Out of 101 cases of breast cancer, 42 cases (41.58%) showed axillary lymph node metastasis. Axillary metastasis was divided as 0 lymph node (no metastasis) - 58.41% cases, 1-3 lymph node metastasis – 21.78% and &gt;3 lymph node metastasis – 19.80%. Tumor emboli were noted in 31.68% of cases. Estrogen and Progesterone receptor expression correlate well with the established prognostic markers like- age, type of tumor, histological grade, axillary lymph node metastasis and tumor emboli.</p> Mamta Bharti, Nanda J. Patil, Kshirsagar A Y Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Randomized clinical trial of IV iron sucrose and IV ferric carboxymaltose in the treatment of moderate iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy <p>In India, the national nutritional anaemia control programme (NNACP) was started in 1970 and is being implemented through primary health centers and sub centers. It recommended pregnant women to take one iron tablet per day for at least 100 days (each tablet containing 100 mg of natural iron and 500 mcg of folic acid) after first trimester of pregnancy; a similar dose applies to lactating women. Study Design: Randomized clinical trial. 160 pregnant ladies going to antenatal clinic at 14-36 weeks of gestation with Hb 7- 9.9g%. Who met the inclusion criteria were arbitrarily distributed into two groups. One with odd registration number was given iron sucrose and one with even was given FCM. Hematological profile includes Haemoglobin, Reticulocyte count, Blood indices (MCH, MCHC, MCV) Fringe smear, Serum iron and Serum TIBC. 52% cases from FCM group observed in the age gathering of 21-24 years and 39% cases from Iron Sucrose group were observed in the age gathering of 25-28 years. 54% cases from FCM and 46% cases from Iron sucrose were observed in the gestational Age of 29 to 36 weeks. 43% cases from FCM and 46% cases from Iron sucrose were primigravida. Patients from FCM group and 4 patients from Iron sucrose group did not follow up. 2 pts. From FCM group and 1 pt. from Iron sucrose group refused treatment. The rise in mean Hb level after 1 week and 4 weeks of treatment with FCM is more than Iron sucrose. The rise in mean Sr. Iron level after 1 week and after 4 weeks of treatment with FCM is more than Iron sucrose. The reduction in mean Sr. TIBC level after 4 weeks of treatment with Iron sucrose is more than FCM. The rise in mean MCH, MCHC and MCV levels after 1 week and 4 weeks of treatment with FCM is more than Iron sucrose. There was no serious adverse effect noted in both groups.</p> Sneh Rajwani, Nitin Kshirsagar, Sanjay Kumar Patil Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative Study Of Functional Outcomes Of Fracture Shaft Humerus In Adults Treated With Dynamic Compression Plating And Interlocking Nailing <p>Fractures of the shaft humerus are one of the basic breaks influencing present age and treatment methodology must be chosen cautiously. Both the modalities of treatment for example dynamic pressure plating and interlocking nailing were utilized. Present study was quantitative approach with comparative survey design. This study was conducted in teaching hospital Karad. The sample size was 30 patients selected by non-purposive, sampling technique with fracture shaft of the humerus. Result indicated that out of these 30 patients, we had 15 in the DCP gathering and 15 in the interlocking gathering. The normal period of patients was 36.46 years with 19 guys and 11 females. The confusions were more in the interlocking gathering with the vast majority of them relating to poor shoulder work with torment. In spite of the way that the two modalities of treatment offer incredible affiliation, the pace of assistant complexities were more in the interlocking nailing gathering, which makes dynamic weight plating a continuously decent decision. In situations where both powerful pressure plating and interlocking nailing should be possible, we would want to utilize dynamic pressure plating, as the outcomes are better than interlocking nailing.</p> Nagesh Rajendra Desai, Sandip Patil, Ravindra Gunaki Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Single Blind Randomised Clinical Study Of Outcome Of Local Injection Of Platelet Rich Plasma Vs Methyl Prednisolone Acetate In Management Of Lateral Epicondylitis <p>The most well-known abuse condition is identified with inordinate wrist expansion and generally alluded to as tennis elbow, however it is in reality increasingly regular in non-tennis players. METHODS- A prospective, comparative study was conducted with 50 patients after Ethical approval. Quantitative data is presented with Mean and Standard deviation. Examination among the investigation bunches is finished with the assistance of unpaired t test according to consequences of ordinariness test. Majority of the patients (80%) in Group A and (76%) in Group B were from the age group of 31-40 years. The mean age in Group A was 36.4±5.44 years and in Group B were 36.8±5.87 years. Majority of the patients in both groups were female. There was dominance of right side (68% and 72%) as compared to left side (32% and 28%) in both groups. The mean duration of symptom in Group A was 2.24±0.72 months as compared to 1.92±0.81 months in Group B. 20% and 12% patients in Group A had Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension respectively whereas 16% and 24% patients in Group B had Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension respectively. The mean baseline VAS score in Group A was 7.6±0.51 and Group B was 7.7±0.38 which decreased to 5.1±0.81. The mean baseline MGS score in Group A was 74.6±10.32 which increased to 91.6±4.08 in 2 weeks. And in Group B was 74.5±10.31 which increased to 99.8±2.646 in 2 weeks. The MGS score improved more in Group B after 2 weeks (p=0.005), 4 weeks (p=0.002) and 6 weeks (p=0.022). However, toward the finish of 3 months, a half year and a year, improvement in MGS Score was fundamentally better in Group A as compared to Group B.Along these lines, we presumed that PRP as an unrivaled treatment choice in instances of tennis elbow. In any case, keeping in see the constrained time of follow up in the current examination we prescribe longer follow up studies to additionally unite our discoveries and set up the long haul viability of PRP in instances of sidelong epicondylitis.</p> Kumar Shubham, Kulkarni P N, Kshirsagar A Y Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Observational analysis of medication related errors by clinical pharmacists in a South Indian hospital <p>Present work was done to evaluate the occurrence of medication errors in general ward of institute of medical sciences to assess the role of clinical pharmacist in error management. The study was conducted for 9 months and Data was acquired from inpatients of general medicine dept by using standard case report form through direct patient interview. The collected data was to identify medication errors by using drug information tools such as , drug interaction checker and reputed journals and statistical interpretations were done. 400 prescriptions were and in that 300 prescriptions were presented with medication errors. 202 were found to be Prescribing errors, 111 Administration errors,45 were dispensing errors, Monitoring errors were 123. Interaction errors (81.18%), prescription in small letters (34.65%), wrong frequency of administration error (32.43%) and wrong time administration of medicine (85.58%), Dispensing wrong quantity of drug (95.5%) were the major medication errors that were observed. Medication errors have been occurring frequently in the general medicine department out of which prescribing errors were more common. Clinical Pharmacist could act as an medical staff by performing consciousness and teaching to medical professionals and by maintaining positive collaboration with other health care providers for patients.</p> Syamprashanth Pedada, Jyotsna Allamsetty, Meena Ujwala Garikapati, Navya Burreddy, Umasankar Viriti Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 13 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity of Red Sea Hyrtios erectus sponge and micro-organisms Extracts <p>Helicobacter pylori were considered one of the most bacterial infections in the world. Recently, the resistance of antibiotic against H. pylori is increasing and hence, it is necessary to find new and natural effective agents. Marine organisms and microorganism produce complex secondary metabolites and some of these compounds are antimicrobials agents. This study aimed to provide preliminary data to determine if marine Hyrtios erectus sponge, actinomycetes, and fungi extracts can inhibit the growth of H. pylori. In this study, the methanol extracts of the three samples of Hyrtios erectus sponge and the ethyl acetate extracts of seven actinomycetes strains and four fungi strains were used to determine the antibacterial effect against a standard strain of H. pylori. The samples of actinomycetes and fungi were identified by using 16S rRNA amplification for actinomycetes and Internal Transcribed Spacer-PCR for fungi using Genetic Analyzer 3500, and then the DNA sequences were compared through BLAST and alignment with other actinomycetes and fungi which already present in the GenBank from various study areas. Results indicated that the anti-H. pylori screening showed that only 13 from 14 extracts exhibited anti-H. pylori effect. Among them, the methanol extract of Hyrtios erectus (1), the ethyl acetate extract of actinomycete strain S7 and the ethyl acetate extracts of fungi strains M1, M2, M3, M4 exhibited strong effect against H. pylori more than other extract with minimal inhibitory concentrations 3.9, 15.63, 3.9, 15.63, 3.9 and 7.81 µg/ml, respectively. The 16S rRNA and ITS rRNA gene sequences and phylogenetic analysis provided strong evidence for the isolates of actinomycetes and fungi, respectively. The actinomycetes were identified as seven species that belong to Streptomyces genus. The fungi isolates were identified as three species that belong to Aspergillus genus and one species that belong to Penicillium genus.</p> Faten A. S. Alsulaimany, Salma A.O. Saleh, Mahmoud A. Elfaky, Sameh S. Elhady Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 13 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Kebar grass (Biophytum petersianum K.) The effect inmaintaining mice (Mus musculus) sperm quality exposed to dioxin <p>Kebar grass contains active antioxidants and potential vitamins to neutralize TCDD toxicity. Prove that Kebar grass extract in various dosage can maintain viability, motility, and sperm concentration of male mice exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. This study was an experimental laboratory study with five groups consists of Negative Control (C-), Positive Control (K +) with TCDD exposure of 0.7μg/Kg BW IP single dose. The treatment group was given oral Kebar grass extract for 53 days treatment 1 (T1) with a dose of 0.045 mg / g BB, Treatment 2 (T2) with a dose of 0.08 mg/g/BW, and Treatment 3 (T3) with a dose of 0.135 mg/g/BW. The data of motility, viability, and concentration of spermatozoa obtained were analyzed using One Way Anova test and Duncan Multiple Range Test. Administration of Kebar Grass Extract at a dosage of 0.135 mg/g/BW showed a significant difference between the control group and the treatment group (p&amp;lt;0.05). Exposure to TCDD in C+ decreased motility (13 ± 6.70%), viability (28 ± 19.35%), and concentration (0.87 ± 0.64 cells / mm<sup data-id="superscript-1">3</sup>) of sperm significantly compared to C-. The administration of Kebar grass extract can maintain motility (74 ± 5.47%), viability (76 ± 2.72%), and concentration (2.50 ± 0.69 cells/mm<sup data-id="superscript-2">3</sup>) spermatozoa in the T3 group with a dose of 0.135mg/g/BW. Kebar grass extract is effective for maintaining the quality of mice sperm from damage due to exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.</p> Muhammad Faiz Labib, Widjiati, Tatik Hernawati, Epy Muhammad Luqman, Rochmah Kurnijasanti, Tri Wahyu Suprayogi Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 13 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 In Vitro Evaluation For Antibacterial Activity Of Dadimashtaka Choorna, An Ayurvedic Polyherbal Powder Formulation, Against Selective Bacterial Strains <p>Dadimashtaka choorna is one of the classical ayurvedic polyherbal powder formulation explained in the context of Atisara chikitsa (treatment of gastrointestinal conditions such as diarrhoea), in the text of Astangahridaya. The formulation is mainly indicated for digestive disorders. Even though many researches have brought out the anti-bacterial activity of each component of the formulation, no studies were done to identify the activity of the compound formulation on any specific bacterial strains. Therefore, an attempt was made to accurately understand the action of the preparation against certain selected strains of bacterias. The formulation was prepared according to the classical method of preparation for choorna kalpana. As per the standard norms mentioned in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, the concentrated extract of the medicament was prepared. The study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-bacterial activity of concentrated extract of Dadimashtaka choorna against selected microorganisms namely, Salmonella typhi (gram -ve), Escherichia coli (gram -ve), and Bacillus species (gram +ve), using agar well diffusion method and also to compare with the standard drug, ciprofloxacin. It was found that the concentrated extract of Dadimashtaka choorna has significant anti-bacterial activity against the bacterial strain, Bacillus (gram +ve). The study confirmed the anti-bacterial potential of the formulation Dadimashtaka choorna against Bacillus species(gram+ve), which supports the fact that the compound formulation is a promising remedy to curb the gastrointestinal disorders caused by the gram +ve bacterial strains.</p> Veena G, Devipriya S, Arun Mohanan, Vineeth P K, Ramesh N V Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 14 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Asthmatics Treatment Updation and Compliance in the Asthma Management in Northern Districts of Tamilnadu <p>The purpose of this study is to evaluate the treatment of asthmatics in Tamilnadu's northern districts and its compliance in socio-economic aspects. A random sampling, and the non comparative study conducted among 500 asthmatic people around the northern districts of Tamilnadu, including Chennai, Kanchipuram, Vellore, and Puducherry. The questionnaire asked the asthmatics about their treatment updation, and compliance in asthma management, in an open-ended and easily understandable manner. The P-value calculated through the social statistics software and p-value of &lt;0.10 was considered statistically significant. A total of 500 patients enrolled in this study. Total Men asthmatic patients enrolled were 272(55.4%), and women patients were 228(45.6). In asthma, there are two types of drugs involved in the treatment.1.Reliever drugs and 2. Controller drugs. Four hundred seventeen patients in treatment, 6% of patients were in reliever treatment, 69% were in the controlled, and 25% in both the drugs treatment, respectively.In addition,patients in ICS+ LABA combination was 390.21% of patients were in Formoterol+ Beclomethasone(FBE) combination, 39% in Formoterol +Budesonide(FBU), 6% in Formoterol+Fluticasone(FF),4% in Formoterol+Momentasone(FM) and 30% in Salmeterol+Fluticasone(SF). Money spent on their treatment.24% patients spent less than Rs.150 for their asthma treatment for a month, 29% spent Rs.150-300 and more than Rs 300 spent by 47% of the patients. In Asthma Management, Medical practitioners had prescribed ICS +LABA combination for their asthma patients; as a result, patients felt an improved quality of life.