International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps <p>International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJRPS) is quarterly publishing online peer reviewed scientific journal sponsored by Pharmascope Publications. The journal publishes research articles, review articles, short communications, case studies and reports in&nbsp;Pharmaceutical Sciences.</p> en-US pharmascope.org@gmail.com (The Editor) pharmascope.org@gmail.com (The Manager) Mon, 29 Apr 2019 07:27:58 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Assessment of knowledge and attitude on organ donation among adults in selected areas https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/252 <p>Organ donation&nbsp;is defined as when a person gives consent for their organ&nbsp;to be removed,&nbsp;legally while the donor is alive or after death with the consent of the next of their kin. The present study aims to assess the knowledge and attitude on organ donation among adults in selected community areas. The study was conducted in selected areas at Maraimalai nagar, Kancheepuram district. The research design adopted for this study was a cross-sectional study design. 60 adults were selected by convenient sampling technique. Inclusion criteria include a. Adults who were between the age groups of 18-60 years. b. Adults who were available at the time of data collection. c. Adults who were able to write and read Tamil and English. Exclusion criteria include a — adults who were not willing to participate in the study. The self-structured questionnaire was prepared to assess the knowledge regarding organ donation among adults. The findings showed that majority 37(62%) adults had moderately favourable attitude, 23(38%) adults had a favourable attitude; no one had an unfavourable attitude towards organ donation. The results revealed, a highly significant positive correlation was found between knowledge and attitude regarding organ donation among adults at the level of p=0.001**. Awareness programme can be conducted to improve the knowledge, attitude regarding organ donation among adults.</p> Jayabharathi B, Sangeetha Jagdish G, Devika M, Akila M Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/252 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of metformin gel against imiquimod–induced psoriasis in mice https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/255 <p>Imiquimod-induced psoriasis is an animal model of psoriasis.&nbsp; The antidiabetic metformin had anti-inflammatory, immunomodulation, antiangiogenesis and antiproliferative effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible beneficial effect of metformin gel against imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like form by scoring the erythema and scaling besides measuring of tissue homogenate levels of IL17/IL23. Swiss albino mice were used in this experiment imiquimod 5% cream applied on shaved back of mice for six days, and this is an induction group and compared with a negative control group that involved mice treated with ointment base only for six days. Third group; metformin 10% gel applied on the back of mice with imiquimod for six days. The fourth group included used of metformin 15% gel with imiquimod for six days. This data was analysed for significant level when p ≥ 0.05 by using either ANOVA test for biochemical parameters levels evaluation.&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;Furthermore, imiquimod 5% cream of induction group caused an elevation of inflammatory parameters; IL17 and IL23 in skin tissue homogenate when being compared to&nbsp;&nbsp; IL17&nbsp;&nbsp; and IL23 level of the control group. Whereas, metformin 10% gels showed levels of IL17 and IL23 with significant different from induction group. In addition, metformin 15% gels exerted a significantly low level of IL17 and IL23. The possible considerable antipsoriatic activity of topical metformin gel through reducing scaling and erythema and mediated through modest anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing levels of IL17/23.</p> Haider F. Alsaedi, Haider Falih Shamikh Al-Saedi, Adeeb Ahmed Kadhim Al-Zubaidy, Mukhallad Abdul Kareem Ramadhan, Hussein Abdelamir Mohammad Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/255 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of vitamin C supplementation on serum Cotinine, MDA and vitamin C levels in smokeless Tobacco chewers https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/256 <p>Smokeless tobacco is a commonly used drug in the world. Tobacco use in any form is a rising crisis for the population in developing countries. Tobacco contributes significantly to oxidative stress induced morbidity and mortality. The study was aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin C supplementation on serum cotinine, malondialdehyde (MDA) and serum vitamin C level in smokeless tobacco (ST) chewers. In addition, the study was aimed to evaluate the effect of duration of tobacco chewing on above-said parameters. A total number of 338 healthy participants of aged between 31 to 60 years were classified into two groups comprising of tobacco chewers and tobacco non-chewers. Tobacco chewers group further divided into three subgroups with respect to tobacco chewing duration. Participants were asked to take 1000 mg of vitamin C daily for 45 days. Serum cotinine, MDA and serum vitamin C were measured in all the participants before and after supplementation of vitamin C. Serum cotinine (p&lt;0.001) and MDA (p&lt;0.001) were significantly increased whereas serum vitamin C level (p&lt;0.001) was significantly decreased in smokeless tobacco chewers as than to controls. However, serum cotinine (p&lt;0.001) and MDA (p&lt;0.001) were significantly decreased whereas vitamin C (p&lt;0.001) level was significantly increased in both the groups after supplementation of vitamin C as compared to before. It was observed that the changes become more prominent with increased smokeless tobacco consumption duration. Daily intake of vitamin C may be beneficial to restore the oxidant-antioxidant balance in tobacco chewers.</p> Jaywant Thorat, Anand Joshi, Ajit Sontakke, Kanchan Wingkar Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/256 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Is Nitric oxide the missing link in glucose homeostasis? A study on correlation of Nitric oxide and Insulin Resistance in Obstructive Sleep Apnoea https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/258 <p>Nitric oxide is associated with glucose homeostasis. An independent relationship between Nitric oxide and insulin resistance in Prediabetic and Obstructive sleep apnea patients without pre-existing diabetes mellitus are equivocally linked to increased risk of type II diabetes. A reciprocal relationship seems to exist between nitric oxide and insulin resistance. Aim of this present study is to determine relationship between nitric oxide and glucose parameters in control, prediabetic and Obstructive sleep apnea. A cross sectional study was performed in 150. They were divided into, group I (control), group II (prediabetics) and group III (OSA). Fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting insulin, HbA1c and nitric oxide were measured in these subjects and insulin resistance calculated by HOMA-IR. Data was analyzed statistically using Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis, the significant value being P&lt;0.05. Negative correlation was observed between the NO and insulin resistance in prediabetic (r=-0.627, P =&lt;0.001) and OSA (r= -0.416, P=0.003) respectively. Nitric oxide is significantly inversely associated with insulin resistance in Prediabetic and Obstructive sleep apnea.</p> Ramya K, Gowri Sethu, Dhanasekar T Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/258 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-glycation study of hydro-alcohol and aqueous extracts of Moroccan plant species https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/259 <p>Inhibition of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and free radicals generated during diabetes represents a major therapeutic target in the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications. Natural molecules present in fruits, vegetables and herbs and which are usually safe for human consumption, could represent a strong glycation inhibitor. Anti-glycation effect of nine plant species used in traditional medicine has been evaluated after extraction by hot (EAC) or cold (EAF) maceration and by ethanol (EE). Anti-glycation activity performed on a model system of bovine serum albumin, and methylglyoxal was measured by fluorescence and native electrophoresis. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were assessed as well. Except for <em>Sesamum indicum</em>, all the species studied have an Anti-glycation effect. The highest effect was recorded in <em>Laurus nobilis</em> and was dose-dependent, inhibiting both formations of Amadori products and fluorescent AGEs. HPLC analysis revealed a richness of <em>Laurus nobilis</em> EE in phenolic compounds such as quercetin, vanillin and gallic acid. A strong correlation was registered between antioxidant power and phenolic/flavonoid content. In contrast, there was no correlation between antioxidant and anti-glycation power. Phenolic and flavonoid compounds were strongly involved in the observed anti-glycation effect. However, the anti-glycation activity obtained is probably attributed to non-antioxidant compounds.</p> Ramdan B, Ramdan R, El Karbane M, El Maadoudi M, Ben Mrid R, Nhiri M Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/259 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Antidermatophytic, the anticancer and antioxidant activity of Cassia alata ethanolic extract and its phytochemical analysis https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/260 <p><em>Cassia alata</em> is used traditionally to cure various diseases like ulcers, stomach pain and fever. The potential of antidermatophytic, free radical scavenging and cytotoxic activity of ethanol leaves extracts of <em>C. alata</em> was studied. The preliminary phytochemical screening assay elucidates that presence of carbohydrates, tannin, phenol, saponin, flavonoid, steroid, terpenoids, glycosides, and alkaloids. Further phytochemical extraction was done by GC-MS, HPLC and FTIR. GC-MS analysis confirms that the presence of two major compounds namely Hexadecanoic acid and Oleic acid with four minor compounds. HPLC techniques revealed that the presence of two major compounds observed in two different retention time. FTIR spectrum revealed that the presence of carboxylic groups, alkanes, aldehydes and aliphatic amines in the ethanol extract of <em>C. alata</em> leaves. Cytotoxic effect of ethanol extract was assayed at different concentrations like 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg/ml against human epithelial carcinoma (A431). At100 μg/ml of ethanol concentration, 93.26±5.44 (%) and 82.45±2.44 (%) percentage of cancer cells were inhibited by ethanol extract and standard drug, respectively. Microscopic images of cancer cells treated with ethanol extract confirm the morphological changes and shrinkages of cells leads to cell death. These results were suggesting that Cassia alata exhibit high potential antioxidant, antidermatophytic and cytotoxic activity and also it could serve as alternative new resources for manufacturing new drugs against newly evaluating diseases.</p> Sujatha J, Rajeshkumar S, Lakshmi T Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/260 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Green synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Cassia fistula and its antibacterial activity https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/261 <p>Green synthesis of titanium oxide nanoparticles has more advantages when compared with the chemical method. This work reports a green synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO<sub>2</sub>NPs) by the herbal plant extracts of <em>Cassia fistula</em>. Then the green synthesized NPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infra-Red spectroscopy (FT-IR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The result of the SEM image shows that the nanoparticles are spherical in shape. The antibacterial activity was done on <em>Escherichia coli </em>and <em>Staphylococcus aureus.</em></p> Swathi N, Sandhiya D, Rajeshkumar S, Lakshmi T Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/261 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Preparation of yeast mediated semiconductor nanoparticles by Candida albicans and its bactericidal potential against Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/262 <p>Biosynthesis of nanoparticles using microorganism is widely used in biological applications due to its eco-friendly nature and lower cost. The present study aimed to investigate the yeast, <em>Candida albicans</em> for the synthesis of nano cadmium sulfide is a semiconductor nanoparticle. The yeast synthesized nanoparticles tested for its spectroscopic and microscopic characters. The peak at 420 nm identified by UV-Vis spectrophotometer confirms the Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles synthesis preliminarily. Further, the nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction assay, scanning electron microscope, and elemental dispersive analysis. Finally, the synthesized Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles were tested for its antibacterial activity against disease-causing pathogens such as <em>Salmonella typhi</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus.</em> The maximum zone of inhibition shows 15mm at the concentration of 100µl of CdS nanoparticle. Thus a promising antibacterial activity of yeast mediated synthesized Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles was described.