</p> Mani Dhandayuthapani, Murugesh Shivashankar Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 14 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Development, characterization and pharmacological evaluation of amino acid prodrugs of (+)-Ibuprofen <p>The current research work investigate the neuronal pathway associated with NSAIDs that lead to the reduction in the initiation and progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinsonism etc. This research was developed amino acid prodrugs of the active enantiomer of ibuprofen, (+)-IBN and checks the pharmacological effects, neuroprotective effect, anti inflammatory effect and anti-ulcerogenic effect. The treatment using (+)-IBN reduced the action of micoglia and the release of cytokine especially TNFα that are mainly involved in the neurodegenerative process. (+)-IBN reduced the deposition of soluble beta amyloid plaque by inhibiting the amyloid precursor protein, beta-secretase 1 and also enhancing the degradation process of beta amyloid via induction of insulin degrading enzyme. (+)-IBN also showed the property that the reduction in the TAU misfolding process. Therefore, the synthesized (+)-IBN amino acid prodrugs treatment effectively produce neuroprotective action, both restoring memory realed risk factors and reversing multiple brain neuropathological hallmarks. The current research study developed the three amino acid prodrugs of (+)-ibuprofen by conjugating with L-phenyl alanine, L-tryptophan and L-tyrosine also the physico-chemical characterization and spectral characterization was done. This study modify the carboxylic acid functional group present in the NSAIDs that lead to the formation of prodrugs with enhanced anti-inflammatory activity, reduced side effects and protective effect against neurodegenerative processes.</p> Nija B, Arun Rasheed, Kottaimuthu A Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 17 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Clinicoradiological Comparative Study of Obstructive Osteomeatal Complexin Cases of Rhinosinusitis <p>Mosher said that intranasal ethmoidectomy is the most dangerous and terrifying. He said that in the mid-twentieth century. Endoscopy changed this view significantly. Since the commencement of medication, various endeavours have been made to light up and analyse within the different empty depressions situated inside the body.A hospital-based comparative and correlative study was undertaken with 50 patients. The research assessed the clinicoradiological comparison of obstructive ostiomeatal complex in cases of rhinosinusitis. Majority (28%) patients were 31-40 years in the age group. The 34.2±12.50 years was the mean age of patients.60% patients were males. The most common symptoms were nasal obstruction (80%) followed by headache (76%), nasal discharge (42%), postnasal discharge (40%), sneezing (28%) and epistaxis (20%). Osteomeatal complex and maxillary sinus were the most frequently affected regions seen in 88% of patients. The most common sign is purulent middle meatal discharge in 86% of patients. The next most common sign seen is deviated nasal septum in 46% of the patients. 62% of the patients in our study suffered from chronic rhinosinusitis. Out of 50 cases, 33 cases have septal deviation using DNE. Uncinate attachment to the skull base is seen in 18 (36%) cases each on the right, and 17 (34%) left side in both DNE and CT. In DNE 7 (14%) cases show middle turbinate hypertrophy on the right side.There was statistically significant correlation between Middle turbinate: concha bullosa and Maxillary sinus (r=0.621; p=0.0005), Pneumatiseduncinate and Anterior ethmoids (r=0.452; p=0.0001), Aggernasi and Frontal sinus (r=0.318; p=0.024) and Middle turbinate: paradoxical and Maxillary sinus (r=0.864; p=0.0001). The significance of variations is that they impair the normal drainage pathway, hinder endoscopic access to distal areas and increase the risk of endoscopic mishaps.</p> Nikhil K. Vala, Abhay D. Havle Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 18 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis, characterization and pharmacological investigation of lysine and glycine conjugated amide prodrugs of (+)-ibuprofen <p>(+)-ibuprofen [(+)-IBN] is a Non-steroidal anti inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) that is pharmacologically active stereoisomer of racemic form of ibuprofen. Literature showed that Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen, naproxen and flubiprofen, are widely provide the protective effect against the neurodegenerative conditions. But the therapeutic application of NSAIDs in the CNS disorders were limited due to their limited brain distribution across the physiological barrier, blood brain barrier (BBB).BBB is composed of tightly connected endothelial cells of brain capillaries and the surrounding astrocytes and pericytes. The compounds which are able to cross the BBB by passive diffusion are small, lipophilic and uncharged at physiological P<sup data-id="superscript-1">H</sup>. This study make an attempt to synthesize the derivatives (+)-IBN by conjugating with amino acids such as glycine and lysine that produced the two amide prodrugs,(+)-IBN-G and (+)-IBN-L. The objectives of this study are to synthesize the amide prodrugs of (+)-IBN with glycine and lysine produced (+)-IBN-G, (+)-IBN-L respectively and to perform detailed study on their physical and chemical properties, distribution profile in the brain, brain targeting efficiency parameters, pharmacological activities. The compounds synthesized will act as prodrugs of (+)-IBN and after the administration the (+)-IBN was released at the desired site by enzymatic or non-enzymatic hydrolysis and synthesized prodrugs showed the enhanced brain distribution , protective against neurodegeneration, enhanced anti inflammatory activity, reduction in the gastric side effect such as ulcer formation in the stomach.</p> Nija B, Arun Rasheed, Kottaimuthu A Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 18 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Anticonvulsant and Anti-oxidant Potentials of Basella Alba by Influencing the Brain Enzyme Levels in Laboratory Animals <p>Epilepsy and convulsions constitute a significant class of symptoms that are commonly seen in many neurological diseases. It is understood that there is an apparent alteration in the levels of the enzymes which present brain during epilepsy. Anti-oxidant drugs are known to elevate the protective enzyme levels in the body and restore them to ensure the proper functioning is done. But when the enzyme levels are not managed properly, they can cause further damage and deterioration of the tissue. Basella alba is one of such drugs, which is rich in anti-oxidant chemical constituents. Many researchers concluded that many components like vitamin A, C and flavonoids, polyphenols are being reported. In the study, Basella alba was investigated for effect on an anti-oxidant enzyme in the brain. The extracts showed a better activity and prevented the brain tissue damage from any oxidative free radical generation. The enzyme levels were healthy at the dose of 400mg/kg of extract.</p> Asokan B.R., Jaikumar S, Somasundaram G Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 24 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Proactive role of citric acid and tyrosine in nicotine addiction and controlling withdrawal symptoms in Wistar rats <p>Nicotine deaddiction is not an easy job because regular exposure to nicotine leads to the development of neuroadaptation, neuroadaptation increases the number of binding sites on the nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the brain, this may be due to nicotine-mediated desensitization of receptors. Therefore the present study evaluate the commonly available substances like CA (Citric acid) and TY (Tyrosine) that can bring down the nicotine levels and maintain the dopamine levels without altering the nicotine intake. Thirty six animals were divided into 6 groups (n=6). Group-1 rats served as control and received only food and water while group (2) animals received only nicotine (600 μg/kg bw) by subcutaneous route for 21 consecutive days. Group (3-4) received both nicotine with CA 100 mg/kg bw oral and nicotine with CA 200mg/kg bw oral respectively for 21 days. Similarly group (5-6) received both nicotine with TY 100 mg/kg bw oral and nicotine with TY 200mg/kg bw oral respectively for 21 days. From 22<sup data-id="s-bb08c7605e31">nd</sup> day, animals in groups 3 to 6 alone received respectively CA (100 and 200 mg/kg bw; oral) and TY (100 and 200 mg/kg bw; oral) for another 5 days. On day 26, the animals in all groups were sacrificed and the blood was collected. From the serum, the levels of nicotine and dopamine were estimated. It was observed that the nicotine level was significantly less in CA 100 mg and TY 200 mg doses. There was a significant increase in dopamine level in the nicotine treated group-2 when compared to normal control group-1. The same showed a slight decrease in CA and TY treated groups as compared to nicotine-treated group-2. Hence it is concluded that CA and TY have the ability to reduce the effect of nicotine levels and maintain the dopamine levels that can sustain the level of nicotine. This possibly can control the withdrawal symptoms of nicotine addiction and curtail craving for nicotine in the long run and most probably might lead to the cessation of smoking or tobacco consumption.</p> Bhanu Prakash G, Ethirajan Sukumar, Senthilkumar Sivanesan, Vijayaraghavan R, Praveenkumar P Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 24 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Garbhini Ahara-Vihara (Diet & lifestyle in pregnancy) on Garbhastha Sishu (Fetus) and offspring <p>Ayurveda not only focus on preventive and promotional health but also has strong footing in the field of healthy progeny. Garbhini paricharya is essential for safe motherhood and healthy progeny. Garbhini Paricharya refers to antenatal care or prenatal which recommends Ahara (specific dietary regimen) and Vihara (activity for physical, mental and emotional well being). In Ayurveda, Garbhini paricharya is divided in three categories such as Masanumasik Pathya ahara and Vihara (monthly dietary regimen and lifestyle), Garbhasthapak karma (diet and activities for maintenance of pregnancy and better progeny) and avoidance of Garbhopaghatakar Bhavas (diet and activities which are harmful to fetus). Out of many factors which are responsible for overall development of fetus, Garbhini ahara-vihara plays very important role. We always say “you are what you eat” it may also be true that “you are what your mother ate”. Modern medical science also believes that fetal growth is dependent on appropriate diet and life style of pregnant mother. Abnormal diet and life style produce adverse effect on fetus. Organogenesis is that period when important organ of fetus are developing. It is 6-10 wks of intrauterine life. During this period fetus is most at risk from birth defects caused by external factors. Many diseases and fetal development disorders are consider as being related to prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC).</p> Bharadwaj Pooja, Srivastava Niraj, Kumar Pradeep, Saxena Varsha Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 03 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Need of Pharmacist on Medication Management for Elderly Patients Residing In Rural Area: A Review <p>Medication management services are area oriented towards patient safety, medication appropriateness, effect of drug and adherence with the help of pharmacist and other healthcare providers to improve the health outcomes. In older aged population chronic non communicable diseases like hypertension, diabetes, COPD etc. are common and this leading to Polypharmacy and medication inappropriateness. Polypharmacy is further results to drug interaction with drug, food and body fluids and increase drug related problems. These medication problem leads to decreased level of medication adherence. Pharmacist plays an important role in minimizing drug related mortality and morbidity. As per the 2010 data out of 57 million deaths, chronic non communicable diseases like cardiovascular disease, COPD, cancer, Diabetes mellitus contributes more for mortality that is 36 million (63%). In these more than three quarters of deaths occurred in elderly patients. . As per the survey conducted by govt. of India in 2017 shows 5% of population are above 65 years and estimated that by the time of 2050 India holds 20% of population are above 65years. These numbers provide evidence of the chronic shortage of trained healthcare professionals such as physicians, dentists, nurses, pharmacists due to the poor economic situation in India. The evolution of the role of the pharmacist, with the rapid development of pharmacy practice and pharmaceutical care, points to the significance of the responsibilities of a pharmacist in ensuring medication use for patients is safe, effective, and rational. Significant accomplishments will be achieved in rural areas relation to the development of strategies to improve medication use and enhance the positive health outcomes in the elderly population.</p> Abhishek S, Jayadevkumar Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 03 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A review on wound management with special reference to nanotechnology <p>Management of wound care mainly depends upon the advancement of innovative and effective wound care product to achieve speedy recovery and minimising scar formation. Wound healing management has been always an interesting field of research till date due to serious need for new wound treatment. Appropriate wound care is a significant challenge because of the complications associated with wounds as well as low permeability through the skin. The interconnected events of wound healing occur simultaneously to restore the tissue integrity and functions of the cells. Wound healing gets hampered by numerous factors. These physiological events occur easily in normal human being, but in some situations these molecular events are affected, resulting in hard to heal/ chronic wounds. In current years nanotechnology has emerged as an exciting field with several applications in skin regeneration. These nanoscale delivery systems have numerous benefits in the healing process such as decrease in drug’s cytotoxicity, administration of poorly water-soluble drugs, better skin permeation, controlled release behaviour, antimicrobial activity, as well as stimulation of fibroblast proliferation and reduced inflammation. Thus, emerged as an effective strategy and approach for the treatment of chronic wounds. This review briefly discusses about the wounds, characteristics of an ideal wound dressings along with a special mention regarding the several strategies of wound healing by nanotechnology with their functions and advantages.