</p> Venkat Kumar S, Sowmya B, Geetha R, Karpagambigai S, Jacquline Rosy P, Rajeshkumar S, Lakshmi T Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/262 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A novel RP- HPLC method development and forced degradation studies for semaglutide in active pharmaceutical ingredients and pharmaceutical dosage form https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/263 <p>This research objective is for the development of a specific and simple method to trace Semaglutide presence in active pharmaceutical ingredient and pharmaceutical dosages. As part of a study on Semaglutide drug, solvents of HPLC grade waters HPLC instrument (Empower software) with PDA detector, ultrasonicator (Make: Labman) and pH meter (Make: Adwa) are used. The Method was optimized with mobile phase with a composition of buffer and solvent were of 60:40%v/v, flow maintained was 1.0ml/min, the injection volume of 10µl, run time was 5min. All separations were performed with PDA detector and column used was Discovery C18 150 x 4.6mm, 5m. Results for the developed method are accurate and specific. The detection wavelength was 292 nm, the retention time for Semaglutide was 2.689min, linearity resulted with r<sup>2</sup>= 0.9998, % RSD for precision was 1.0; %mean recovery for accuracy was in the range of 99.73 to 100.29.&nbsp; This study report is for industrial application for determining Semaglutide presence in pharmaceutical ingredient and dosages.</p> Arun Kumar Kuna, Ganapathi S, Radha GV Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/263 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Formulation development and in-vitro characterisation of ethosomes for the enhanced transdermal delivery of clotrimazole https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/270 <p>The target of the study was the development and <em>in vitro</em> characterisation of an effective ethosomal formulation of clotrimazole and to the performance of the formulation was investigated under different preparation conditions.&nbsp; The EE and from 9 formulations, the optimisation was done on the basis of its results which considering the concentration of lecithin and ethanol as the two factors and EE and in vitro release as their responses. The optimization was done on the basis of its results which considering the concentration of lecithin and ethanol as the two factors and EE and <em>in vitro</em> release as their responses.&nbsp;&nbsp; F6 formulation gained a very good release of drug and highest entrapment efficiency of 93.203%. The results of permeation flux were obtained in the order of MLVs &gt; ESUVs &gt; SSUVs &gt; LUVs.&nbsp; This study gives an idea about the vesicles structure and the size, the technique used, the drug EE and the permeation rate. They were taking the above factors into consideration results in improving clinical effectiveness in transdermal delivery of an ethosomal formulation of clotrimazole.</p> Vidya Viswanad, Anju PG, Gopika S Kumar, Sivapriya G Nair Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/270 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Docking, Screening, Synthesis of 4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-phenyl-1-benzofuran-3(2H)-one derivatives as new leads for anti-cancer activity https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/271 <p>Auroneis a bicyclic ring where a benzene ring fused with a furanone. Docking is an efficient tool in the development of new lead molecules. Docking, virtual screening, ADMET prediction are prominent devices in the identification of new lead molecules. Synthetic chemistry plays a major in developing a series of potent anti-cancer agents. Benzofuranone was synthesized by reacting benzene diols, and triols with bromo phenyl acetonitrile yielded an imine derivative are converted to a ketone with treatment with hydrochloric acid then cyclised with sodium acetate. The compounds identity and purity were confirmed by spectral and analytical methods. Benzofuranone derivatives are screened antineoplastic activity was performed against human skin cancer cell line G361 at micro molecular concentrations. The compound IIIA was found to be with potent activity.</p> Raghava Doonaboyina, Abhilasha Mittal, Sridhar Babu Gummadi Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/271 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Computational design, Synthesis of 4,6-dihydroxy-2-phenyl-1-benzofuran-3(2H)-one derivatives as new leads for anti-cancer activity https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/273 <p>Benzofuranone is a bicyclic ring where a benzene ring fused with a furanone. Computation chemistry plays a major role in the development of new lead molecules. Computational tools docking, virtual screening, ADMET prediction are utilised in the identification of new lead molecules. Synthetic chemistry plays a major in developing a series of potent anti-cancer agents. Benzofuranone was synthesized by reacting benzene diols, and triols with bromo phenyl acetonitrile yielded an imine derivative are converted to a ketone with treatment with hydrochloric acid then cyclised with sodium acetate. The compounds identity and purity were confirmed by spectral and analytical methods. Benzofuranone derivatives are screened antineoplastic activity was performed against human skin cancer cell line G361 at micro molecular concentrations. The compounds IA, IB, ID, IE, IF, was found to be with potent activity.</p> Raghava Doonaboyina, Abhilasha Mittal, Sridhar Babu Gummadi Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/273 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of BCR-ABL gene in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia patients treated with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Drugs by Gene Expert System https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/274 <p>Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is one of the human fatalities caused by genetic mutation and chromosomal translocation, a <em>BCR-ABL</em> fusion gene and as a result, Philadelphia chromosome is formed. The irregular tyrosine kinase activity of the encoded protein by this gene causes the establishment of the disease. This study was conducted at the period from September 2016 to February 2017,100 Iraqi CML patients were divided into two groups, first group of 50 patients were received Imatinib 400-800 mg/day, second group of another 50 patients were received 800 mg/day Nilotinib, WBC were microscopically counted using improved Neubauer ruled hemocytometer counting chamber. The results of WBC count in different disease duration and stages of treatment in the group of patients treated with Imatinib showed that highest WBC count was observed in newly diagnosed patients while there was a significant reduction in the WBC count after one month, after one year and final dose of treatment were 11.8, 6.4 and 8.1 respectively, on the other hand the results of WBC count&nbsp; in the group of patients treated with Nilotinib showed that the highest WBC count was observed in newly diagnosed patients 87.54± 8.71 whereas the WBC count after one month, one year and at the final dose of treatment were 7.3, 6.8, 7.9 respectively with significant reduction in the WBC count. The results of the CML patient’s distribution according to BCR-ABL gene analysis in the patient's group treated with Imatinib showed that high concentration in newly diagnosed patients 4.753 as compared with significant reduction with other stages of treatment after one month and after one year 0.94 and 0.09 respectively.</p> Maysaa Ali Abdul Khaleq, Hussein Ali Saheb, Ahmed M Sultan, Mohsen A. N. Alrodhan Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/274 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative studies on phytochemistry, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of direct and sequential extracts of chromolaena odorata leaves https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/275 <p>Phytochemistry, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of different solvent extracts of <em>Chromolaena odorata </em>leaves obtained by direct and sequential extraction were compared in this study. Antibacterial evaluation of the extracts was performed through a disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the solvents, Petroleum ether and Ethyl acetate showed the presence of a majority of the phytochemicals, Chloroform extract yielded maximum TPC and TAA and ethyl acetate yielded higher TFC when compared to other solvents. Ethanol and chloroform extracts showed lower concentrations of IC<sub>50</sub> against DPPH and NO radicals respectively. Acetone recorded the maximum zone of inhibition against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>; ethyl acetate against <em>Bacillus subtilis </em>and Chloroform against <em>Streptococcus mutans. </em>Among the solvents studied for phytochemical content and bioactivities, ethanol showed a higher level of phytochemical extraction and better bioactivities. As a direct solvent extraction of <em>C. odorata </em>showed better efficiency when compared with sequential extraction, the study strongly recommends the use of a direct extraction method.</p> Udaya Prakash N K, Sriraman V, Devika V, Peneena V, Sripriya N, Bhuvaneswari S, Sampathkumar B Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/275 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of the effect of salt water rinse, sugar-free chewing gum and tooth brushing on the pH of saliva https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/276 <p>To compare the effect of salt water rinse, sugar – free chewing gum and tooth brushing on the pH of saliva. 30 participants were included in the study. Baseline pH was measured using a digital pH meter. The participants were asked to swish their mouths with sucrose solution, and pH was measured. They were randomly divided into three groups namely; Group A –salt water rinse, Group B-sugar-free chewing gum and Group C- tooth brushing. After the intervention, the final pH was measured, and the recordings were compared. Repeated measures ANOVA test was used to compare the pH at Baseline, after rinsing and after an intervention. Bonferroni post-hoc test was done to do pair-wise comparison within the groups. There was significant difference pH at baseline and after intervention in all the three groups with Group B showing better results followed by Group C and then Group A. Sugar-free chewing gum significantly increased the pH of the saliva followed by tooth brushing and then salt water rinse.</p> Manisha, Deepa Gurunathan, Senthil Kumar M Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/276 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Reverse phase-UPLC method of analysis for simultaneous estimation of Levosalbutamol sulphate, Guaiphenesin and Ambroxol hydrochloride in pharmaceutical cough, cold liquid dosage forms https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/277 <p>The three most drug combinations for cough, cold are widely used worldwide now a day. The purpose of the study was to build up an innovative RP-UPLC technique for simultaneous estimation of Levosalbutamol Sulphate (LEV), Guaiphenesin (GUA) and Ambroxol Hydrochloride (AMB) in liquid dosage forms. Chromatography was carried out on UHPLC (WATERS)_SYMMETRY<sup>®</sup> C18 4.6mm x 1000mm, 3.5µm, (Agilent - Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 – Rapid Resolution) with an isocratic mobile phase with pH 3.0 composed of buffer, methanol and Acetonitrile (60:20:20) with a flow rate of 0.8mL/min. The detection was carried out with column temperature at 25°C using a UV detector at 276nm. Validation parameters like linearity, specificity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), system suitability, Solutions stability and robustness were considered as affirmed in the ICH guidelines. Retention times for LEV, GUA &amp; AMB were 1.07 min, 1.99 min &amp; 3.55 min respectively. The assay of syrups with the relative standard deviation found to be less than 2%. The parameters values were found, and the method was found to be satisfactory. This validated UHPLC method is cost-effective, receptive and precise than other chromatographic methods.</p> Kiran Kumar A, Balakrishnan M, Chandrasekhar Kothapalli Bannoth Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/277 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-oxidant, Cytotoxic and Apoptotic studies of root bark assisted Silver Nanoparticles from Aphanamixis polystachya https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/365 <p>The aim of the present investigations was to fabricate and prepare silver nanoparticles from the root bark of <em>Aphanamixis polystachya</em> available in Western Ghats of India and also to assess their antioxidant, cytotoxic and apoptotic activity. The root bark extract of the plant, <em>A. polystachya</em> was used for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP). The AgNP were characterized with the help of UV-Vis Spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD)and Thermogravimetric analysis. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects were studied using methanolic extract and AgNP of <em>A. polystachya</em> on human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). Silver nanosuspension was formulated, and <em>in vitro</em>, antioxidant activity by DPPH assay and Nitric Oxide assay were assessed on a methanolic extract of the root bark and silver nanosuspension of <em>A. polystachya.</em> The percentage cell growth on MCF-7 cells was found to be 39.8, 21.6, 18.0 and 15.6 at 10, 20, 40 and 80µg/ml respectively. In the case of MDA-MB231 cells, the percentage of cell growth was found to be 99.2, 80.0, 67.2 and 54.6 at 10, 20, 40 and 80 µg/ml. Growth inhibition (GI50) of &lt;10µg and &gt;80µg was observed in MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cell lines. <em>A. polystachya </em>silver nanosuspension significantly enhanced the antiradical potential against nitric oxide scavenging assay (IC50 4.7µg/ml) as compared with methanolic extract of <em>A. polystachya</em>. The formulation of silver nanosuspension of <em>A. polystachya </em>significantly enhanced the antiradical potential as compared with the methanolic extract of root bark of <em>A. polystachya.</em></p> Rajashree Gude, Arun B. Joshi, Anant Bhandarkar Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/365 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A study on assessment of sleep pattern among school-going adolescents in semi-urban Chennai https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/366 <p>Adolescent sleep pattern exerts an influence on their physical and mental wellbeing. Several factors such as academic stress, biological and psychosocial factors contribute to adolescent sleep. Reduction in the quantity and quality of sleep can lead to increased daytime sleepiness, interfere with cognitive functioning, memory as well as can lead to behavioural problems.300 adolescent school children in semi-urban Chennai participated by filling a questionnaire which was based on self- reporting of sleep pattern and sleep hygiene. On an average, most adolescents obtained inadequate sleep during the weekdays. The adolescents commonly reported daytime sleepiness, difficulty in falling asleep after going to bed, anxiety, morning headache and feeling tired of waking up in the morning. About half of the participants reported that parents exerted an influence on waking up time. Many adolescents reported the use of social media while going to bed which can reduce sleep duration. Paediatricians can play an important role in promoting healthy sleep practices by providing anticipatory guidance to adolescents and their parents.</p> Deekshanth Ramakrishnan, Radha Kumar Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/366 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Isatin – a potent anti-microbial agent https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/367 <p>From many years in hospitalized and ambulatory patients, it is observed that increased antibiotic resistance in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. For global health, a significant threat was found to be quick development of resistance by various microorganisms against anti-microbial drugs. In addition, multidrug-resistant organisms also developing rapidly which further complicated the situation. Hence it is necessary to develop and find out novel anti-microbial agent urgently. In the field of organic chemistry important role was played by heterocyclic compounds. They are acquiring more importance in recent years due to their extensive pharmacological properties and wide applications in the field of chemistry. Out of many available heterocyclic compounds, isatin and various isatin analogues were found to be significant due to its broad range of biological activities. Isatin has emerged as anti-microbial agents due to its wide range of anti-microbial potency displayed in both <em>in-vivo</em> and <em>in-vitro</em> method. In this review, various anti-microbial isatins were summarised &amp; reported. In addition, this review highlights the anti-microbial potency of isatin to the medicinal world.</p> Kosaraju Lahari, Raja Sundararajan Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/367 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the effect of exposure to coal mine dust on the lipid profile and liver function markers https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/368 <p>Workers exposed to coal mine dust for a long duration up to 20 years may come across health risks associated with heart and liver. A lipid profile is a component of cardiac function assessment. For assessing liver functions, 4 principal enzyme markers associated with liver were considered. Hence lipid profile and enzyme markers for liver function were investigated in this study. 120 normal population and 120 coalmine workers (both male and female) who were exposed to the coal mine for periods ranging from 10 to 20 years were enrolled for this study. Results available in the laboratory data for a master health check on population not exposed to a coal mine and those who have been exposed to 10 to 20 years were made use of for this study. The mean levels of both lipid profile and liver functions tests were found to be highly and significantly different for coal mine dust exposed cases compared to controls (p &lt; 0.0001). Surprisingly, the levels of most of the markers were within the normal limits and thus were clinically insignificant. A significant difference was observed with alkaline phosphatase. This study has demonstrated that biochemical tests should be done at regular intervals of time to monitor the incidence of health disorders associated with principal organs.</p> Ganesan S, Sangeetha R Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/368 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A futuristic perspective in subsiding the symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/369 <p>Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that primarily impinges the dopaminergic neurons in a particular region of Brain termed as Substantia Nigra. The disease affects more than 1900 people per 100,000 aged 80 years and above. Furthermore, men are 1.5 times more prone than their counterpart. Potential biomarkers escalated the precise diagnosis and helped to initiate treatment to limit its adversity. The current therapeutic schemes are focused on administration of Dopamine precursor, Dopamine agonist, Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor, Catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitors and deep brain stimulation. The CNS delivery focuses mainly on increasing the dopamine level in the brain. CNS drug delivery faces a crucial challenge of crossing Blood Brain Barrier. Blood-Brain Barrier Penetration can be attained by several techniques. Conventional drug therapy yields harmful affects to the patients without much therapeutics. It is visible that crossing BBB is quite strenuous process. It is mandatory for developing a novel approach untangling these situations. Nanotechnology-based formulations like nanosuspensions, nanotubes etc. promotes the penetration of drug across the sophisticated barrier without creating any deterioration to cells or organs. Several novel routes for drug administration reduce dose intake with increased and precise pharmacological action. Nanoformulations and Novel routes of drug administration are a promising tool to enhance the action of drug which helps to abate the symptoms of the Disease and assist in the betterment in treatment.</p> Sreeja C Nair , Sujaid Thayyilakandy, Arjun KK, Gayathri Krishnakumar, Gayathri PS Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/369 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation of multidrug-resistant bacteria from the hospital environment https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/370 <p>Antibiotics are used to cure the illness caused by pathogenic microbes. The resistance towards such antibiotics is becoming a serious concern in the present time. The frequency of drug resistance is increasing in hospitals. This aptitude to develop resistance against antibiotics has become a serious threat to the patients that are already hospitalized, making them more prone to infections and increased complications of already existing medical conditions. It can also lead to a high mortality rate in hospitals. The present work is designed to isolate microbes from the hospital environment to check the sensitivity against various antibiotics. For the isolation, aerosol-based air samples were taken by exposing sterile Petri plate at the OPD and general ward for about 10 minutes after that the plates were taken to the lab and incubated at 37<sup>o</sup>c for 24 hours. Pure cultures were obtained by sub culturing the isolates onto fresh sterile nutrient agar plates. The clinical isolates were tested for antibiotic sensitivity test by using Dodeca G- V Plus disk (Himedia). The isolates were identified on the basis of microscopic and VITEK 2 based identification. Total of four bacteria <em>Kocuria kristinae</em>, <em>Sphingomonas paucimobilis</em>, <em>Pantoea spp</em>. and <em>Staphylococcus vitulinus</em> were isolated that showed variation in antibiotic-resistant pattern.</p> Mahavir Joshi, Sukhminderjit Kaur, Bhavkiara Shergill, Sonali Sood, Mishra Tulika Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/370 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp) using different substrates and evaluate their potentials of antibacterial and phytochemicals https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/371 <p>Mushroom is a variety of gilled fungi belongs to the class Basidiomycetes. It grows on tropical and northern temperate regions mainly in a moist condition. Mushroom act as a reservoir of nutrients. Edible mushroom plays a vital role in maintaining human health. The most commonly used edible mushroom is <em>Pleurotus</em> (oyster). It is rich in Protein, fibre, minerals and vitamins. It has a variety of fascinating properties like anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiaging, analgesic and immune modulator property. The present study investigates the various phytochemicals and antibacterial potentials from the methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts of fruit body mushroom. The cultivation of mushroom using different substrates such as paddy straw and corn straw. The mushroom extracts were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening using standard methods. The crude extracts contain Alkaloids, Steroids, Flavonoids, Saponins, Phenols, Tannins, Proteins, Amino acids, Carbohydrates, Reducing sugar. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract had shown significant antibacterial activity against the test organisms. Enterococcal infection is a common infection prevailing nowadays. This study suggests that mushroom possess antibacterial potential against enterococcal species. So, intake of mushroom acts as a medicine for enterococcal infections.</p> Sangeetha K, Senthilkumar G, Panneerselvam A, Sathammaipriya N Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/371 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Diagnostic performance of heart-type fatty acid binding protein and high sensitive-cardiac troponin in patients in an emergency department sus-pected of acute myocardial infarction https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/372 <p>Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) also referred to as mammary­ derived growth inhibitor is a polypeptide structure that in humans transcribed by FABP3 gene. It is preferred to be investigated in combination with troponin to the diagnosis of myocardial infarction in patients suffering from chest pain. This study aims to evaluate the role of H­ FABP in early diagnosis of MI in comparison with new generation cardiac troponin (hs-c'Tn) and to differentiate patients with ischemic chest pain from non-ischemic ones. This case-control study was performed at the Department of Biochemistry, Medical school, University of Baghdad, during the period from December 2017 to August 2018. It involved 36 patients presented with chest pain; 18 ischemic patients (AMI) and 18 non- ischemic patients (non-AMI) who served as pathological control. Serum investigations included measurements of FABP and hs-c'I'n using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The mean (±SD) value of serum FABP levels at 1-3 hours did not differ significantly between ischemic and non- ischemic subjects, while it was significantly increased at 6-9 hours in ischemic patients (p&lt; 0.001). However, the mean value of serum levels of hs-c'I'n was significantly higher in AMI patients than in non- AMI ones at 1-3 hours (p&lt;O.0. 04) and 6-9 hours (u&lt;O.o. m). The results concluded that serum hs-c'Tn still the best biochemical marker in confirming the diagnosis of early acute MI and is superior of H-FABP in the rule in and rule out of MI.</p> Bashar J Hussein, Basil O Saleh, Nazar N Abbas Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/372 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Development and validation of indocyanine green assay in human plasma using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with PDA detector https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/373 <p>A robust and economical assay for routine determination of indocyanine green pharmacokinetics was developed and validated using high-performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector. Plasma specimens from critically ill patients and those with hepatitis on various co-medications were used as blanks for validation of this assay. Extraction of indocyanine green was performed by simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile, and the supernatant was separated using an octadecyl column with detection at 784 nm. Blanks were found to have no interference for 40 blanks of patients who were on 56 different medications. The precision for LLOQ (0.5 µg/ml) as determined by the percentage coefficient of variation was 1.19. Stability of plasma calibration standards and stock were determined over a period of 61 days, and ICG was found to be stable for 20 days. Stability of whole blood specimens containing ICG was determined at 4°C for a period of 4 hours.</p> Sumith K Mathew, Blessed Winston A, Aswathy Mathew, Jeana Jacob, Ratna Prabha, Binu Susan Mathew Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/373 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Antibacterial and Antifungal potential of acetone, ethanol and methanolic extract of marine red algae Gelidium amansii https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/374 <p>The marine algae <em>Gelidium amansii</em> is one of the important edible marine red algae having many biomedical applications. In this study, the red algae of <em>Gelidium amansii </em>were analysed for their antibacterial activity and antifungal activity against organisms such as <em>Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, Klebsiella pneumonia </em>and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>and<em> Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus</em>. The antimicrobial susceptibility test for the isolates by agar well diffusion method using following acetone, ethanol, and methanol-toluene. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and Minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) using the following extracts. The results are showing the antibacterial and antifungal activity of red algae is good.</p> Nagalingam M, Rajeshkumar S, Panneerselvam A, Lakshmi T Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/374 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-inflammatory activity of Punica granatum extract on oral microbes - In vitro https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/375 <p>To study the anti-inflammatory effect of <em>Punica granatum</em> extract against the oral microbes. Oral diseases continue to be a major health problem worldwide. Dental caries and periodontal diseases are among the most important global oral health problems, although conditions such as oral and pharyngeal cancers and oral tissue lesions are also significant health concerns. Pomegranate extracts have been used for centuries in traditional medicine to confer health benefits in a number of inflammatory diseases, microbial infections and cancer. The anti-inflammatory activity of pomegranate extract was evaluated by protein denaturation assay, and the results were read spectrophotometrically. Denaturation of proteins is a great‐ documented cause of inflammation. As a part of the investigation on the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity, the ability to extract to inhibit protein denaturation was studied. It was effective in inhibiting heat induced albumin denaturation at different concentrations as shown in Table 1. Maximum inhibition, 70.12±1.12% was observed at500µg/ml. IC50 value was found to be 105.35±1.99µg/ml. Aspirin, a standard anti-inflammatory drug showed the maximum inhibition, 77.12±1.42% at the concentration of 200µg/ml. Hence it can be concluded that pomegranate extract has anti-inflammatory property and also can be used in products such as toothpaste and mouth wash etc.