</p> Debosmita Datta, Raman Suresh kumar Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 03 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Recent development in the artificial treatment for dry eye disease <p>Eyes are the most important organs of the human body. The important parts of the eyes are conjunctiva, cornea, Iris, pupil, retina, sclera. Eye is protected by eyelid from external environment. The common eye disease is kerato conjunctivitis sicca (KCS) i.e dry eyes syndrome. Tear is secreted by a lacrimal gland which lubricates the eye. The dry eyes disease syndrome commonly is caused because tears are not secreted properly by the tear duct or the tear film gets evaporated from the surface of the eye due to various factors or due to environmental changes. Dry eyes disease caused due to age, environmental factor like increase in air pollution, increase in temperature, humidity in the atmosphere, using contact lens, medication also causes dry eyes. This article reviews the causes, symptoms, and recent treatment system of dry eyes disease. Dry eyes can be treated by using medications like artificial tears, Carmellose artificial tears eye drops, Cyclosporine A, Difluprednate, Lacrisert nutritional supplements, omega-3 fatty acids, etc. The therapy like Meibomian gland expression, Intense pulsed light, Lipiflow, etc. the dry eyes disease not only affecting human eye but it also affects animals like dogs and cat.</p> Priyavarshini R, Amit B Patil Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 03 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Innovative methodologies for identification and qualification of Impurities: An overview of the latest trends on impurity profiling <p>Impurity profiling is known to identify, classify and measure both the identified and non-identified contamination present on the medicinal product. Unwanted chemicals which remain or are created during the formulation of medicinal products are pharmaceutical impurities. Impurity profiling helps in the detection, recognition and quantification in bulk products and pharmaceutical formulations of various types of impurities, as well as residual solvents. It is the simplest way to distinguish consistency and stability of bulk drugs and medication formulations. As analytical methodology has developed rapidly, it is essential to consider with their solutions problems related to impurities of drug substances and drug products. Various regulatory agencies including ICH, USFDA, Canadian Drug and Health Agencies stress the criteria for purity and for detecting impurities in active pharmaceutical materials, even in small quantities, as the presence of impurities, may have an effect on pharmaceutical products ’ efficacy and health. Therefore, the study focuses on various analytical methods for identification and quantification of impurities in pharmaceutical products to clarify the need for impurity profiling on drug products in pharmaceutical research. To drug regulators, the product substance’s impurity profile is a reliable fingerprint to prove that the manufacturing process of bulk drug substances is consistent in quality. The study gives a short summary of recent technical developments in the profiling of pharmaceutical products including pharmaceutical active ingredients as well as pharmaceutical products during 2013-2017. Such recent trends in the profiling of impurities have been addressed in the study. This focuses specifically on a thorough update on various analytical techniques, including hyphenated methods to define and measure thresholds in specific pharmaceutical matrices of impurities and degradants.</p> Nishanth G, Akhila G, Anandkumar Tengli, Chandan R S, Suraj K, Maruthi R, Akshay N Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Drug – Drug Interactions Between Newer Anti- Retroviral Drugs And Anti Epileptics - A Review <p>Drug – Drug Interactions (DDIs) are the leading cause of drug toxicity and emergence of drug resistance, ultimately leading to increased burden in People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLHIV). On an average 55 % of people on Anti Retroviral Therapy (ARVs) are co-administered with Anti Epileptic Drugs (AEDs). The introduction of newer anti-retroviral drugs such as dolutegravir, bictegravir, emtricitabine, doravirine are proven to have less side effects, high tolerability and effective decrease in the viral load, but the risk of DDIs still stands to be high. This review briefly describes about the pharmacokinetic properties of dolutegravir, bictegravir, emtricitabine, doravirine, mechanism of interaction between the above mentioned ARVs and AEDs, effect of DDIs on ARVs, effect of DDIs on interacting AEDs, outcome of DDIs and possible management of DDIs. The pharmacokinetic type of DDIs was observed between the ARVs and AEDs. The majority of DDIs were found affecting the metabolism and the absorption of the drugs. UGT1A1, CYP 3A are the two important classes of metabolic enzymes involved in the DDIs and p- glycoprotein (P-gp) is the transporter involved in the DDIs affecting the absorption. Significant interactions have been found in between the above mentioned newer ARV’s with carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin and phenobarbitol.</p> Vaishnavi S, Balaji S, Ramesh M, Mothi S N, Swamy V H T, Srirama B R Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A brief review on eutectic mixture and its role in pharmaceutical field <p>Eutectic mixture (EM) is as a mixture of more than one substance that does not interact individually to create a new entity but in a particular ratio that exhibits a lower range of melting point than it had in individual. EM should be formulated in such a way that it should have major advantages in pharmaceutical industries. EM can be a mixture of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs), or different ratios of APIs and excipients, or various excipients. Deep eutectic solvents containing APIs (API-DES) considered as an innovative approach to form different APIs in the liquid state. This new approach of liquid form is versatile and plays an important role in drug delivery. The selection of ideal hydrogen bond-donor (HBD) and hydrogen bond-acceptor (HBA) is an essential parameter. Ionic liquids (IL), derivatives of deep eutectic solvents (DES) have got much attention since it can replace harmful organic solvent by their extraordinary properties. Therapeutic deep eutectic solvents (THEDESs) are considered to be an exceptional option in the advancement of biomedicine. This can be utilized for improvising drug solubility, bioavailability as well as drug permeation through the skin. Natural deep eutectic solvent (NADES) can be considered as an alternate option, replacing harsh solvents. It has special characteristics of better biodegradability and biocompatibility. These NADES mainly used to separate and purification of natural compounds. This review focuses on the eutectic mixture and its application in the area of drug delivery systems, and pharmaceutical and pharmacological fields.</p> Balakrishnan I, Jawahar N, Senthil Venkatachalam, Debosmita Datta Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-tubercular drugs, predisposing factors and management of drug-induced hepatotoxicity: A concise and up-to-date <p>Tuberculosis remains a leading cause of death in developing countries. In India antitubercular treatment was effective from the 1950s and has been engaged for more than 50 years. Hepatotoxicity secondary to antitubercular drug treatment is a major threat to tuberculosis. Anti-tubercular drugs like isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide are potentially hepatotoxic and their adverse reactions are based on dose or hypersensitivity. Hepatotoxicity can occur within a few weeks of initiating intensive phase and elevation of serum transaminase levels with signs and symptoms are considered as the diagnostic criteria. The variations in the incidence of anti-tubercular drug-induced hepatotoxicity may be due to differences in patient characteristics, regimen used, type of monitoring and the diagnostic criteria defining hepatotoxicity. Predisposing factors associated with anti-tubercular drug-induced hepatotoxicity include advanced age, gender, nutritional status, alcohol intake, extensive TB, indiscriminate use of various drugs, ethnic factors, chronic liver disease and concomitant infections. There are no evidence-based guidelines that are accessible for the management of these patients. Management of hepatotoxicity generally involves withholding the anti-tubercular drugs and reintroduction after normalization of biochemical markers of liver injury</p> Rasmi S Nair, Akhilesh K, Emmanuel James Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evidence Based Herbal Medicine for Modern Dentistry <p>Ayurveda is a branch of medicine pertaining with the treatment modalities utilizing the natural ways . Traditional medicine has several benefits including being economically beneficial and having lesser toxic effects also proven to be a permanent cure when compared with its allopathic counterparts . The benefits of several such naturally occurring medicines is still not clear . They are used as anti-inflammatory agent , antifungal agent and can also be used as antioxidants and analgesics . Introducing Herbal Medicine into Dentistry will be beneficial in several aspects like relieving pain , inflammation , being cost effective and readily available etc. Apart from all the uses , the belief that ‘The herbal medicine is devoid of side effects is not true . Despite of all these advantages of traditional medicines , the amount of their usage is comparatively less owing to the lack of its awareness. Hence the objective of the article is to mention the uses and toxicities of most commonly used herbs and their usage in dentistry</p> Chinmayee Dahihandekar, Sweta Kale Pisulkar, Rohit Mistry, Hetal Purohit Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evolution of liquid chromatography: Technologies and applications <p>Liquid chromatographic offers efficient analyte separation employing high pressure pumps. The reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) is widely utilized in the purity testing and quantitative determination of pharmaceuticals and neutraceuticals. The limitations of traditional liquid chromatography such as particle size, resolution and selectivity demanded for the developments and Waters Corporation developed ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Ultrafast liquid chromatography (UFLC) is another milestone, which offers faster and efficient separation. Multidimensional UHPLC provides separation of complex molecules. The particle size decrease enhances the resolution of LC separation. Ethylene bridged hybrid (BEH), Charged surface hybrid (CSH) and Peptide separation technology (PST) offer better performance in. The amalgamation of chromatographic and spectroscopic detectors namely fluorescence detector (FD) and mass spectrometry (MS) provides efficient separation. Liquid chromatography (LC) offers the analysis of pharmaceuticals, biological, food materials, and natural products. This review covers technologies and recent pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of liquid chromatography technologies</p> Durai Ananda Kumar T, Sai Charan, Venkateswarlu A, Supriya Reddy K Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Botox: Therapy Beyond Beauty <p>Botulinum toxin originated from the Latin term ‘botulus’ meaning ‘sausage’. Botulinum toxin is a bacterial extract which acts at the synaptic level and inhibits the neuronal uptake of acetylcholine causing inhibition of muscular contraction. This property of botox proves to be useful in various muscle spastic disorders. Commercially accessible under the brand label of Botox and is universally used in cosmetic field in managing wrinkles and crow lines correspondingly it has multitude of use in treating innumerable maxillofacial complex disorders like Temperomandibular disorders, Hypertonicity of lips, gummy smiles, Bruxism, trigeminal neuralgia and other types of facial pain. Botox is regarded as minimally invasive procedure with promising results in muscular disorders as well as cosmetic purpose. Botulinum when used in therapeutic doses proves to be boon to mankind. The effects are dose dependent as it comes with the black box warning. Overcoming this disadvantage of botox, the newly emerged Frotox ® based on the (Focussed Cold Therapy) is used nowadays and proves to be more efficacious.This article describes in detail about the origin of the toxin, it’s commercially available forms. It also describes the clinical technique, its pros and cons with instructions with patient as well as operator point of view.</p> Hetal Purohit, Sweta Kale Pisulkar, Rohit Mistry, Chinmayee Dahihandekar, Surekha Godbole, Soniya Aswale Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Benzothiazole moieties and their derivatives as antimicrobial and antiviral agents: A mini-review <p>Heterocyclic chemistry has provided an inexhaustible source of pharmaceutical molecules. Heterocyclic compounds such as benzothiazole moieties and its derivatives area substantial class of compounds in pharmaceutical chemistry and exhibited therapeutic capabilities, such as antitumor, anticancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antiviral, antimicrobial, antimalarial, anthelmintic and other activities. Besides, some antibiotics such as penicillin and cephalosporin have heterocyclic moiety. The growing prevalence of multi-drug resistant pathogens represents serious global concern,which requires the development of new antimicrobial drugs. Moreover, the emergence of pandemic SARSCoV-2 causing Covid-19 disease and all these health dilemmas urge the scientific community to examine the possible antimicrobial and antiviral capacities of some bioactive benzothiazole derivatives against these severe causative agents.This mini-review highlights some recent scientific literature on different benzothiazole molecules and their derivatives. It turns out that, there are numerous synthesized benzothiazole derivatives which exhibited different mode of actions against microorganisms or viruses and accordingly suggested them as an active candidate in the discovery of new antimicrobial or antiviral agents for clinical development. The recommended bioactive benzothiazole derivatives mentioned in the current study are mainly Schiff bases, azo dyes and metal complexes benzothiazole derivatives; the starting material for most of these derivatives are 2-aminobenzothiazole although careful pharmaceutical studies should be conducted to ensure the safety and efficacy of these bioactive synthesized molecules as an antimicrobial or antiviral drug in the future.