</p> Westeros Dominic Pereira, Geetha RV, Lakshmi Thangavelu Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/375 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Estimation Of Bacterial Load In Patients Wearing Metallic And Ceramic Brackets https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/376 <p>To estimate the amount of bacteria present in patients wearing metallic and ceramic brackets. The objective of the present study is to investigate the amount of bacteria in patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliance. The fixed orthodontic appliance is the treatment of conditions like malocclusion. It includes brackets, tubes, band and ligating materials and archwires. Composite is used for bonding the brackets to the teeth surface, and it also induces the formation of plaque. Dental plaque is the main aetiology for Causing gingivitis. This study shows that the metallic and ceramic brackets worn by the patients were contaminated with various microorganisms. The main focus of the study is to create awareness among patients with fixed orthodontic appliance and to improve their oral hygiene and to prevent periodontal problems.</p> Ashik Ahamed A, Geetha RV, Lakshmi Thangavelu Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/376 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of renal and liver function in petrol station workers in Kirkuk city https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/402 <p>A cross-sectional study to evaluate the effects of occupational petrol exposure on the kidney and liver of petrol station workers in Kirkuk city was done. 29 petrol pump workers who were continuously exposed to petrol for at least one year in the Kirkuk city having no medical history and 10 healthy age-matched controls who were never exposed to petrol were enrolled. These serum parameters of both the groups were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test. Since all the parameters studied were normal in the workers exposed to petrol, it can be concluded that petrol did not affect their liver and kidney health. However, higher levels of serum cholesterol, TG, and LDL in the petrol station workers as compared to the controls are suggestive of higher risk of developing liver damage. Larger studies should be conducted to validate the findings of the present study further.</p> Dlawer Abdulhammed Ahmad AL-Jaff Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/402 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of green tea on obesity and serum lipid profiles in both normo- and hyper-cholesterolemic rabbits https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/378 <p>Obesity has been linked with several comorbidities like cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, and hypertension. Weight reduction is directly associated with the consumption of green tea. So, with this premise of background, we evaluated the potential of green tea consumption on obesity and serum lipid profiles in both normo- and hyper-cholesterol emic rabbits. Sixty New Zealand white rabbits (age: 6-8 months; weight 1.5-2 kg) were used for this experiment. Rabbits were randomized and equally divided into three different groups. Group I (control group) received 10 ml/kg of distilled water twice daily, Group II received high cholesterol diet twice daily, and Group III received high cholesterol diet along with green tea solution 10 ml/kg, twice daily for 90 days. Weight measurements and serum analysis were conducted on Day 0 and day 90. For the obtained data, SPSS analysis was performed (SPSS 21). A significant increment of body weight was observed in control (1.97 ± 0.12 <em>vs</em> 2.87 ± 0.21, p&lt;0.0001) and high cholesterol groups (1.91 ± 0.23 <em>vs</em> 3.13 ± 0.31, p&lt;0.0001) at Day 90 when compared with Day 0. Though the results were not significant, there was a reduction in the body weight in the green tea group (2.20 ± 1.47 <em>vs</em> 1.72 ± 0.22) at Day 90 when compared with Day 0. Consumption of green tea for 90 days resulted in weight loss and inhibition of the increase in the levels of TC, LDL, and VLDL. So, green tea can act as a natural food supplement for the management of obesity and dyslipidemia.</p> Dlawer Abdulhammed Ahmad AL-Jaff Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/378 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Biological evaluation of synthesised thiazolidinedione derivatives for anti-diabetic activity on STZ caused diabetes in rats https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/379 <p>Diabetes Mellitus is the most common disease that poses a challenge to human health due to its secondary complications and resistance. Therefore, an attempt was made to synthesize novel compounds from thiazolidinedione moiety to treat the disease effectively and target diabetic complications. The synthesized compounds were tested for their physical parameters and characterised using NMR and IR spectra. They were also evaluated for STZ induced anti-diabetic activity in albino rats. The Compounds P5, II A8 and A9 were found effective in comparison with a standard drug, Pioglitazone. The other compounds were also effective but a reduction in activity is seen might be due to the inefficient binding to the PPAR receptors.</p> Geetha B, Swarnalatha G, Subba Reddy GV Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/379 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-bacterial activity of three essential oils - An in vitro study https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/380 <p>To conduct a study regarding the antibacterial activity of essential oils against bacteria causing Caries. Essential oils are distillates of the volatile compounds of a plant’s secondary metabolism and may act as photoprotective agents. Their curative effect has been known since antiquity. It is based on a variety of pharmacological properties which are specific for each plant species. The mouth contains a variety of oral bacteria, but only a few species of bacteria are believed to cause dental caries. Antibacterial activity of the three essential oils, Rosemary oil, Holy basil oil, Thyme oil was screened against Streptococcus mutans, using disc diffusion technique. The rosemary oil was more effective against Streptococcus mutans with a zone of inhibition of 52 mm diameter (at concentration 200 µl), Rosemary oil showed a zone of inhibition of 44 mm diameter and with thyme oil, the zone diameter was 30 mm. The results of this study showed that the essential oils at different concentrations exhibited antibacterial activity against the bacterial species tested.</p> Geetha RV, John Rozar Raj B, Lakshmi Thangavelu Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/380 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The anti-carcinogenic activity of Hydrastis Canadensis on oral cancer cell lines https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/381 <p>Naturals herbs are a topic commonly used for the research of drugs that could be used to treat cancer as it has become a leading cause of death in several developing countries. There is a constant demand for new therapies to treat and prevent this life-threatening disease. Scientific and research interest is drawing its attention towards naturally-derived compounds as they are considered to have less toxic side effects compared to current treatments such as chemotherapy. Goldenseal, commonly known as yellow puccoon has wide therapeutic activity. The bioactive components present are helpful in treating several problems in the human systems. They are capable of eliminating toxic substances due to the anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and other properties. The study aims to do a study on the anti-carcinogenic activity of <em>Hydrastis Canadensis</em> on oral cancer cell lines. Through there researches it would be made available to all the people for an affordable cost. The sensitivity of KB (Oral squamous cell carcinoma) cells was determined individually by the MTT colourimetric assay. Higher concentrations of the herb induce increased cell inhibition, and it can give close and similar actions with tamoxifen. Studies indicate that goldenseal is biologically a very active plant which makes it very attention-able one.</p> Geetha RV, Monica Antony, Lakshmi Thangavelu Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/381 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 An in silico study on plant-derived inhibitors against a prognostic Biomarker, Jab1 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/382 <p>Cancer kills millions of people worldwide every year. The main form of treatment at this point is chemotherapy, which comprises of systemic drug delivery so that they can kill the cancerous cells more effectively. But most of these drugs cause severe side effects in patients and, therefore there is a strong need to focus on identifying natural compounds as a potent phytoinhibitors using various <em>in silico</em> and <em>in vitro</em> approaches. Natural compounds pose low toxicity, hence render them to be an excellent alternative to the basis for the development of new anti-cancerous drugs. Our study considers an effective therapeutic target, Jab1 (c-Jun activation domain-binding protein-1) or a c-Jun coactivator, which has been implicated in multiple protein interactions that play a significant role in various stages of carcinogenesis. Hence we have performed screening of 1500 natural compounds having anticancerous activity by applying various <em>in silico</em> approaches including Lipinski rule of five, ADME, and various Molecular Docking tools. In this study, we have identified two potent phytoinhibitors against Jab1 which needs to be further validated through <em>in vitro</em> approaches.</p> Fahad Khan, Pratibha Pandey, Rashmi Mishra, Niraj Kumar Jha, Shweta Sharma Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/382 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Hypolipidaemic effect of alcoholic extracts of the plants Curcuma longa and Guatteria gaumeri https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/383 <p>Hyperlipidaemia is one of the commonly affecting diseases and a major risk factor for Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, Systemic Hypertension, Coronary heart disease, Stroke, etc., which alarms the essential need to maintain the blood lipid levels under normal limits. Curcuma longa.L belonging to Zingiberaceae family commonly called as ‘Indian Turmeric’ is a small perennial plant distributed in South Asia and is cultivated extensively throughout warmer parts India. It has many rhizomes on its root which are the source of Curcumin, a collection of 3-6% polyphenolic mixture of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin. These Curcuminoids are major components responsible for various biological actions like anti-oxidant, anti-cancerous, anti-septic, anti-coagulant, anti-edematic, anti-hepatotoxic, anti-hypercholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory, etc., The alcoholic extracts of Curcuma longa &amp; Guatteria gaumeri were compared for their Hypolipidaemic effects by means of a Randomized Control Trial on Hyperlipidaemia patients which was executed with a Placebo control group for higher significance. Pre &amp; Post Treatment Blood Lipid Profile results were analysed statistically. By the end of the study both the extracts showed good Cholesterol Lowering effect. Guatteria gaumeri (Mean lowering modulation - 45.9 mgs%) has proved to be much effective than Curcuma longa (Mean lowering modulation - 23.1 mgs%).</p> Venkatesan H, Rohitpaul Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/383 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of immersion different dietary media on the stretched clear elastic chains: An in vitro study https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/384 <p>Discoloration of clear elastic modules and chains remains an issue which concerns both orthodontics and patients when the increasing demand on esthetic orthodontic appliances. This study was conducted for evaluating the effect of exposing stretched clear elastic chains to three types of dietary media (turmeric, tea and coffee) from six different companies (Ortho Technology, Opal, Ortho Organizer, American Orthodontics, Ormco and G&amp;H). The short type elastomeric chains were cutting about 960 of its lengths from six different companies; 160 pieces from each brand. The specimens were stretched 50%, placed on plastic boards, and incubating at (37°C) in water for (1) day, (7) days, (14) days and (28) days. Once a day, the cutting pieces were immersed in the dietary testing media for ten minutes, washed and then returned to the water container. Color measurements were made before and after incubation of the specimens. The data were statistically analysed using ANOVA and LSD tests. Elastic chains from Ormco, Ortho Organizers and Ortho Technology had the least prone to discoloration, and AO, Opal and G&amp;H companies had the most brands prone to discoloration. Tea, coffee and turmeric solutions discolored elastomeric chains from all companies in a variable degree. However, turmeric caused significantly more discoloration, followed by tea and least by coffee. Most of the discoloration caused by turmeric is in the first day and reaches a plateau at a week, while the amount of discoloration caused by tea and coffee increases gradually to peak at (28) days. Consumption of certain dietary media such as tea, turmeric and coffee caused discoloration of clear elastomeric chains. The range of discoloration increased over time.