</p> Manahil B Elamin, Amani Abd Elrazig Salman Abd Elaziz, Emad Mohamed Abdallah Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pharmacognostical and pharmacological activity of Justicia gendarussa burm.f.: a comprehensive review <p>Justicia gendarussa Burm .f. (family Acanthaceae) which is also known as willow-leaves and commonly known as Nili-Nirgundi, it is very commonly found nearby to China and its availability is very common in larger parts of India and Andaman islands. Traditionally it is used to treat various sorts of disorders such as wound healing, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antiproliferative, anti-arthritic etc. Justicia gendarussa is one of the crucial herbs which has been used in the Ayurveda. Majorly leaves parts of the plant shows the pharmacological activity but the root of the plant Justicia gendarussa is also have the important medicinal values. A large variety of pharmacologically active constituents i.e., alkaloids, flavonoids, saponin, carbohydrates, steroids, triterpenoids, carotenoids, aminoacids, tannins, phenolics, coumarines and anthaquinones are also present in this plant and they makes the plant pharmacologically important. The activity of the plant is also dependent on the solvent which is used for the extraction the various vital chemical constituents. The different- different parts of the plants having the different medicinal values also differ in the chemical values. This review is not only focused on the essential phytochemical constituents which is available in the plant but it also explains their necessary medicinal value to shows the essential biological action and phytopharmacological actions of various parts of the plant.</p> Ashish, Anjali, Dixit Praveen K, Nagarajan K, Sahoo Jagannath Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The curative role of some dietary spices in inflammation <p>Spices are mainly plants or their parts which lends an aroma or flavour to food. They form an integral part of Indian cuisine and are used to flavour and preserve our daily food besides other uses. Their immense traditional uses as diuretic, purgative etc. have been known to man since time immemorial. The traditional use to treat ailments has only currently been scientifically validated. The study of the pharmacological principles responsible for the activity of crude spices has also gained importance in recent times. Some of the spices used daily in Indian cuisine have been known to possess major anti-inflammatory effects. When the body is injured, it mounts a protective inflammatory response to prevent further injury or infection. In spite of its apparently docile nature, inflammation may sometimes cause extensive tissue damage. This condition is extremely dangerous if left untreated. The review underlines the importance of some of the frequently used spices in the treatment of inflammation. It also highlights the molecular mechanisms responsible for the reduction in inflammation by these spices and further investigates the active principle responsible for the same from the various studies done in this field in an attempt to highlight the importance of spices in our lives.</p> Debjani Sarkar Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Current Status of Biosimilar Regulations in the MENA Region <p>This review article explores the regulatory situation of biosimilar registration pathways in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). With most countries in the world have either adopted official regulatory guidelines for biosimilar approval or are in the process of developing such guidelines, countries in the MENA region are advised to accelerate the process of adopting pathways for biosimilar approval primarily for preventing the entry of intended copies into such markets and risking patients’ safety in addition to jeopardizing clinical outcomes of the different disease modalities that are treated by biologics. Additionally, biosimilars are playing a significant role in reducing the significant public expenditure on biological therapy and thus increasing the accessibility of these medications to a larger population of patients. The article details the countries in the MENA region that have adopted official and scientific guidelines for biosimilar approval pathways. The article also draws a comparison between different countries on issues such as comparability studies, extrapolation of indications, interchangeability and non-clinical quality requirements. In conclusion, only four countries out of the 15 countries they comprise the MENA region have adopted clear regulatory pathways for biosimilar registration and approval. This situation should be of urgent importance to policymakers responsible for public health bodies in countries that lack such guidelines due to the negative consequences that could result due to the absence of clear biosimilar regulations.</p> Ammar Almaaytah, Hadeia Mashaqbeh, Razan Haddad Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-Helicobacter activity of medicinal plants and probiotics as alternatives for Helicobacter pylori treatment: Review article <p>Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative bacterium, known factor for chronic active gastritis, stomach and peptic ulceration, which may progress to gastric cancer. It is also associated with other non-gastric diseases such as stroke, diabetes mellitus and alzheimer’s disease. Although conventional treatment achieved a great advancements in controlling H.pylori infection nowadays it is not effective thus it’s intended to find some other alternative sources that may be used alone or in combination with antibiotics to eradicate the infection. Recently published literature of natural sources such as plant -derived bioactive compounds and probiotics are studied for their reduced side effects and for being safe and inexpensive. However, the mechanism of action by which these herbs and probiotics exert their medicinal properties in H.pylori treatment is still not fully clear. In this review, we highlight the potential antibacterial mechanisms of some traditionally used bioactive compounds and their possible role on H.pylori colonization. On the other hand, we focused on the possible inhibitory role of probiotics in the eradication of H. pylori infection through the release of organic acids and their role in the stabilization of the gastric barrier function in order to decrease the mucosal inflammation, modulate H.pylori colonization and enhance compliance in infected patients.</p> Deniz Al-Tawalbeh, Yasser Bustanji, Talal Aburjai, Qosay Al-Balas, Luay Abu-Qatouseh, Islam Hamad Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 09 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Oxidative stress during insulin resistance in prediabetes : a review on role of antioxidants <p>Oxidative stress is one of the major causal factors behind insulin resistance during prediabetes. It can impair insulin signalling by triggering stress activated signaling pathways and can also directly oxidize and damage the proteins of these pathways. Although cells have impressive stock of antioxidant enzymes and minor antioxidant moieties, these agents may not be adequate to maintain the redox balance during oxidative stress. The important functional antioxidant vitamins for tissue protection from excess free radicals comprises vitamin C, E and A. Vitamin C can improve insulin resistance by altering endothelial function and reducing oxidative stress. Vitamin E is an excellent trap for peroxyl radicals which suppresses ROS production in the pancreas, preserves pancreatic β cell function and maintains structural integrity of pancreatic islet cells. Vitamin A prevents tissue oxidative damage as well as exhibits a regenerative role in the pancreas. Like vitamins, minerals play a crucial role during oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Zinc is crucial for insulin actions and carbohydrate metabolism. Chromium activates insulin receptors through the oligopeptidechromudulin, which occurs in the insulin sensitive cells that binds to the insulin receptor, thereby increasing insulin signal transduction and sensitivity. Selenium up regulates glutathione peroxidase activity can inhibit NF-kappa B activation. The risk of diabetes and its complications will be more with elevating oxidative stress. Interventions with these antioxidants have proven beneficial role in reducing oxidative stress which can be utilized for reduction of insulin resistance in prediabetes.</p> Mohsina Hyder, Raja D, Visakh Varma, Ponnusankar S Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 09 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Mini Review on Mucoadhesion <p>The concept of mucoadhesion was started in early 1980’s with the aim of controlled delivery of drugs. Mucoadhesion is simply defined as the adhesion between two materials, in which one is the mucosal surface and the another one is the mucoadhesive dosage form. In the recent decades, mucoadhesive drug delivery system draw the attention in the gastroretentive delivery system. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems interact with the mucus layer covering the mucosal epithelial surface, and mucin molecules and increase the residence time. Mucoadhesive dosage forms are designed to increase the retention of the drug/dosage form at the application site, to provide a controlled release of drug for increased curative consequence. The medications which have local action or those which have maximum absorption in gastrointestinal tract require increased duration of stay in GIT. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were prepared by using either natural or synthetic polymers, which is interacting with the mucous layer and used to prevail over the physiological barriers for extended drug delivery. The mucoadhesive ability of a dosage form is depending upon variety of factors, such as the nature of the mucosal tissue and the physicochemical properties of the polymeric formulation. This review article aims to provide an overview of the various theories of mucoadhesion, properties of mucoadhesive materials, methods to study the mucoadhesion, and finally various mucoadhesive dosage forms.</p> Gnanasekaran John Selvaraj, Arul Balasubramanian, Kothai Ramalingam Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 16 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Curcuma amada: A Review <p>Plants are considered as one of the main sources of biologically active materials. The medicinal property of a plant depends upon the physiologically active biochemical compounds called secondary metabolites. Curcuma amada is one of the important species of Curcuma family having medicinal and biological properties. The aim of the present paper assesses the phytochemicals, volatile compounds, antimicrobial and other biological activities, along with recent trends in research of C. amada. Volatile oils extracted from rhizomes of C. amada are rich in phytoconstituents. The major constituents found in its rhizomes are curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin), penolic compounds (caffeic acid, gentisic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid cinnamic acid), terpinoids (difurocumenol, amadannulen, amadaldehyde) and essential oil (β-myrcene and α-asarone). The curcuminoids present in C. amada is responsible for its therapeutic activities. It is traditionally used to treat various diseases which includes anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-tubercular, anti -allergy, anthelmintic and antipyretic activities. It also possesses healing of various skin diseases.</p> Mahadevi R, Kavitha R Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Recent developments in orally disintegrating mini tablets <p>Solid oral dosage forms are most suitable dosage forms; preferably tablets are widely accepted by people of different age groups. Mini tablets are tablets with a diameter equal to or smaller than 2–3 mm. Mini tablets are multiple unit dosage forms and are advantageous than pellets or any other oral dosage forms as they are easy to manufacture and stability problems are less. Many types of mini tablets are there like bio adhesive mini tablets, pH responsive mini tablets, gastro retentive mini tablets, paediatric mini tablets, oral disintegrating mini tablets. Current ODT developments meet multiple pharmaceutical and patient needs, including better life-cycle management to easy treatment for paediatric, geriatric and psychiatric dysphagic patients. Orally disintegrating dosage forms are X suitable for patients, especially who find it inconvenient to swallow traditional tablets and capsules with an 8-oz glass of water for one reason or another. These essentially reduce the variation between subjects. Mini tablets which disintegrate orally can be evaluated by testing for dissolution, disintegrating testing and hardness. The need for non-invasive delivery systems continues due to the poor acceptance and enforcement by patients of current delivery schemes, limited market space for drug companies and product usage, coupled with high disease management costs. The review emphasizes on advantages of mini tablets, types, methods of manufacturing and modes of administration and evaluation of mini tablets.