</p> Athraa A. Abass Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/384 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Preparation and diagnosis of some new isoxazoles compounds https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/385 <p>The interaction of (1-3) nitrones with 2-ynedioic acid and 1,3- dipolar give rise to the derivatives of isoxazoles. N-phenyl hydroxyl amine reactors were the origins for nitrones with 4-Florobenzaldehyde, 4-Chlorobenzaldehyde, 4-Nitrobenzaldehyde. IR, Mass Spectra and HNMR determine these derivatives.</p> Raad J. Ali Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/385 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Chrysin protects mice liver and kidney from methandienone-induced oxi-dative ‎stress, inflammation a multi-biomarker approach https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/386 <p>Methandienone is a medication that has wide uses by competitors and young people in <em>‎</em>gyms <em>‎</em>for fitness. Chrysin (CR) is a characteristic natural flavonoid that has to incorporate <em>‎</em>being a <em>‎</em>cancer prevention agent, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agent. Mus Musculus <em>‎</em>mice <em>‎</em>were therefore used in the current work to test the effects of methandienone on <em>‎</em>vital <em>‎</em>physiological functions as expressed by the liver, renal function tests and oxidation <em>‎</em>activity. <em>‎</em>The reverse effects of chrysin were also tested for the treatment of methandienone in <em>‎</em>order <em>‎</em>to determine the possibility of lowering levels of side effects. The results showed <em>‎</em>clear <em>‎</em>changes in biochemical effects on liver and kidney functions as a result of treatment <em>‎</em>with <em>‎</em>methandienone were also evident; The treated mice showed a significant elevation in <em>‎</em>the <em>‎</em>concentrations of serum levels of the hepatic function enzymes (ALP, AST, ALT) <em>‎</em>and <em>‎</em>kidney functions parameters (urea and creatinine).<em>‎‏ ‏</em>Combined treatment of mice <em>‎</em>with <em>‎‎</em>(methandienone + 25 mg/kg chrysin) caused a significant reduction in urea level <em>‎</em>and <em>‎</em>activities of ALP, ALT and AST (p&lt;0.05) as compared to treatment with <em>‎</em>methandienone <em>‎</em>alone. Treatment with (methandienone + 50 mg/kg chrysin) also resulted in <em>‎</em>a significant <em>‎</em>decrease in the renal level and ALP and AST activities as compared to methandienone- <em>‎</em>treated <em>‎</em>mice. The present study concludes that methandienone causes damages to the liver <em>‎</em>and the <em>‎</em>kidney, as indicated by elevated levels of their functional enzymes. This effect <em>‎</em>indicates <em>‎</em>it increases oxidative stress in these organs, possibly due to elevated production of <em>‎</em>free <em>‎</em>radicals.</p> Marwah Y. Falih, Abbas A. Mohammed, Ghassan M. Sulaiman Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/386 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Development of a Validated Questionnaire to Assess Attitude of Patient to-wards Self-Management among uncontrolled diabetic population in Tamil Nadu https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/387 <p>Diabetes mellitus is a chronic progressive metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Adherence to the treatment regimen and self-management of diabetes mellitus form the nucleus of diabetic control. Empowerment is a patient-centred, collaborative approach tailored to match the fundamental realities of diabetes care. Patients need to learn about diabetes and how to safely care for it on a daily basis. Hence a questionnaire was developed and validated for assessment of patient attitude towards self-management of type II diabetes mellitus. The questionnaire was examined for internal consistency, reproducibility, convergent and discriminant validity using Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation and CITC scores respectively. The final version of the questionnaire was found to be statistically internally consistent, reproducible and reliable and could be used to assess the awareness and attitude of patients towards self-management of diabetes mellitus.</p> Ashok Kumar M, Shanmugasundaram P Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/387 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Study of the effect of exposure to Phytoestrogens (Genistein) and estradiol (17β- estradiol) in the level of gene expression (CYP19A1) and quantifica-tion of aromatase in female rats https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/388 <p>The current study was carried out to investigate the role of Phytoestrogens (genistein) in different concentrations and estrogens manufactured in tablets coated with or without progesterone at the level of gene expression of CYP19A1 and quantitative estimation of aromatase compared to control group. The results of the present study showed a significant increase in (P &lt;0.05) In the level of quantitative estimation of serum aromatase enzyme and for all treatments compared to the control group (124.12). The highest level of the enzyme (322.00) in the group treated with genistein in combination with estradiol, while, the lowest rise in the level of aromatase enzyme (164.37) in the group treated with genistein combined with progesterone. There was also a significant decrease in the concentration of ribosomal RNA and all the treatments compared to the control group (1068.95), the Lower of RNA concentration was (373.70) in the group treated with genistein at a concentration of 50 mg | kg, While Less low concentration of RNA (1068.95) was observed in the groups treated with concurrent genistein with estradiol. The results of the present study indicate that there was a significant increase (P &lt;0.05) in the level of gene expression of the aromatase enzyme in ovarian tissue and for all the treatments compared to control group (305.51). The highest level of gene expression of the enzyme (7.189) was observed in the groups treated with concurrent genistein with estradiol, While the lowest level of gene expression of aromatase (2.204) was observed in the groups treated with genistein combined with progesterone.</p> Ahmed Nassir Faisal, Hanaa enaya mahod Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/388 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Factors affecting the fetal & maternal outcome in a trial of labour after previous one caesarean section https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/390 <p>This study was designed to evaluate maternal and obstetrical factors associated with a successful trial of labour after one caesarean section (TOLAC) as well as evaluating the associated fetal and maternal outcomes and to determine the rate of vaginal delivery and repeated C/S. A prospective cross-sectional study was done on 237 women with previous one C/S then patients were selected for the trial of labour based on the department protocol. Those who were chosen for TOL were strictly monitored &amp; observed for the progress of labour and the outcomes were recorded in terms of mode of delivery, maternal &amp; fetal complications and were analysed and compared with those who had repeated C/S. Seventy-three (30.8%) patient was delivered by elective C/S without trial, 109 (46%) of the patients who were admitted to labour room delivered vaginally while 55 (23.2%) delivered by emergency C/S. It has been found that maternal BMI of (&lt;25), history of vaginal birth after C/S (VBAC) and smaller gestational age were significantly associated with the success of TOL and can predict the outcome. Higher maternal &amp; fetal complications rates were reported in cases delivered by emergency C/S compared to those who delivered vaginally or through elective C/S. The trial of labour after one caesarean section is a safe alternative to repeated C/S and decreases the associated morbidities with repeated C/S. The success rate of TOLAC reported in this study was (66.5%). A successful TOLAC is associated with normal maternal BMI, smaller gestational age and history of the previous VBAC.</p> Aseel Ghazi Rifat Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/390 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of maternal parameters on the morphometry of hypertensive and normotensive placenta https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/391 <p>The placenta is an essential component for maintaining pregnancy and the proper development of the fetus. Among the complications of pregnancy hypertensive disorders ranks first worldwide for maternal mortality and morbidity. Throughout gestation, placenta undergoes a lot of changes in its morphology and morphometric parameters. The aim of the present study to examine the effect of maternal parameters such as age, parity, height, pre-gestational weight, BMI and a gestational week on placental morphology and morphometric parameters. 80 pregnant women aged between18-40, parity1 - 4, gestational age between 37weeks-40weeks, who attended the antenatal clinic of the hospital and delivered by either vaginal route or caesarean section were included. Placental and maternal parameters were assessed using standard methods. In the present study pre-gestational weight shows a significant positive correlation with the thickness in both groups and significant negative correlation with the placental diameter in the normal placenta Height of the mother also shows a statistically significant negative correlation with the number of maternal cotyledons. Positive as well as negative correlation exists among variables. Longitudinal studies in more samples are required, and results cannot be generalized. Examination placental parameters and its correlation with the maternal parameters will help to manage future pregnancies, fetal outcome and maternal health.</p> Akshara VR, Kumar Sai Sailesh, Ramakrishnan PK, SeemaValsalan E, Chitra S, Benjamin W Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/391 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The effectiveness of TIPER (Tailor Made Interventional Package to Enhance Relaxation) on depression, anxiety and stress among elders at old age homes, Puducherry https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/392 <p>A Quasi-experimental study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of Tailor Made Interventional Package(TIPER) among the elders at Voluntrait, POINCARE (Pondicherry Society Care for the Aged), Clunny Home for aged and Anbu Nilayam in Puducherry. TIPER consists of Jacobson Progressive Muscle Relaxation, Guided Imagery and Mindfulness Meditation Total enumerative sampling technique was adopted with 211 samples in phase one, and 90 samples were obtained in phase two was randomized into study and control group of 45 each. Control group samples were administered with physical exercises. A tool used in this study was Socio-demographic Variables, Mini-Mental Status Examination, Modified Kuppusamy Socio-Economic Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale(DASS-21), ICD-10 Criteria for Depression &amp; General Anxiety, State and Trait Anxiety Scale. Results reveal that analysis of pre-test and post-test score in study group using paired ‘t' test shows the ‘p' value was &lt;0.01 level were as in control group was not less than 0.01 level. Hence, TIPER was found effective in reducing the level of depression, anxiety and stress among elders at old age homes.</p> Prakash P, Nappinai Seran, Navaneetha, Malarvizhi, Pradeep Thilakan Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/392 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Neuromodulatory effects of aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum seeds against acrylamide induced toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster# https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/393 <p>Acrylamide (ACR) exposure leads to neuronal damage in both experimental animals and humans and has been established as a neurotoxin. The primary focus of this study was to assess the potential ameliorative effect of aqueous extract of coriander seeds against ACR-induced neurotoxicity in a Drosophila model. In this co-exposure study, adult male flies (8–10 days) were exposed (7 days) to ACR (5 mM) with or without aqueous extract of coriander seeds (0.005% and 0.01%) in the medium. The incidence of mortality among flies fed with ACR and extract was significantly reduced (40-60%). The ACR fed flies showed improvement in negative geotaxis assay when co-exposed with coriander extract (50-60%). Further, a significant attenuation in the ACR induced oxidative stress parameter such as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) was evident. Although the effect of ACR with or without extract showed a differential effect on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione –S – transferase (GST), the reduced levels of Thioredoxin Reductase (TRR) activity was robustly enhanced with extract supplement. Further, the cholinergic and dopaminergic function was assessed among all flies. While ACR induced elevation of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity remained unaltered with coriander supplement, a significant improvement was evident in the ACR induced reduction of dopamine levels.&nbsp; While the underlying mechanism of action needs further investigation, the protective effects may be at least in part related to the antioxidant capacity of the phytoconstituents of coriander.</p> Sathya N Prasad, Muralidhara Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/393 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis, characterisation and antibacterial evaluation of some novel 1-phenyl-1h-tetrazole-5-thiol derivatives https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/394 <p>The aim of the study is to synthesise and. Characterize — some novel, "tetrazole., -5-thiol” derivatives. Firstly, the “1-phenyl-1H7-tetrazole-5-thiol” (A<sub>1</sub>) has been., synthesised by the reaction of phenylisothiocyanate with NaN<sub>3</sub> in water as a solvent. Secondly, the tetrazole-5-thiol derivatives (A<sub>2</sub>-A<sub>4</sub>) were synthesised by the alkylation reaction of the compound (A<sub>1</sub>) with chloroacetone, phenacyl bromide and chloromethyl acetate respectively. The resulted percentage yield was relatively high (92%, %95, %90 respectively). Compound (A<sub>5</sub>) was synthesised by the reaction of ethyl acetate tetrazole derivative (A<sub>4</sub>) with hydrazine. Moreover, the derivatives (A<sub>6</sub>-A<sub>11</sub>) were synthesised by the reaction of the (A<sub>5</sub>) with various substituted aromatic aldehydes. Moreover, compounds (A<sub>12</sub>-A<sub>13</sub>) have been synthesised by the cyclization reaction of compound A<sub>5</sub> with acetylacetone and phenyl acetylacetone respectively. The produced compounds have been identified by IR, <sup>13</sup>C-NMR and <sup>1</sup>H-NMR Spectroscopy, and the quantities of various of the physical data (melting point, the shape of crystal and color). Finally, the compounds were examined for their biological activities alongside two kinds of bacteria (E. Coli and Staphylococcus aureus). Compounds A<sub>2</sub>, A<sub>4</sub>, A<sub>8</sub>, A<sub>11</sub> and A<sub>13</sub> showed the highest inhibition activity against E. Coli. Compounds A<sub>2</sub>, A<sub>9</sub>, A<sub>10</sub>and A<sub>13</sub> showed the maximum activity against Staphylococcus aureus.</p> Athraa H Mekky, Sajida M Thamir Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/394 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Absorption enhancement effect of piperine and chitosan on ganciclovir sol-id lipid nanoparticles: formulation, optimization and invivo pharmacoki-netics https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/395 <p>The purpose of the present study was to formulate Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) of Ganciclovir (GCV) in combination with Chitosan and Piperine for absorption enhancement effect. GCV loaded SLNs were prepared by hot homogenization method, optimized and characterized. Formulated SLNs were incorporated with absorption enhancers and characterized for <em>invitro</em> absorption (with chicken intestine), histopathological and <em>invivo </em>pharmacokinetic studies. <em>Invitro</em> absorption studies revealed that the permeability coefficient of the prepared formulation is more when compared to the pure drug, so the permeability is more for prepared formulation. <em>In vivo</em> pharmacokinetic study showed a significant increase in the Cmax, AUC, biological half-life and decrease in elimination rate constant for prepared formulation compared to pure drug. Histopathological studies also showed mild reversible damage of epithelial cells with Chitosan which indicates the safety and efficacy of the formulation. Thus, GCV loaded SLNs prepared with Chitosan can be clinically promising for enhancing the oral, intestinal absorption of the said BCS Class-III drug.</p> Ravindra Babu M, Ravi Prakash P, Devanna N Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/395 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Association of stress and eating behaviour with premenstrual syndrome https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/396 <p>The present study was undertaken to observe the association between stress and eating behaviour with premenstrual syndrome. Thirty cases of premenstrual syndrome and thirty healthy, age-matched controls, were included in the study after obtaining written informed consent. Premenstrual syndrome questionnaire was used to identify participants with PMS. Stress perception was measured by using the perceived stress scale. PSS is a standard questionnaire, a global measure of perceived stress. The vulnerability of the eating disorder was assessed by using EAT-26. The value of R for the association of stress and eating behavior in participants with the premenstrual syndrome is 0.0981. Although technically a positive correlation, the relationship between your variables is weak. The value of R<sup>2</sup>, the coefficient of determination, is 0.0096. The value of R for the association of stress and eating behavior in healthy participants is 0.0077. Although technically a positive correlation, the relationship between your variables is weak. The value of R<sup>2</sup>, the coefficient of determination, is 0.0001. There were significantly high levels of stress score (P=0.0003) in the cases when compared to controls. However, the EAT-26 score is not significant (P=0.7288). A positive correlation was observed between the stress and eating behaviour in both healthy and premenstrual syndrome individuals. The study recommends further studies on a large scale to understand the association and underlying mechanisms to plan better management techniques and also to increase awareness in the student population.</p> Laxmi Sanjana Gadde, Srilatha Bashetti, Harika Maddisetty, Harshita Rao Balguri, Kumar Sai Sailesh Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/396 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Semi-mechanistic modelling of neutropenia https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/397 <p>Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics PKPD modelling of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia can help with efficacy optimization and toxicity prevention in cancer patients. These medications focus on the fast-growing cells within the body and destroy them. Most of the fast-growing cells in the body are usually cancer cells, but there is an increased chance that certain healthy cells, such as white blood cells could be killed during chemotherapy. Several approaches have been identified for different drugs. Both empirical and mechanist approaches are discussed in this paper. Further, the author identified the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic profile described by Friberg et al. (2003) as the most commonly used. This model consists of five sectors that represent proliferation, maturation, as well as elimination from the circulation of the neutrophils or leucocytes. This review covers these aspects and promotes a full understanding of dose prediction using semi-mechanistic modelling.</p> Elham Alshammari Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/397 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of periodontitis among smokers and non-smokers https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/398 <p>Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth caused by specific microorganisms resulting in progressive destruction of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone with pocket formation, recession, or both. Although the dental plaque causes periodontal diseases, certain risk factors can modify the host response to microbial aggression like diabetes, tobacco usage, pathogenic bacteria and microbial tooth deposits. The study aims to find out the difference in the periodontitis between the smokers and non-smokers in the local population of Chennai.50 subjects of the age group 20-50 were selected. Out of 50, 25 were smokers who have a history of smoking for the past 3 years, and 25 were non-smokers who had no history of smoking in the local population. The subjects have no history of systemic disease. The subjects had normal oral habits with a normal diet. The periodontal status of the participants was taken into count.&nbsp; The patient’s probing depth and loss of attachment was assessed using William's probe, and Naber's probe assessed furcation. &nbsp;Our study confirmed the differences in the prevalence of periodontitis in smokers and non-smokers. The percentage of subjects with the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher among chronic smokers than non-smokers. Current smokers, mainly occasional smokers, consumed sweetened drinks more frequently in comparison with non-smokers or ex-smokers. In case of consumption of fruits and vegetables, the trend was opposite when compared to smokers and non-smokers. Cigarette smoking exerts a strong and chronic effect on the tooth and periodontium. The current understanding of the importance of tobacco smoking as the most potent risk factor for periodontitis now has to be applied to the clinical management of the disease.</p> Palak Mayur Shah, Geetha RV, Lakshmi Thangavelu Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/398 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Antimitotic activity of Piper nigrum on clinical isolates of candida https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/400 <p>The objective of this study is to analyse the antimycotic activity of pepper on the clinical isolates of Candida. The extracts were prepared in the following concentrations in sterile water. 5mg/ml and 10mg/ml and 20mg/ml. 100µl of an extract of different concentrations were loaded on sterile filter paper discs measuring 6mm in diameter, so that the concentration of the extract on each disc was 500µg, 1000 µg and 2000µg respectively. The discs were dried and kept aseptically. Screening of antifungal activity [dis diffusion technique] The ethanolic extract of <em>Piper nigrum</em> was screened for antifungal activity by the disc diffusion method. Effect of three different concentrations (2000, 1000, 500,µg /disc) of the ethanolic extract Of <em>Piper nigrum</em> was tested against <em>Candida albicans</em> using disc diffusion technique. All the concentrations of the test solution inhibited the fungal species with varying degree of sensitivity. The inhibitory zone was measured with respect to the different concentration of the extracts which include 2000 µg/disc and 500 µg/disc at both room temperature and cold temperature (4-8°c). The inhibition zones were evaluated at 24 and 48 hrs. The result of this study revealed that the pepper oil has pronounced inhibitory activities against <em>Candida albicans.</em> This result is comparable with studies which have shown that <em>Piper nigrum</em> has a broad antibacterial activity. Since <em>Piper nigrum </em>is easily available and well-tolerated, it can be incorporated into medication for topical antifungal therapy as well.</p> Gayathri Karthikeyan, Geetha RV, Lakshmi Thangavelu Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/400 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Anticarcinogenic and antimicrobial activity effects of the ellagic acid extract https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/401 <p>Recently, plant-derived compounds have been attracted increasable attention as alternative cancer remedies to enhance cancer prevention and healing, and as efficient antimicrobials, because of their low toxicity, low cost and fewer side effects. Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural phenolic constituent; previous studies have reported its antitumor properties when used in in vitro models. In this study, we have investigated the activity of a low concentration of EA against four different human cancer cell lines (SK-N-SH, Caov-3, SW-1088 and BxPC-3) which are very hard in the treatment and there is no available data about EA influence on them. Additionally, the effect of EA has assessed against (<em>H. Pylori (Helicobacter pylori), P.aeruginosa (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), A. tumefaciens: Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Rhizobium radiobacter)</em> and <em>E. herbicola: Enterobacter agglomerans (Erwiniaherbicola) </em>and two are Gram-positive bacterium <em>S. aureus (Staphylococcus aureus) </em>and <em>C. acnes (Cutibacterium acnes)</em>) strains which are resistant to the antibiotics. The results suggest that EA may have a potential role as an adjunct therapy for neuroblastoma, ovarian, pancreatic and astrocytoma cancers, in addition to its activity as an antimicrobial agent as it has been proved in this study against <em>H. pylori, P.aeruginosa, A. tumefaciens, E. herbicola, S. aureus</em> and <em>C. acnes strains</em>.</p> Suhad Faisal Hatem Al-Mugdadi, Basma Talib Al-Sudani, Raghad Abdulmahdi Mohsin, Ali Jalil Mjali Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/401 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Protective role of eclipta alba against hyperlipidemia induced by high-fat diet in albino rats https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/403 <p>Eclipta Alba has been used in traditional and folklore medicine to treat Hyperlipidemia and hepatic disorders. The present study was aimed to investigate the Antihyperlipidemic and hepatoprotective potentials of Eclipta Alba in high-fat diet -induced Albino rats and to determine the underlying mechanism.&nbsp; A total of 30 adult albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 165–215 g were utilized. Animals were treated with high-fat diet for 8 weeks followed by post-treatment of E. Alba for 1 week, 2 weeks, and 3 weeks, respectively. After 12 h of fasting on the last day of the experiment, serum blood samples were collected in EDTA vials and processed for biochemical analysis.&nbsp; A significant decrease in levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides was noted on animals treated with E. alba compared to high-fat diet animals. Treatment of hypercholesterolemic rats with E. Alba showed a marked decrease of serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very LDL cholesterol concentrations compared to the hypercholesterolemic rats. High-fat diet feeding worsened the levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase enzymes, whereas the same markers were significantly improved by supplementation with E. alba compared to the normal group.&nbsp; E. alba acts as an antihyperlipidemic agent in hyperlipidemic conditions and helps for better health.</p> Satheesh Naik K, Gurushanthaiah M, Nagesh Raju G, Lokanadham S, Seshadri Reddy V Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/403 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Prediction of the allergic response of extracellular amylase producing bacteria through in-silico method https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/404 <p>Allergies intolerance is a common problem worldwide. The major difficulties are related to the correct diagnosis of causes which is associated with amino acid sequences present in the epitope region of allergen. So there is a need to find out the factors causing allergies and allergens themselves. In the present study a bioinformatics tool is used to predict amino acid sequence and mast cell association with different integrated approaches. Internet databases for amylase producing bacteria were used in <em>In-silico </em>method to check the allergy for microorganism producing the extracellular enzyme. Amylase is an extracellular enzyme isolated from soil bacteria <em>Salmonella </em>species and <em>Proteus vulgaris</em>. It is very important in the pharmaceutical industry to check the allergenicity of any drug, protein or enzyme that be used in the treatment of diseases or food industries for various purpose. The aim of the present study is isolation and characterisation of extracellular enzyme produced from soil bacteria and to analyzed allergic response through AlgPred tool of bioinformatics. From results, it was concluded that the protein sequence of amylase did not contain any epitope, no hits for mast and blast which proved that it was not an allergen. So, bacterial isolates from the industrial soil are a good alternative source of enzyme production and may be used as an industrial level. Thus, from the results, it may be concluded that microbes from soil sample can be a good source of industrially important enzymes without any allergy.