</p> Sachin Sarashetti, Vikas Jain, Gowda D V, Pooja Mallya, Satish Babu Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nanorobots in Cancer Therapy <p>Cancer is treated effectively by means of currently available medical knowledge and equipment for therapy. Still, earlier diagnosis of cancer is a crucial factor to determine the probabilities of a cancer patient for survival. Cancer must be identified at least before the stage of metastasis. Another significant aspect is the develop an efficient targeted drug delivery system, which can reduce the occurrence of side effects for achieving an effective patient therapy. Nanomedicine approach can be utilised for diagnosis, treatment and preventing various diseases by using molecular tools and molecular knowledge of human body. By using nano-structured materials and simple nanodevices which can be manufactured, nanomedicine can address various medical problems. Within few decades’ technology assisted medicine and particularly robotics will have a significant impact. Surgeon’s motor performance, diagnosis capability etc. can be augmented by robots. Nanorobots can navigate as blood borne devices and thus it has an extremely important role in treatment of cancer. For diagnosing of cancerous cell inside the patient’s body at its earlier development stages, chemical biosensor embedded nanorobots can be used. To determine the E-cadherin signals intensity, integrated nanosensors may be utilized. The aim of the present article is to explore the future nanorobotic’s use to fight cancer and, their designing and architecture</p> Chythanya C. Kutty, Amit B. Patil, Asha Spandana K M, Gowda D M, Preeti S Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A promising method to enhance the solubility of poorly water soluble drug by using hot-melt extrusion technique <p>More than 40% of new chemicals are of poor solubility, it causes poor bioavailability. Several techniques are available to increase the solubility of drugs, such as converting the drug into salt form, complexion, co-solvency, particle size reduction, nano-suspension, cryogenic technique, modification of crystal habit etc. Hot melt extrusion has increased wide acknowledgment in the recent past. Over the past recent three decades modern flexibility has permitted hot melt extrusion (HME) is to increase wide acknowledgment and has just settled its place in the wide range of assembling activities and pharmaceutical research advancements. HME has just been exhibited as a vigorous, novel system to cause strong scatterings so as to give time controlled, changed, broadened, and focused on medicate conveyance bringing about improved bioavailability just as taste covering of bitter Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs). Hot melt extrusion is one of the efficient technique for improving the solubility of hydrophobic drugs by forming solid dispersion. It is a solventfree process and time taken for the production is less. The process involved in this technique include, weighing/feeding, Melting, Mixing, Venting, Extrusion, Cooling, Pelletizing. Solubility of many drugs have improved by utilizing hot melt-extrusion technology. In this review, a detailed overview about Solubility enhancement of drugs by hot-melt extrusion and its applications are discussed. This review summarizes the importance and uses of solid dispersion technique for improving the solubility of poorly soluble drugs</p> Kavinkumar Sakthivel, Krishnanand Anilkumar, Jawahar Natarajan, Senthil Venkatachalam Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Review on Insulin Formulations for Diabetes Mellitus Therapy <p>The insulin discovery during the past century is considered as the major breakout in the health sector. It is considered as lifesaving medication for T1DM and T2DM. In the advancement of peptide chemistry, pharmacology, cell signalling and structural biology insulin has played a central role. Natural human insulin secreted from pancreatic cells maintains the glucose levels in blood. Later on, for the treatment of diabetes mellitus external insulin was developed by various means. However, imitating same actions by natural insulin by external insulin was difficult. Various insulin analogues developed (rapid acting, short acting, long acting, intermediate acting) different blood glucose lowering action profiles. The physiological post-prandial insulin response is not adequately reproduced by the pharmacokinetic profile of rapid-acting insulin. Before the meals, lyspro and aspart, fast acting analogues can be injected which produce faster and substantial insulin peak. As it is difficult to produce a basal insulin concentration for controlling preprandial blood glucose Level with available long acting analogues, insulin detemir and insulin glargine was synthesized. This article covers the detailed study of human insulin and various insulin analogues developed.</p> Chythanya C. Kutty, Asha Spandana K M, Amit B. Patil, Gowda D V, Mahendran Bhaskaran D Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Quality by design (QbD) in the field of pharmaceuticals - A Review <p>The profile of the target product includes all the characteristics of the product like chemical properties, constituents of the product, physical state and formulation of the product, state of the product at which the highest efficacy and lowest efficacy is obtained. The medical benefits that can be achieved by the use of the product, site of application of the product, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics of the product, aerodynamics, toxicology, purity rates, sterility etc. For the development of manufacturing process, many factors should be clearly understood, which includes the necessary means of the manufacturing of the selected product, the ultimate goal of the manufacturing, what are the drawbacks that have been encountered. in the past manufactured productsduring and after production, how to overcome those loop wholes, what are the all useful techniques that may or may not be economic that can be employed in this manufacture developing process etc. For achieving all these, there should be a number of experts in manufacturing who are hired for this process, as it is always dealt with immense importance and economy. Quality by Design is a very novel approach for making advances in the field of medicine, which can be said as therapy with pharmaceutical advances can cure anything. But, very innovative thoughts by the experts and in-depth research and understanding of the therapeutic moiety of an organism and the disease can help in this advancement.</p> Jogu. Chandrudu, Gandhimathi R Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Huntington’s Disease- An Updated Review <p>Huntington’s disease (HD) is a rare autosomal dominant, fatal neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by unwanted choreatic movements, behavioural disruption, psychiatric disturbances and dementia. This condition is characterized by progressive degeneration of neurons within the basal ganglia, primarily the caudate and the putamen. As the disease progresses, neuronal losses occur in the white matter, cerebral cortex and thalamus. In this article, the authors reviewed the genetic aspects, etiological factors, stages of the disease condition along with the signs and symptoms, various diagnostic procedures besides with the pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of the Huntington’s disease. This disease is inherited within the families, and the pathophysiology of Huntington disease is restricted to the brain, where degeneration begins initially in the striatum, spreads to the cortex and eventually appears throughout the brain.The pathogenesis of this disease is still unrevealed, and there is no treatment available for the cure of the disease. There were many drugs of choices available for symptomatic treatment aiming to improve the quality of life in the patient. The non-pharmacological therapy for managing Huntington’s disease includes physiotherapy, speech therapy and psychotherapy.At a therapeutic setting, all the needs of the patients are to be addressed as the advancement in the development of new therapeutic agents are paving the way for the better outcomes in the management of Huntington’s disease and thereby promising better healthcare for these patients.</p> Hima Bindu Mylapalli, Ramam Sripada, Sireesha Maram, Sudeepthi Padala, Aksha Susmitha Jangam, Dasaratha Dhanaraju Magharla Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pulmonary drug delivery-Determining attributes <p>Pulmonary diseases are one of the significant conditions and influence the lifestyle for a majority of the population in today’s world. From ancient times, inhalational drug delivery is being utilised to target the lungs for the management and treatment of pulmonary diseases with reduced side effects. Factors like the physiology of the respiratory system, selection of devices, particle characteristics, and formulation characteristics affect the efficiency of inhalational drug delivery. The precise usage of the inhaler device is indispensable for the efficient delivery of drugs. The characteristic particle impacts the region of drug deposition and in turn influences drug dissolution. Drug dissolution is also affected by the physiological aspect of the respiratory tract, which is concerned primarily in disease states. Formulation type and characteristics decide the release mechanism and influences the inhalational pattern. Liposomes, nanoparticles, microparticles, micelles, dendrimers, etc. can be utilised for passive and active targeting of drugs to the lungs. Inhalational drug delivery can be harnessed to deliver therapeutic agents to systemic circulation for diseases apart from pulmonary diseases. The inhalational drug delivery techniques and devices are being continuously researched upon and reworked to acquire better drug loading with minor loss during drug delivery. The review focuses on the significance and factors associated with pulmonary drug delivery. </p> Hafsa P V, Vidya Viswanad Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Alzheimer’s Disease: Biomarkers And Future Targets For Drug Intervention <p>Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive disorder and the most common types of dementia that develops in the elderly, characterised by gradual memory loss and cognitive skills of an individual. The neurodegenerative disease is characterised by intracellular settling of hyperphosphorylated tau protein like neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in the neuronal cytoplasm and extracellular settling of beta-amyloid peptide(Aβ). These changes lead to cognitive decline due to the loss of synapses and neurons involved in learning, memory and cognitive function. Amyloid precursor protein, presenilin 1, presenilin 2 and TREM2 are some of the genes involved in the development of the disease. The current treatment for AD is the cholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, and N-methyl D- aspartate antagonist memantine. Other recommended adjuvant therapy was vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acid, Mediterranean diet, and aerobic exercise. Diagnosis is based upon clinical presentation and imaging biomarkers. This review summarises AD biomarkers such as cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, circulatory biomarkers, inflammatory markers and oxidative biomarkers which are under study and the future targets of drug intervention. The amyloid-beta peptide, tau protein, and β-secretase may be the possible sites of drug action in the future.</p> Reni P Paul, Arul Balasubramanian, Kothai Ramalingam Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Aphrodisiac Activity of Nutraceuticals <p>The name aphrodisiac is taken from Aphrodite who is penned as the Greek goddess of love, beauty and sex in an ancient folk tale. Dating from a remote period humans strive hard to improve their sexual powers but modern lifestyle and other environmental factors have resulted in many sexual dysfunctions . Current treatment strategies which had lead to unsuccessful results and high cost made man to search for alternative medicine or to include nutraceuticals in their food diet which improves aphrodisiac properties . There are hundreds of medicinal plants that can improve aphrodisiac activity and also there are herbs that have a nutraceutical value other than medicinal properties which improve aphrodisiac activity. There are many numbers of nutritional factors as well as phytochemical factors present in fruits and vegetables other than calories and fats which are helpful in providing nutritional health and to cure diseases. This review divulges about some nutraceutical food plants which are helpful for relieving sexual dysfunction or to improve sexual function.</p> Gayathri A G, Mruthunjaya K Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in Hypertensive Patients <p>Hypertension also called as increased blood pressure (BP) is a chronic disorder in which BP is persistently elevated in the main systemic arteries. The main risk factor for cardiovascular disorder is hypertension. It is common in almost all countries. It makes a silent and gradual progress. Quality of life is a wide term which mainly affects the physical health, psychological condition, level of independence, social relationships and personal beliefs of a person. The HRQoL in people with hypertension can be mostly affected by the disease condition itself or due to the adverse effects of the treatment. Determining the quality of life of patients with hypertension has become an important issue. The HRQoL of hypertensive patients can be improved if the treatment and lifestyle modifications are done correctly. Counseling the patients with hypertension regarding risk factors, lifestyle modifications and medication adherence can also improve the HRQoL. Several questionnaires are available for assessing the HRQoL of people with different disorders. This questionnaire or instrument can be categorized into two types: the questionnaires for a specific disease and the general questionnaire. The SF instrument was introduced in the United States of America by the RANDS Corporation’s Health Insurance researches. It has now been translated to more than 120 world languages. Short form instrument is divided into different types which includes SF-36, SF-12, SF-20 and many more. EuroQol created EQ5D as a standardized method for assessing health status to provide a clear, objective health measure for medical and economic evaluation. . The EQ5D instrument comprises of three versions: EQ-5D-5L, EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-Y. WHOQoL- BREF, is a generic questionnaire administered on its own which contain 26 items. The MINICHAL was developed or introduced in 2001 in Spain which contains 17 questions. The word MINICHAL was obtained from “Mini Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida en Hypertensión Arterial.</p> Mohammed Safeer V S, Umesh M Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Rapid microbiological testing method <p>Classical microbiological methods currently have unacceptably long cycle times. Rapid microbiological strategies are accessible within the marketplace for about 10 years and are mostly used in the clinical laboratory and in food industries. However, their reapplication in the pharma industry has wide range of advantage. A comparison with ancient strategies to be conjointly performed. During this review, data concerning the validation of RMM strategies described within the document was given in addition as proof of the issue of validation of those strategies. A comparison with ancient strategies is additionally mentioned. This data is beneficial to the industries and in the labs which will doubtless be adopted. These strategies for microorganism free products. This methodology for microorganism identification will be delicate, accurate and fast. How the laboratory should be maintained for carrying out different tests, there should be good hygienic condition maintained. This article also includes different methods for identifying bacteria which is present in drug products as well as the material which are used for doing test. Presence of bacteria may affect the activity of drug product and bio availability may decreases and potency the drug may loss. How the laboratory should be maintained for carrying out different tests, there should be good hygienic condition maintained.