</p> Neha Sharma, Shuchi Kaushik, Rajesh Singh Tomar Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/404 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Cytological and histopathological studies on the effect of honey in experi-mentally infected wounds in Wistar rats https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/405 <p>Honey is used as food and home remedy in of India and other countries. Scientific studies have been carried out to support these properties of honey in this investigation, incision wounds of rats that were infected with three bacterial strains viz. <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, have been treated with honey and evaluated for its effect on days 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 post-operatively with the help of smears and biopsies collected from lesions. Cytological and histopathological investigations of infected wounds conformed significant healing property of honey in and reduction in size.</p> Neeraja Rani Guruvu, Bandaru Narasinga Rao, Vijayaraghavan R, Sukumar E, Senthilkumar Sivanesan Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/405 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of e-beam irradiation on shelf-life and accompanied changes in major metabolites of Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC., an Ayurveda medicinal plant https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/406 <p>The effects of electron beam irradiation (5, 10 and 15 kGy) on shelf-life and major plant metabolites of an Ayurvedic medicinal plant <em>Desmodium gangeticum</em> was evaluated. Its root possesses incredible medicinal effects; hence powdered root sample (<em>choorna</em>) was subjected to radiation processing and thereby shelf-life extension. The root sample was found to possess an appreciable amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Processing with radiation did not produce prominent changes in the phenolic content of samples even after storage for up to 12 months. In contrast, Calcium content was increased significantly (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) on radiation processing wit 5 kGy and 15 kGy. Microbial status revealed that the untreated sample was acceptable only up to 4 months. A dose-dependent reduction in the microbial count resulted in all the radiation processed samples. Treatment with doses of 10 kGy and 15 kGy reduced the colony count to nil immediately after irradiation. Irradiation with 15 kGy kept the sample completely sterilized up to 2 months of storage and was acceptable even 12<sup>th</sup> month of storage. GC-MS analyses identified compounds with pharmacological importance such as methyl palmitate, mome-inositol, Neophytadiene, etc. Although, a slight change in mineral composition and phytochemicals were observed it could effectively decontaminate the medicinal herb and increase the shelf-life with minimum loss of major metabolites compared to other conventional methods of processing.</p> Rajina M, Khaleel K M Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/406 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Academic Role-play in Understanding the Clinical Concepts in Medical Education https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/407 <p>Medical education was evolved drastically to meet the needs of current generation students. Role play is the effective method to teach the clinical concepts. Role play promotes active learning and critical thinking. It also improves the communication skills which are most essential in medical education. The current study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of role-play in understanding the clinical concepts in medical physiology. The topic was explained in the routine lecture using power point presentation and video. Post-assessment was performed using 30 multiple choice questions. The perception of the students was also obtained after the role play. There was a significant (P&lt;0.05) increase in the performance of students in the MCQ test followed by the role play. 75% of students agreed strongly that role-play along with class lecture helps to acquire better clinical knowledge.76% strongly agreed that the role play promotes active learning. 80% of students strongly agreed that they enjoyed the role play. 72% of students strongly agreed that role play helps them to remember the clinical concepts easily. 90% of students strongly agreed that it increased their communication skills and motivated them to work in a team. 75% of students preferred role plays for learning the clinical concepts, and 70% of the students recommended the roleplay to be implemented in the curriculum. The study results provide research evidence about the effectiveness of the role play in teaching the clinical concepts. Further detailed studies are recommended to adopt role play in teaching the clinical concepts in medical education.</p> Sai Sailesh Kumar Goothy, Sirisha D, Movva Swathi Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/407 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation oEvaluation of anti-inflammatory action of Laurus nobilis-an in vitro studyf anti-inflammatory action of Laurus nobilis-an in vitro study https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/408 <p>Bay leaf is also called as Laurus nobilis an aromatic evergreen tree or large shrub with green, glabrous leaves, in the flowering plant family Lauraceae. It is native to the Mediterranean region and is used as a bay leaf for seasoning in cooking. Its common names include bay laurel, sweet bay, bay (esp. United Kingdom) true laurel, Grecian laurel, laurel tree or simply laurel. Bay leaf refers to the aromatic leaves of several plants which are used in cooking for their distinctive flavour and fragrance. It has many medicinal properties which can also be used to treat cancer as well as gastric problems. Bay leaf is also commonly used to treat muscles and joint pain. Aqueous extracts of bay laurel can also be used as astringents and even as a reasonable salve for open wounds. The anti-inflammatory activity of bay leaf was determined but its ability to inhibit protein denaturation where denaturation of proteins is a well-documented cause of inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effect of the herb was comparable to reference analgesics and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. The present study makes the herb worthy of further investigation.</p> Maajida Aafreen M, Geetha RV, Lakshmi Thangavelu Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/408 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Intellectual Learning in Dentistry Practices on self-esteem, negative affectivity, social inhibition and cognitive functions in undergrad-uate students https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/409 <p>The present study was an experimental (pre and post without control) design where the participants served as self-control. ILDP is a four-day workshop designed for first-year BDS students at Vishnu Educational Development &amp;Innovation Centre (VEDIC), Hyderabad. Psychological parameters like self-esteem, negative affectivity and social inhibition were assessed. Cognitive parameters like reaction time, spatial and verbal memory and academic performance in the MCQ test were assessed before and after the ILDP program. Our study provides first scientific evidence for the beneficial effects of the ILDP program as there was a significant improvement in the self-esteem and decrease in the negative feelings and social inhibition. These changes contributed to the increase in the cognitive performance of the students. We recommend adoption of the ILDP program in the regular curriculum for the benefit of the college students in general.</p> Sai Sailesh Kumar Goothy, Ravikanth Manyam, Gauthami S Penumatsa, Chandrashekar R, Sudhakara Reddy R, Augustin, Jebaselvi A, Swathi Movva Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/409 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A Survey on Awareness of Dengue Among Public https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/410 <p>Dengue fever is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas. It is a non-contagious disease. It is a mosquito-borne viral disease which is spread by the female Ades mosquito. The mosquito breeds in the stagnant water. The symptoms of dengue include a headache, high fever, rashes, severe joint pain and muscle pain. Dengue fever lasts about 3-10days. There is no vaccination for dengue fever. Only preventive measures can be taken to avoid the disease. An online survey was conducted. The participants were asked to take the survey, and the responses were collected. The results are statistically analysed. From the survey, the results are obtained.66% of them said that dengue is transmissible.33% of them are unaware of the common symptoms of dengue. 79% of them say that there are no specific vaccinations for dengue. 71% of the participants say that mosquito breeds in stagnant water. In conclusion, although the awareness regarding dengue and mosquito control measures was quite high, more emphases should be laid on putting this knowledge into practice.</p> Sai Sandhya T, Geetha RV, Lakshmi Thangavelu Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/410 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the hepatotoxicity of the anti-diabetic drug Diarid: An ayurvedic formulation in white swiss albino mice https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/411 <p>Diarid is an Ayurvedic antidiabetic drug. Questions and concerns are being raised nowadays on such Ayurveda formulations with their composition for safety aspects. Though, these are being used safely in without any noticeable untoward effects; there is a need to generate scientific evidence that these are safe and non-toxic. The drugs can usually be detoxified, but some of them can be bio activated become more toxic. The liver often the target organ, most toxicants enter the body through the gastrointestinal tract and after absorption they are carried by the hepatic portal vein in the liver. The toxicology of the liver is complicated by the variety of liver injuries and by the different mechanisms through which the injuries are induced. In the present study, the safety profile of Diarid is tested for acute toxicity, Diarid was administered at a maximal dose of 600 mg/kg to overnight fasted rats and observed closely for behavioural changes, signs of toxicity and mortality if any, continuously for the first six hours and thereafter periodically up to 45 days. Animals were sacrificed on the 46<sup>th</sup> day. Biochemical parameters and were studied in both serum and liver tissue. In acute toxicity, Diarid at the dose of 600 mg/kg did not produce any observable toxic effects or mortality. No pathological changes on different biochemical parameters in serum and liver homogenate. Based on these observations, it can be concluded that Diarid is safe at therapeutic dose levels.</p> Deepa PK, Akshara VR, Andrews A, Umesh SP Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/411 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the anti-mycotic activity of Rosemary Oil Against Candida al-bicans https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/412 <p>An antifungal medication, also known as an antimycotic medication, is a pharmaceutical fungicide or fungistatic used to treat and prevent mycoses such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis, serious systemic infections such as Cryptococcal meningitis, and others. In traditional medicine, extracts and essential oil from flowers and leaves are used in the belief they may be useful to treat a variety of fungal disorders. The aim of this study was to analyse the antimycotic properties of rosemary oil and its principal components. The Rosemary oil was screened for antifungal activity by the disc diffusion method. Activated cultures of <em>Candida albicans</em> in Sabouraud’s broth was adjusted to 0.5 McFarland standards [10<sup>8</sup>cfu/ml]. 100 µl of the inoculum was introduced to molten Sabourauds dextrose agar and poured in the sterile Petri plates and allowed to set. Sterile filter paper discs (6.0 mm diameter) impregnated with 25µl, 50µl and 100µl /disc were placed on fungal seeded plates and incubated at 28oC for 48 hrs. Clear zones within which fungal growth was absent were measured and recorded as the diameter (mm) of complete growth inhibition. All the concentrations of the test solution inhibited the fungal species with varying degree of sensitivity. The extract showed good antifungal activity at different concentrations with a maximum zone of inhibition of 38 mm at concentration 100µl. This study provides a sample large enough to determine the antifungal properties of Rosemary oil and suggests further studies for possible therapeutic use.</p> Shebi S, Geetha RV, Lakshmi Thangavelu Lakshmi Thangavelu Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/412 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Protein profile of the most common fungi at Sultan Idris education univer-sity, Malaysia https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/413 <p>Fungi are vital pathogens related to airway and deferent diseases. Exposure to fungi will have adverse effects on human health through severe immune responses. Allergic diseases like allergic rhinitis, asthma, airborne dermatitis, or allergic conjunctivitis. These diseases may well be aggravated by fungi allergens from the natural atmosphere or from the indoor environment in enclosed areas, workplaces and houses. Fungi allergy prevalence for the Malaysian population has yet to be reported. Therefore, information on allergens of fungi species in Sultan Idris Education University (UPSI), Sultan Azlan Shah Campus will be used to profile the nation prevalence on fungi allergy. Hence, the present study is conducted at UPSI to identify the ten most common airborne fungal species as a preliminary work prior to sensitization study on common fungal allergens.