</p> Raghuprakash P, Gowrav M P, Gangadharappa H V, Hemanth Kumar S Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A review on current therapies and its problems in smoking cessation <p>Smoking is likely the most preventable reason for ailments and premature death in the world. In 2010 it was estimated that approximately there are 120 million smokers in India. Around 70% of tobacco smokers are willing to stop, yet just 2-3% prevail with regards to doing so for all time every year. The first line pharmacotherapies normally used for smoking cessation include Nicotine substitution products (gum, transdermal patch, nasal spray, inhaler, and lozenge), varenicline and bupropion. Non-pharmacological therapies such as patient education, Counselling when used by physicians along with pharmacotherapies are found to increase the cessation rates by two folds within a single year. Blend pharmacotherapies are expanding the smoking restraint rates and furthermore lessens the withdrawal manifestations and are demonstrated to be as powerful as monotherapies. Physicians assume a significant job in the smoking discontinuance process. Significant rates of quitting smoking are accomplished when non-pharmacologic help is joined with pharmacological interventions. New treatment options such as nicotine vaccines are found to have better therapeutic effects and abstinence rates on smokers compared to other pharmacotherapies available. This review article deals with the available therapies (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) for smoking cessation along with the limitations and adverse effects associated with different pharmaceutical formulations.</p> Aravind S R, Jawahar N, Senthil V Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 An Updated Review: Adhatoda vasica <p>The present review mainly focuses on the morphological and pharmacological activities of the Adhatoda vasica belonging to the family Acanthaceae, which is commonly referred to as Adosa or Adsogi. It also focuses on the evidence based therapeutic uses of A.vasica in various experimental models. This plant is found in all the ecosystem in India and other parts of the world as well. Because of its greater availability and multitude of pharmacological activities, the plant is being used in the treatment of numerous diseases. Extracts of various parts of the plants such as bark, root, leaf, flower, fruit and many a times, the whole plants are used in the management of pain, inflammation, asthma, cold, cough, diabetes, bronchitis, diarrhea, dysentery and other upper respiratory diseases and it is also used to heal wounds; is utilised as an insecticide, and also used as abortifacient. In asthma and acute stages of bronchitis, the extract of vasica offers an unflagging result by decreasing the thickness of the sputum. Because of the above mentioned reasons the plant has greater importance in the various systems of medicines such as Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani. According to the texts, the plant has greater power on asthma, abortifacient and uterotonic. Numerous trials have been conducted to prove the effects of A.vasica on asthma which led to its inclusion in WHO manual. According to the present day studies the alkaloids such as vasicinone, vasicine, and oxyvasicine which are present in A.vasica are responsible for most of the activities. But extensive studies need to be conducted to understand the constituent responsible for abortifacient and uterotonic activity.</p> Fathima T, Suresh Joghee, Ann Maria Alex Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Protective Effects of Edible Plants against Nicotine Induced Reproductive Toxicity –A Review <p>Numerous examinations have announced that the Nicotine present in tobacco smoke adverse affects sperm parameters, fundamental plasma, and different other richness factors. These harms are because of the natural finding that smoking expands the degree of free radicals, consequently bringing about oxidative pressure. Accordingly, an increment of free radicals, DNA harm and lipid peroxidation in human sperm may happen to bring about impedance of sperm quality. nicotine organization in trial creatures was initiate to influence spermatogenesis, epididymal sperm count, motility and treating capability of sperms. Huge quantities of restorative herbs have been recorded in siddha framework that improve spermatogenesis and increment the nature of sperm. The present review gives an outline on the relationship between male richness incited by nicotine and defensive impacts of different natural plants on it. The paper additionally features the dynamic, common standards, and rough concentrates of plants, which have been valuable in improving nicotine instigated testicular harms and supportive in spermatogenesis and multiplication. Despite the fact that the discoveries of this survey propose numerous herbs are extremely viable against nicotine actuated male barrenness still increasingly clinical preliminaries are prescribed to show their viability on nicotine instigated male infertility</p> Kanimozhi S, Bupesh G, Sumathy G, Jeganath S Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 23 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A review on steps involved in drug utilization review <p>Drug Utilization is also known as Drug Utilization Review, is an arrangement of persistent, orderly, criteria based medication assessment that guarantees the proper usage of drugs. Drug use/ utilization evaluation and medication utilization evaluations are the same as drug utilization review. It is a technique for acquiring data to recognize the problems related to the usage of drugs and if appropriately created, it also gives a method for revising the issue and in this way, it becomes a factor in reasonable drug usage. Evaluation of use can survey the real procedure of medication administration or dispensing of proper medication and furthermore the results of treatment. Drug utilization review services include corrective actions, prescriber reviews and further evaluations as a quality assurance mechanism. This article reviews the drug utilization pattern and evaluation of the process of drug utilization. The evaluation pattern can be classified into several categories such as prospective, concurrent and retrospective. The drug utilization evaluation process is a continuous cycle and its maximum effect is attained when it is conducted as a cycle rather than conducting in steps. This evidence-based approach with utilization of the medication is intended to depend on the best accessible clinical evidence to create explicit rules for a particular illness or utilization of a particular medication.</p> Philip Jacob, Arul Balasubramanian, Kothai Ramalingam Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 24 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Enhancing the content uniformity of low dose drugs by using different granulation techniques <p>Progress in pharmaceutical research has delivered very strong medications, which require cautious definition and creation so as to deliver strong oral measurement structures with satisfactory homogeneity and physical stability. Mixing and formulation of low dose medications can be individually testing because of issues identified with isolation, content uniformity and physical stability. A cautious control on these variables is vital while fabricating low dose drugs. Choice of excipients for the particular strides during detailing/process improvement is basic to build up a homogenous and isolation free low portion definition. Numerous sorts of categories of gear have been intended towards encourage blending of low portion drugs with excipients. A side from traditional detailing strategies (like wet granulation, dry granulation, and direct compression) different new procedures have been announced, for example, high shear granulation, requested blending and spry drying. These innovative headways ensure enhanced the assembling and nature of low dose drugs items by accomplishing their predefined goal of substance consistency through outblending and plan of low dose drugs. Blending and detailing of low portion drugs are advanced work and includes part of issues related to isolation, content consistency and physical soundness which can be constrained by right choice of material, strategy and machine. This article surveys current headways identified with plan systems of low dose drugs.</p> Ajmal K T, Arun Radhakrishnan Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 24 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Review on Holoprosencephaly Disease (CYCLOPIA): Risk Factors, Causes, Pathophysiology and Diagnosis with spotlight of various features reported in cases <p>Holoprosencephaly has a sever condition called Cylopia that is occur due to embryonic prosencephalon cleavage failure and contrast. Mostly cylopia form is holoprosencephaly, mid facial tissue is absent which causes the one eye on a single orbit. It is a sever deformity of median faciocerebal development. There are 1.05 cases in100,000 birth, still births of cyclopean. Abnormal nose above eyes or absence of nose, single eyes or half divided eyes in single orbit are features of cyclopia, where as reduced size of oral aperture or absence of mouth, absence of mandible with ears below chin. It is as etiologically heterogeneous condition, which can be caused by genetic mutation, chromosomal defect and teratogenic environmental factors. Environmental factors can be diabetic embryopathy, retinoic acid, several anecdotal suggestion of teratogenic factor for HPE, which includes salicylates and viruses. Some list of syndrome are also involved to cause cyclopia Like steinfeld syndrome, dysgnathia complex,Pseudotrisomy 13 syndrome and Smith–Lemli– Opitz syndrome. On other hand inborn abnormalities also cause cyclopia but its come under chromosomal syndrome. Anatomical detection can be done by brain MRI, whereas in prenetal diagnosis, sonography is more significant. Ultrasound also used early detection can be done and knowledge of sonographic finding soectrum leads to accuracy of prenatal diagnosis of cyclopia. After birth the chromosomal study helps to diagnose cyclopia along with postmortem biopsy.</p> Vishal Kumar, Savita Devi, Kamaldeep Singh Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 25 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Synsepalum Dulcificum: A Review <p>Synsepalum dulcificum also regarded as a miracle berry, belonging to the Sapotaceae family. It is cultivated for its mild fruits, which makes sour foods to give a sweet taste, the effect lasts for about 30 minutes. The plant is a shrub, containing red coloured fruits and localised to West Africa. They used this plant as their palm wine and also used this for certain other beverages to make it sweetened regionally. Because of its remarkable sweet potential used to make the sour foods taste sweet. Miraculin is the glycoprotein present in the plant responsible for the sweet taste. Some of the reported health benefits are anti-diabetic, effective food enhancer, taste disorder in cancer, alter the taste. The plant is known for its production of transgenic tomatoes. Ethnobotany uses of the plants includes in the treatment of male infertility, Asthma, Haemorrhoids, Anti-cancer etc. The aim of the present review was to brief the literature survey of the plant through the internet like PubMed and Google scholar for forming the platform to illustrate the ethnopharmacology of the plant, information about the traditional usage, important chemical constituents and selected pharmacological activities of the plant were gathered from available research papers to frame the review. The current review also highlights the phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Synsepalum dulcificum which will have been helped in the researchers for the further qualitative research.</p> Sadhana H M, Suresh Joghee, Hamsalakshmi Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 25 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A review on novel excipient for tableting <p>Despite the fact that the standards administering direct compression method have been notable for a long time, the system has as of late become progressively settled because of the presentation of excipients explicitly intended for direct compression method. These excipients are straightforwardly compressed by their own, yet can likewise be blended in with an enormous extent of medication substance with no noteworthy decay in tablet quality. Excipients with better usefulness can be acquired by growing brand-new substance excipients, recent evaluations of already available products, and novel blends of already available products. Any novel substance excipient being created as an excipient should experience different phases of administrative endorsement planned for tending to issues of wellbeing and poisonous quality, which is an extensive and exorbitant procedure. Furthermore, the excipient should experience a period of conventional advancement, which abbreviates the market selectiveness period. Co-processing is the alternative way novel excipients are approaching to showcase without experiencing the thorough security trial of a totally new concoction. It tends to be characterized as joining at least two built up excipients by a fitting procedure. The primary point of co-preparing is to acquire an item with added esteem identified with the proportion of its usefulness/cost. Advancement of co-handled straightforwardly compressible excipient beginnings with the determination of excipients can joined, their focused on extent, choice of readiness technique to get improved item with wanted both physical and chemical substance parameters and then it closes with limiting shirking with cluster to group varieties.</p> Pradeep Krishna Baskaran, Arun Radhakrishnan Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 27 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Antibiotic Utilization Pattern In Hospital Settings <p>Drug utilization evaluation is an effective tool for detecting the possible drug related problems and in enhance the clinical use of drugs in public and its impact on the health care system. This tool is adapted by pharmacists to assess appropriate use of medication. DUE usually focus on drugs with more side-effects, high cost or complex dosing regimens. It is important for almost all drugs especially for antibiotics because of its increased utilizationin hospitals and community settings. In prior to starting antimicrobial therapy, the prescriber should consider the type of infection, characteristics of the antibiotic, its category of use, spectrum of activity, cost- effectiveness and duration of therapy. The evolution of multidrug resistance and the emergence of multidrug- resistant microbes are on the rise which can be reduced by increasing the habits of appropriate antibiotic prescribing for the successful outcome of the therapy. Prescribing an antibiotic by understanding the significance of antimicrobial stewardship and following an appropriate guideline may lead to appropriate selection of an antibiotic. Hence, antibiotic utilization studies can help in improving the practice of rational use of antibiotics thereby improving patient safety, which in turn helps in reducing antimicrobial resistance, drug related problems and risk of mortality and morbidity.</p> Reshmi Raju, Ann Vazhayil Kuruvilla, Madhan Ramesh Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 27 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Mucilage: A Rich Source of Excipients Present in Plant Parts with Gold Status <p>Large numbers of pharmaceutical excipients of natural origin are available nowadays. Plant materials like mucilages with a variety of pharmaceutical applications are most common. They are being used due to their abundance, safety, compatibility, cost-effectiveness and eco-friendly nature as compared to synthetic one and have various advantages over synthetic polymers. To compete with and replace artificial excipients mucilages can be modified in many ways to obtain the required form of a drug delivery system. Currently, there are a vast amount of natural pharmaceutical excipients are there, and due to its increasing demand, it has become essential to identify or explore more plant mucilage sources to fulfil the industrial need. Mucilages are polymeric mono-saccharides or mixed mono-saccharides combined with uronic acids. On hydrolysis, they yield a mixture of sugars and uronic acids, and the mucilages that are obtained from plant sources have translucent and amorphous nature. Due to presence of hydrophilic moieties in mucilages, they can easily combine with water to form a gel or a thick viscous solution, and these extracted mucilages from the plant can be processed to a certain extent and incorporated in dosage forms to achieve the specific performance of the formulation. In this review, we describe isolation, characterization, pharmaceutical application and methods of modification to develop drug delivery systems.</p> Ganesh N. Sharma, Mayur R. Bhurat, Upendra B. Gandagule, Virendra Shrivastava Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 28 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Novel Drug Formulation for the Treatment of Hepatic Cancer- A Review <p>For metabolic transformation, uptake, detoxification, and excretion liver is the primary organ that is highly equipped. Thus, the liver requires targeting by means like a carrier-mediated mechanism to take xenobiotics into the bile, though high hepatic concentration is achieved by most of the drugs. Thus resulting in high first-pass metabolism displayed by the drugs and thus resulting in rapid clearance of the drugs. Uptake of particulate materials is highly contributed by the kupffer cells largely. However, drug uptake by the liver is highly dependent on hepatocytes. In drug delivery, tissue engineering and regenerative medicines which are various biomedical applications construction of nanoscale based bioactive materials is a desirable approach of self-assembly. By using a targeting moiety, we can decrease the side effects of the drug and increases the therapeutic effect of the drug. Lipoproteins are potential drug carrier to target the organs. Lipoproteins consist of cholesterol, polar lipid core surrounding phospholipid monolayer and apoproteins are embedded in it, and these lipoproteins are spherical. The core is a polar lipid in nature so that highly hydrophobic drugs are easily incorporated into the core. Lipoproteins are completely non-immunogenic, biodegradable nature. The present review should be regularly inspected to beat into the global market at an affordable price as well, particularly the vehicles which are proven to be efficacious in drug delivery systems used to treat liver diseases like cancer.</p> Komala M, Sathesh Kumar S, Padmavathy J Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Drug repurposing and it’s implications in therapy: an overview <p>Drug Repurposing is finding new use of an already existing drug. It offers affordable, cheap and faster treatment. Drug repurposing has an additional advantage over new drug development because it lowers drug development costs as toxicity and other measures, including clinical trials, have already gone through them. However, there are few barriers which need to overcome like legal and economic barriers. Alternative drug development strategies are now being explored, such as the repurposing of existing drugs used to treat other diseases. This can save a considerable amount of time and money since the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety profiles of these drugs are already established, effectively enabling pre-clinical studies to be bypassed. Awareness and encouragement can promote the flourishing of drug repurposing, which holds a great future in the modern medical sector. Improvements in health care and nutrition have caused impressive improvements in life expectancy worldwide. Repurposing is an accelerated drug development path since existing drugs have clinical and pharmacokinetic evidence. New approaches to drug discovery, such as the re-use of patented medicines that are used to cure other diseases, are under debate. This can save significant time and money because these drugs' pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety profiles are already known, potentially enabling pre-clinical studies to override.</p> Blessy Mariyam Babu Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Submucosal administration of dexamethasone versus methyl prednisolone in management of postoperative sequelae after mandibular third molar impaction - A systematic review <p>Third molar extraction is one of the most commonly performed minor surgical procedure in any dental practice worldwide, often accompanied by various postoperative sequelae such as swelling pain and trismus which intern affects the quality of life of a patient. Over the past few decades, different methods have been proposed in the literature and were clinically evaluated to reduce the postoperative discomfort after mandibular third molar impaction and out of which corticosteroids, have shown promising results. Dexamethasone (administered either orally, submucosally, IV or IM), methylprednisolone acetate and methylprednisolone sodium succinate (IV or IM or submucosal) are most commonly preferred corticosteroids in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The main objective is to systematically review the comparison of the effectiveness of submucosal administration of dexamethasone with methylprednisolone following mandibular third molar impaction in reducing the postoperative sequelae, and its discomfort and searches were performed in the PubMed, Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases. Two articles were most relevant, and the results of the comparison of the selected articles were analysed. From this deliberate audit, it is very well may be inferred that submucosal injection of dexamethasone plays a promising role in reducing the postoperative sequelae which includes swelling, pain and trismus and its discomfort following mandibular third molar impaction when compared with that of methylprednisolone.</p> Janani Kandamani, Divya Sanjeevi Ramakrishnan, Sudarssan Subramaniam Gouthaman, Santhosh Kumar M P Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 30 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pharmacognostical And Pharmacological Activity of Punica Granatum (Pomegranate): An Overview <p>Punica granatum (PG) Linn (Family Punicaceae) is also known as pomegranate in English and commonly known as Anar in Hindi, it is found in the nearby region of Iran and very often found in the Himalayas and northern region of India and also cultivated since the ancient times, all over the region of Africa, Europe, and Asia. The various parts of pomegranate plants like seeds, leaf, root, and rind, in the traditional medicine system, used to treat multiple disease ailments such as wound healing, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, decreases cancer risks, anti-arthritic, anti-proliferative and many more diseases.Punica granatum Linn. f. has an excellent level of pharmacological action, which very important according to the medicinal point of view. An enormous variety of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponin, carbohydrates, steroids, triterpenoids, carotenoids, amino acids, tannins, phenolics, and coumarins. This plant (PG) is very rich in phenolic compounds, due to the presence of such a wide variety of phytoconstituents. The whole plant was extensively used during the holistic medicine system in the treatment of the number of disease treatment.This review mainly focused on the large variety of essential pharmacognostic and pharmacological profile that is necessary to exhibit the crucial therapeutic activity and phytopharmacological properties of different parts of Punica granatum.</p> Anjali, Ashish, Dixit Praveen K, Sahoo Jagannath Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 08 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Leech therapy (Jalaukavacharana) - A gift of ayurveda for treatment of medico-surgical diseases <p>The first description of Jalaukavacharana (leech therapy) is available in Sushruta Samhita written in 800 B.C. Recently, many pieces of research have proved that leech saliva has a variety of bioactive compounds including anti-thrombin (Hirudin, bufrudin), antiplatelet (calin), factor Xa inhibitors, antibacterial and other property. The main objective of the present article is to explore the procedures of leech therapy and research works done over a few decades on the application of leech therapy in different medico-surgical diseases. The procedure of leech therapy is documented from authors' observations and information, and its application in different diseases is gathered from various published works of the last ten years. Many clinical pieces of research show that leech therapy is beneficial in various medico-surgical diseases. A total of eight publications were included in the final selection after systematic analysis. Leech therapy or Jalaukavacharan is an ancient Ayurvedic bloodletting technique that has the great potential to manage many inflammatory, ischemic, and infectious diseases. Leech’s saliva contains many biologically and pharmacologically active compounds that exert anticoagulant, antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory, and anti-edema effects in the host's body. Arthritis, venous congestion, vascular diseases, abscess, ischemic heart disease, etc. can be successfully managed by leech therapy.</p> Saxena Varsha, Srivastava Niraj, Kumar Pradeep Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 08 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Crisis Management System- an overview <p>The crisis is an emergency which interrupts the manhood, leads to instability everywhere. It affects an individual, group, or society etc. There are various types of crises, and everyone should have its management model and perfect plan to come out of it. Every must have a crisis management system and team. This management system a task force having minimum three to four capable members, who find out ways to overcome the crisis, and they should be able to succeed crisis. In a crisis, stress management is an important factor that may affect peoples as well as management severely. The significant part depends on the role of people and the leaders or officials, their in a critical situation. or officials should communicate effectively with needy peoples, helping members, task force, media persons to tackle the situation meticulously, as communication is the best way-out to the interpersonal conflicts. personnel must coordinate with the media to provide time to time accurate information. So, cumulatively crisis management capable task force team, cooperative peoples or officials, excellent communication, stress management practices, person who deal with media and well-equipped .</p> Gaurav Sawarkar, Punam Sawarkar Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 08 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Review on Neuroprotective Effects of Almonds <p>Almonds are prunes belonging to the family Rosaceae. Almonds are the most popular and very commonly used nuts. These nuts are extremely beneficial included properties of alpha-tocopherol, vitamin E, sucrose, phenolics, folate, brain tryptophan mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids. It is well known that almonds are protective, and preventive nuts for various diseases. The mechanisms have proven its effects in various body systems and functions like immunostimulation, antioxidant action, hypoglycemic action, prebiotic potentials, cholesterol levels, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective. Therefore, this study aims to review the neuroprotective functions of almonds, and a literature search was done in Pub Med, Google Scholar and Science Direct. From the selected database reviews about the neuroprotective effects of almonds were discussed. It is proven that the natural antioxidant property of almonds is said to be neuroprotective. The regular consumption of almonds in diet is said to increase the memory. The few review articles on neural effects of almonds have proven almond to be very effective and neuroprotective in nature compared to the other nuts. Therefore, it is recommended that dietary intake of almonds does not only have effects on cholesterol levels known previously it has major effects in developing and maintaining the neural mechanism.</p> Samuel Sundar Doss D, Vijayakumar J, Rekha K, Ayesha Parveen Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nerium indicum(Linn.): A potential phytomedicine against various health problems <p>Nerium indicum (Linn Apocyanaceae family) is wild plant and commonly known as “Kaner”. It is used against various health problems in India and China as ethno medicine. India and China is among the oldest civilizations on earth. Ethno medicines are developed in ancient time by experiences sharing with nature. Aim of the present study is to explore the ancient knowledge of phytomedicine in context of modern science. Vedic period is the oldest cultural representation of human civilization. Ayurvedic system of medicine was developed in ‘Susruta Samhita’ and ‘Charak Samhita’. Nerium indicum (Linn.) is one of the thousands of plants mentioned in Ayurvedic system of India as important medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The flowers and leaves of N. indicum have been used to stimulate cardiac muscle, relieve pain and eliminate blood stasis. Present review mainly deals with the phytomedicinal properties such as analgesic, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, insecticidal/molluscicidal, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, anti-cancer, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-feedent activity of N. indicum. Its role as bioindicator in predicting the environmental condition is also discussed. N. indicum contains glycoside, oleandrin, tannin, volatile oil 0.25%. Glucoside, neriin and oleandrin are found in leaves of this plant. Nerium indicum is one of the wild plants, which is commonly used in various cultures as ethnic medicine. Although recent researches on its medicinal properties had established its therapeutic value in treatment of ailments, yet lot of studies are still required to explain its potentials as safe phytomedicine.</p> Singh R N, Pradeep Kumar, Navneet Kumar, Singh D K Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 17 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Jigsaw method as an effective co-operative learning method to understand biochemistry concepts for First year MBBS students <p>The jigsaw technique is a method of cooperative learning which makes the students depend and help each other in acquiring knowledge. This technique divides the class into groups to work on small problems with the purpose of collaborating into a final outcome. Jigsaw method is simple, comfortable to adopt and easy to implement. Jigsaw method facilitates active learning without traditional lecturing. It is a peer teaching method as an attempt to shift from a teacher to the learner-centred paradigm. The main aim of the study is to develop cooperative learning by using of Jigsaw technique among the 1 st year medical students for learning concepts of biochemistry. And to determine the effectiveness of the Jigsaw technique by post-assessment of their knowledge of biochemistry. A total of 100 medical students were recruited and their pre-knowledge on the concepts of biochemistry was assessed. The students were trained by using the Jigsaw technique and their post knowledge was assessed. In our present, around 28 students in the pretest scored below 60% marks and only 4 students in the post-test scored below 60%, indicating that there was a remarkable improvement in the scores of these students. And also 85 students scored above 80% marks. Jigsaw technique contribute to a better understanding of the concepts, facilitates active learning, problemsolving, improves analytical skills and logical thinking, enhances communication skills among students.</p> Krishna Veni D V, Neetha Kundoor, Radhakishan N Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 09 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Retrieval of fractured Endodontic Instrument under dental operating microscope using ultrasonic tips : A Case Report <p>A Patient came with the complaint of pain in the lower right back region of the jaw. Root canal treatment was planned. While preparing for the bio-mechanical procedure, the Hand pro taper fractured in the apical third. Iatrogenic occurred as a result of the fracture of the endodontic instrument. Retrieval of the fractured instrument was planned to complete the cleaning and shaping of the canal. The removal of the fractured instrument was planned to be done under the Dental Operating Microscope. The use of an operating microscope enhanced the illumination and the magnification of the instrument. This illumination and magnification helped in the precision of removal. The ultrasonic tip enabled to reach of the fractured instrument in the canal and loosen the dentin around the fractured instrument. It allowed easy retrieval of the fractured instrument. During the retrieval procedure, the fractured instrument was bypassed before the use of the ultrasonic tip. After the removal of the fractured instrument, cleaning and shaping were completed, followed by obturation, definitive restoration, and prosthesis. As the removal of the fractured instrument enabled complete cleaning and shaping, it improved the prognosis of the case. When the endodontic instrument gets fractured, it should be analyzed over the radiograph to assess the fracture level, the anatomy of the root canal, size of the fractured instrument, check accessibility, stage of fracture, etc. If all the above criteria are met with the removal of the instrument only then, replacement should be tried. Otherwise, it may lead to a severe loss of root dentin, decreasing fracture resistance of the root.</p> Samrudhi Khatod, Anuja Ikhar, Pradnya Nikhade, Manoj chandak Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Case Report of Recurrent unilateral Bell’s Palsy in young female <p>Most facial palsies comprise of lower motor neuron type or Bell’s palsy. The mean incidence of recurrence of Bell’s palsy is 6.5% and can recur at any age. Although it was first reported in the year 1871, most of its etiology, pathology, management and progression are still neither fully described nor reported. We reported a case of Bell’s palsy in a young Saudi female who was presented with a unilateral recurrent episode of Bell’s palsy. Patient came to the emergency department with facial asymmetry, severe neck pain, loss of sensation on the left side of face and headache, while she was also not responding to oral medications. She was admitted to the hospital for an intravenous treatment and for further evaluation. Her serologic investigation was unremarkable. Similar episode had occurred five years ago as well, which was completely resolved after treatment. Her brain MRI localized T2 and T2 weighted sequence showed hyperintense lesion at the superior anterior aspect of left orbit and could represent lipoma versus hemangioma. Her presenting complaint responded well on IV treatment and patient was discharged on 11th day. She was also referred for plastic and neurosurgery services for the treatment of underlying cause. Recurrent Bell’s palsy is infrequent with etiology not fully elucidated. However, our case emphasizes that the timely medical treatment with regular follow-up is necessary for better prognosis and identification and treatment of underlying cause.</p> Khlood Mohammad Aldossary Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The role of the clinical pharmacists to improve the clinical outcomes of a kidney disease patient - A case Report <p>Pruritis is mostly presented as a warning/symptom of a few chronic diseases that may include kidney diseases. Often it can be an indication of any neurologic, systemic, psychiatric or dermatologic disorders. About 10-70% of patients with chronic renal failure, and patients undergoing dialysis exist with Pruritis. Undiagnosed Pruritis may develop into cellulitis and other complications such as septicemia. A clinical pharmacist role is crucial in managing such patients. Clinical pharmacists’ vital role towards the patient helps them manage the unhealthy condition, restore, and improve their quality of life. We had a case report of anaemia in chronic kidney disease presented with Pruritis. The treatment was going on for the severe anaemic condition. Pruritis was left undiagnosed. The treating physician accepted the intervention of the clinical pharmacist to add Epoetin-alfa 3000 units/mL thrice a week. This intervention reaffirms the role of clinical pharmacists in developing the pharmaceutical care plan for patients.</p> Deepalakshmi M, Diya C, Ajay Samraj P, Jonna Venkatesh, Kamalrathinam R, Arun K P Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Anti Inflammatory effect of Bacopa Monnieri ( Brahmi) on Swollen Joints – A Case Study <p>The arthritis is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease characterized by Pain, edema and stiffness of the joints. Chronic stages of arthritis causes swelling in and around the affected joints. The Siddha herbal medicines are becoming familiar as they possess less adverse effects. Plenty of antiinflammatory herbs are described in Siddha system of medicine. The plant, bacopa monnieri maintains its original place in the management of various diseases, including arthritis, and acts as anti-inflammatory drug. Hardly a few studies are available to prove the antiarthritic and anti-inflammatory properties of Bacopa monnieri. In ancient Siddha literature Bacopa has been highlighted for its antiarthritic properties especially prescribed to reduce the swelling caused by increased synovial effusion. The current study is aimed to assess the antiarthritic and anti inflammatory properties of Bacopa (Brahmi) paste on swollen arthritic joints. A male patient aged 70 was selected from IPD, Pothu maruthuvam department, Sri Sairam Siddha Medical College &amp; Research Center, Chennai -44. Bacopa Paste applied over swollen arthritic ankle joints showed good progress in very few days of treatment.</p> Sathyaseela R, Kamalinie R, Bupesh G, Baskar M, Vasanth S Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 23 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A case study of Alzheimer’s disease with work-related exposure to aluminium <p>Aluminium (Al) is a neurotoxin, and its work-related exposure can lead to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this case study, we describe the increased levels of Al in brain samples of a patient diagnosed with AD, who reportedly had work-related exposure to Al. In 2019, an Asian male died at the age of 64 with AD. His brain samples showed increased Al levels. The mean Al presence in tissues (n = 21) was 4.72, with a SD of 3.4 μg/g DW and a range from 0.00 – 18.35 μg/g DW. During his work in a large-scale aluminium factory, his work involved exposure to Al for five years on weekly four days basis. In our case study, we investigated the Al content of brain tissue in AD, and Al levels were seen raised and related to neurodegeneration. Work-related exposure to Al in a patient initially showed mild symptoms then lead to memory issues, and after years he was diagnosed with AD. Many clinical trials and researches are needed to find more possible effects of Al content in the human brain.</p> Vityala Yethindra, Gulzat Mataeva, Baian Beknazarova, Furquan Nazami, Yogesh parihar, Mohammad Shaour Khalid, Alenur Narsimharaj Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 28 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Ketorolac induced non allergic angioedema: A case report <p>Non- Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most commonly prescribed category of drugs. NSAIDs are the main cause of allergic reactions both in adults and children. Hypersensitivity reactions due to NSAIDs involve 0.3% to 0.5% of the overall population. Among the different types of NSAIDs induced hypersensitivity reactions, urticaria and angioedema are the most common. Angioedema can be of two types, allergic(IgE) &amp; Nonallergic( Non IgE) mediated. Allergic angioedema is immune mediated but non allergic angioedema mimic immune mediated allergic reaction without underlying evidence of immunological mechanism which can cause diagnostic difficulties for the clinician. Distinguishing immune-mediated and non-immune-mediated reactions can be difficult, so careful evaluation is needed. Pathomechanism of NSAIDs induced non allergic angioedema is based on cysteniyl leukotrienes and bradykinin pathway in which NSAIDs block cyclo oxygenase pathway and directs the lipoxygenase pathway and generates leukotrienes which result in the development of angioedema. NSAIDs induced allergic angioedema is quite frequent and NSAIDs induced nonallergic angioedema are quite rare.The detailed information of these reactions is necessary to decrease morbidity and mortality associated with the reactions.The early recognition and discontinuation of suspected drug should be done in order to avoid further complications. Here, we report a case of a patient with non allergic angioedema in association with use of Ketorolac.</p> Chinju, Mahesh P A, Shilpa Palaksha Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 28 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Case Study to Evaluate the Treatment of Shwitra with Ayurveda Modalities <p>In Ayurveda all the skin diseases are explained under the term Kushtha. The references of shwitra are found in almost all the Samhitas like Bruhatrayees and Laghutrayees. In shwitra disease the white patch is seen and considering these symptom it can be compared to vitiligo. Vitiligo is characterized clinically by the development of areas of depigmentation. These are often symmetrical and occur mainly on extensor surfaces. This hypopigmentation results due to destruction of melanocytes, which may be unknown in origin or due to autoimmune endocrinopathies selective IgA deficiency. In contemporary science treatment of vitiligo is not very effective. Potent topical steroids and tacrolimus is used which produces harm to skin on continuous use. So the effective medicines are expected from Alternative sciences. To evaluates the role of Ayurveda treatment modalities in shwitra. A female patient, aged 15 year suffering from white patch below the left eye since 3year was treated with both Shodhan and Shaman Chikitsa for a period to 5 months with follow up at every 15 days in between, Relief from the complaints was assessed by noting the changes in the size of patch. After 5 months of treatment the size of patch was reduced. The present case study revealed the efficacy of Ayurveda therapy both internal and external for duration of 5 months in the management of shwitra.</p> Trupti Thakre, Sourabh Deshmukh Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Ayurveda in Unmada With Reference to ADHD –A Case Study <p>Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurobehavioral disorders of childhood which affects the social, learning and behavioural abilities, Ayurveda explains almost all the Psychiatric and Behavioral disorders under the headings of Unmada and Apasmara where Unmada is a disease featured as unstable intellect, mind, knowledge, memory, consciousness, and bad manners. This case report is aimed at dissemination of role of Ayurveda in the management of ADHD (Unmada). This case study of 4.3 years male presented with complaints of hyperactivity, poor concentration, easily irritable, shouting, headbanging, unable to speak two words at a time and sentences since last one and half year. It has shown promising results. Rasayana is the source of achieving the excellent quality of rasadidhatus (body tissues) which increases life span, improves Medha (intelligence), stabilizes youthfulness, cures disease, enhances complexion, lustre, and voice makes body strong and healthy. So Sarsawataarishta with gold is selected as a choice of drug as best rejuvenator as it promotes memory and intelligence, improves speech, and promotes health. It provides nourishment to body tissue and also acts on mind. It opened the door of the Ayurvedic approach with hope to deliver the good result in similar disorders. The case was successfully treated with the help of internal medications which were carminative, digestive and mild purgative in action, external oleation and medicated oil enemas suggested by Acharya in the treatment of Unmada. In the view of Ayurveda, ADHD can be named as Unmada due to the specific psycho-somatic clinical presentation.</p> Rakesh Khatana, Renu Rathi, Anamika Khatana Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Physiotherapy rehabilitation program on postoperative ACL tear patient on prognosis leading to maintain consistency in sport <p>Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a devastating injury that occurs at high frequency during involvement in competitive sporting activity. Typical treatment of ACL damage is a reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACLR). It is projected that between 50 percent and 60 percent of ACL injured athletes will return to competitive sport. Athletes undergoing ACLR surgery are recommended for comprehensive rehab and preparedness to rebuild knee joint integrity and specific functional criteria to direct the comeback to sport to protect against secondary ACL damage.Patient main concerns were pain, with loss of strength and stability at the knee joint, the clinical findings found that there was a marked decrease in range of motion (ROM), and decreased strength of the quadriceps and the hamstrings.Diagnosis of case was grade 2 ACL tear which was confirmed by the MRI reports.The patient showed a great co-operation during the intervention period and now the subject is able to maintain his consistency in his sport. The outcome measures of physical therapy intervention progressed him in an enhanced athlete with return to his sport.</p> Prasad Risaldar, Akshata Raut, Dushyant Bawiskar, Waqar M. Naqvi Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000