&nbsp; Dust was collected from 54 rooms situated within the 3 blocks at UPSI Sultan Azlan Shah Campus buildings using a vacuum cleaner. The sieved dust was cultured using PDA media and incubated at room temperature to propagate pure culture and sent to the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute for identification using PCR.&nbsp; In this study the 10 most common species were identified as, <em>Penicillium simplicissimum, Aspergillus aculeatus, Rhodosporidiobolus ruineniae, Ceriporia lacerate, Aspergillus caliodustus, Syncephalastrum</em> sp., Aspergillus sp., <em>Aspergillus fumigatus</em>, <em>Fusarium</em> sp., and <em>Penicillium canescens</em>. Fungi profile exhibited in this study will lead to a further study on fungi allergy with skin prick test and immunoblotting to be carried out.</p> Ghassan Hadi, Mai Shihah Abdullah, Rosmilah Misnan Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/413 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Extraction of Phytochemical Constituents from the root of Eclipta Alba through Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry procedure https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/414 <p>The higher herbal values of Eclipta Alba have a long history in the treatment of various ailments in traditional and folk medicine in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Medicinal plants play a significant role in human culture and civilization. Eclipta Alba plant roots were powdered. By using simple soxhlation method, methanol extract was prepared. The powdered extract of Eclipta alba and methanol extract was concentrated and analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy to identify the biochemical components of Eclipta Alba root extract in the present study. A wide range of active ingredients such as 2- Thiophene carbaldehyde, 5-[5-(thien-2-yl) thien-2-yl]- 0.08%, Dodecanoic acid - 0.19, 9-Octadecenamide, (Z)- (CAS) OLEOAMIDE - 0.29, Loliolide – 0.37 and– 44.86. This study supports, methanolic extract of eclipta alba has potential antimicrobial, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities.</p> Satheesh Naik K, Gurushanthaiah M, Kavimani M, Mahesh GM Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/414 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Difference in height of maxillary alveolar ridge on edentulous women and dentate women using panoramic radiography https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/415 <p>The height of the maxillary alveolar ridge can be measured using panoramic radiography. The decline occurred because the height of the alveolar ridge undergoes slow physiological resorption due to the absence of mechanical stimulus. The purpose of this research is to know the difference and the average height of the maxillary alveolar ridge in edentulous and dentate women using panoramic radiography. This study is an analytical method with a cross-sectional approach. A total sample of 40 women, edentulous and dentate has been measured. Measurements were made by measuring the distance between the lowest point of the infraorbital ridge and alveolar crest maxilla on the incisor point, right and left premolar, right and left molar. A statistical test is done using independent t-test. The results showed that the average value of a dentate women sample is greater than edentulous. The average value obtained by the dentate sample is greatest in incisor point by 37,57mm± 3,34mm and the smallest at the right molar point by 33,87mm ± 2,81mm. The average value obtained by the edentulous sample is greatest in incisor point by 35,30mm ± 2,79mm and the smallest at the right molar point by 31,84mm ± 3,85mm. It can be concluded that there is a significant difference in the height of the maxillary alveolar ridge on an edentulous sample and dentate, except the right molar teeth. The average height of the maxillary alveolar ridge in an edentulous sample is 33,35mm ± 3,43mm, and the dentate sample is 35,66mm ± 3,21mm.</p> Cek Dara Manja, Dennis Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/415 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of fused heterocyclic compound [1,2,4] triazolo [4,3-b][1,2,4,5] tetra zine https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/417 <p>Nitrogen-containing, heterocycles, have special importance and vital, role in the discovery of effective bioactive, agents in the pharmaceutical, industry. The present article reports the synthesis of new fused, heterocycles triazolotetrazine by cyclo condensation, reaction as shown in scheme(1). The structures formula of synthesized compounds newly was evaluated by Ft-IR,1H-NMR spectrum, and C, H, N elemental analysis. Antimicrobial activity of triazolotetrazine studied against some pathogenic bacterial strains isolated from patients like Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, E. coli, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus. Eventually, antibacterial of the fused heterocyclic compound was exhibited significant growth inhibition against some pathogenic bacteria which consider an important source of new antimicrobial compounds. The results, of such studies, are discussed in this paper.</p> Bassam A. Hassan, Hameedi N Nasera, Maitham M. Abdulridha Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/417 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 An experimental study to assess the effectiveness of fresh amla juice with elemental iron versus elemental iron supplementation on anemia among adolescent girls in selected school at Chennai https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/418 <p>The present study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of fresh amla juice with elemental iron versus elemental iron supplementation on anaemia among adolescent girls in selected school at Chennai. A total of 50 adolescent girls within the age group of 13-16years.with mild to moderate anaemia from selected schools in Chennai were part of the study after obtaining the written informed consent and assent as per guidelines. After recruiting, the participants were randomly grouped into two groups. Group 1: (n=25) 20ml fresh amla juice was given before lunch daily for 30 days and elemental iron&nbsp; 100 mg per week. Group 2: (n=25) 100mg of elemental iron per week for 30 days. Result – after intervention in the experimental group I the mean haemoglobin level increased (1.03gm/dl) than in control group II. The present study provides further evidence for the beneficial effects of amla juice in the management of anaemia. It concluded that fresh amla juice helps in iron absorption thereby increasing the HB level in experimental group I. We recommend further detailed studies in this area to recommend amla juice as a nutritive supplement for the management of anaemia.</p> Devi JK, Jainvanitha, Fabiola Dharaj, Vasantha S Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/418 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis of Brassica juncea (Mustard) and Silk dye-ing effluent’s impact on the spectral studies https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/419 <p>The exclusive, low-cost nominal technology for the meagre entrepreneurs of Silk dyeing effluent has been planned and executed. Environmental pollutants exit like Silk dyeing effluent are destructive and needs a high-cost Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) to achieve Zero effluent discharge limits which are not reasonably priced for a low venture capitalist. The Green leafy vegetable <em>Brassica juncea</em> sowed seeds were treated in pot study with fresh water, raw Silk dyeing effluent and Biotreated effluent (with <em>Pseudomonas fluorescens</em> and <em>Azospirillum sp. </em>biofertilizers separately). After 45<sup>th</sup> days the GLV’s extracts <em>Brassica juncea</em> were grown in fresh water (BJN), in crude effluent (BJE) and in biotreated effluent (BJT) were subjected to UV, FTIR and HPLC analysis. Thus from the functional group studies by FT-IR, the alcohol, alkane, alkyl halide and amine groups were found in GLV irrespective of the treatments, even in crude effluent, the plants managed to synthesize these organic compounds. The isocyanide group was found only in <em>B. juncea</em>, grown in fresh water, which was unable to synthesize isocyanide group in plants grown in crude effluent and biotreated effluent. While the biotreated <em>B. juncea </em>methanolic extracts had shown two peaks of similar to the freshwater <em>B.juncea </em>methanolic extracts whereas the crude effluent had its effect in HPLC Analysis. So it clearly indicates that the effluent's effects have been encountered by the <em>Pseudomonas</em> <em>fluorescens</em>.</p> Sumayya AR, Saranya R S, Sivagami srinivasan, Mohammed Rafiqkhan, Brindha PS, Mohammed sabeek M, Sangeetha S Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/419 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Measurement of Serum Chemerin and Deoxypyridinoline Levels in Iraqi ‎Osteoporotic ‎Postmenopausal Women with and without Metabolic Syn-drome https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/420 <p>Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of medical conditions composed of <em>‎</em>abdominal obesity, <em>‎</em>hyperglycemia, hypertension, and lipid abnormalities, in which <em>‎</em>each can affect bone in <em>‎</em>different ways. We examine <em>‎</em>the association between metabolic syndrome and metabolic bone disease <em>‎‎</em>(osteoporosis) by <em>‎</em>measuring adipose tissue marker (chemerin) and bone resorption <em>‎</em>marker <em>‎‎</em>(deoxypyridinoline) in <em>‎</em>the serum of osteoporotic postmenopausal women with <em>‎</em>and without <em>‎</em>metabolic syndrome. <em>‎</em> A case-control study included 112 postmenopausal women from 51 to 67 years of <em>‎</em>age. <em>‎</em>Women were <em>‎</em>selected from Osteoporosis Clinic- Al Yarmouk Teaching <em>‎</em>Hospital and were <em>‎</em>divided into two <em>‎</em>groups: group (1)- patients group included 57 <em>‎</em>postmenopausal women with <em>‎</em>osteoporosis (35 <em>‎</em>osteoporotic women with metabolic <em>‎</em>syndrome and 22 osteoporotic women <em>‎</em>without metabolic <em>‎</em>syndrome) and group <em>‎‎</em>(2)-control group included 55 postmenopausal women <em>‎</em>without <em>‎</em>osteoporosis and <em>‎</em>metabolic syndrome. A serum sample was taken from each woman and <em>‎</em>analysed <em>‎</em>for <em>‎</em>assessing chemerin, deoxypyridinoline, fasting serum glucose, and lipid profile. We found <em>‎</em>a significant increase (p-value&lt;0.001) in the mean value of serum chemerin <em>‎</em>and <em>‎</em>deoxypyridinoline <em>‎</em>levels in patients compared to controls. <em>‎</em>In <em>‎</em>conclusion, chemerin is an adipose tissue marker associated with metabolic syndrome <em>‎</em>and <em>‎</em>may <em>‎</em>have an impact on bone turn over and development of metabolic bone <em>‎</em>disease <em>‎</em>which <em>‎</em>enhanced by the strong positive correlation between chemerin and bone <em>‎</em>resorption <em>‎</em>marker <em>‎‎</em>(deoxypyridinoline).</p> Rana Ali Hamdi Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/420 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Long term bilateral and unilateral vestibular stimulation in cogni-tion in scopolamine-induced dementia https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/421 <p>The aim of the study is to provide preliminary evidence on beneficial effects of long term caloric vestibular stimulation as an alternative therapy for enhancement of cognition and motor activity as well as delay/prevent dementia symptoms in scopolamine induce dementia in a rat model. Adult male Wistar albino rats were chosen in the current study. Scopolamine was the drug of choice to induce dementia and donepezil was used as a standard drug in this study. Vestibular stimulation method was Caloric vestibular stimulation which was administered by injecting hot water of 45 degrees centigrade into the middle ear cavity with the help of syringe for 60 days (both bilaterally and unilaterally). In conclusion, bilateral and unilateral left vestibular stimulation had found to beneficial in improving spatial memory, motor control and various cognitive neurotransmitter levels in scopolamine-induced dementia rats. But the mechanism is largely unclear and unknown. Further detailed studies should be conducted in this area to explore mechanisms of action.</p> Archana R, Jinu KV, J K Mukkadan Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/421 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical implications morphometric study of the cervical spine on MRI https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/422 <p>Degenerative changes, history of trauma or inflammation usually progressed to cervical spinal canal stenosis.&nbsp; This condition leads to cervical spondylosis neuropraxia and cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). SAC (space available for the cord) value is important to understand the symptoms of spinal cord compression in cervical canal stenosis. The aim of our study is to establish cervical spinal canal morphometry in Western Maharashtra population observed by MRI of cervical region.70 subjects aged between 18-70 years. The sagittal vertebral body diameter, the sagittal spinal canal diameter and the sagittal spinal-cord diameter were measured at the C3 - C7 level. The SAC was determined. For each variable a two-way ANOVA was performed, sagittal canal diameter, sagittal spinal cord diameter and SAC were significant with p-value P&lt; 0.0001**. Mean vertebral body diameters observed were 1.49-1.51. Values of SAC observed were C3-1.5 cm, C4- 1.51cm, C5- 1.49cm, C6- 1.5cm, C7- 1.49cm. Average sagittal spinal canal diameter from C3-C7 was 14.1± 1.3 mm. The range of SAC was between 6.4-9.5mm, least at the C5 level. We conclude that subjects in our study do not have an increased risk of spinal cord compression.</p> Swati S.More, Anita R. Gune, Jeetendra K. Patil Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/422 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The effectiveness of vestibular stimulation by rocking and vestibular exer-cises on postural stability, depression, anxiety and stress in elderly https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/423 <p>Using swings and rocking chair is a universal practice. Rocking was soothing as it offers relaxation through vestibular stimulation. Stimulation of vestibular receptors will begin during fetal life, and it was recommended to continue throughout life. The present study was undertaken to observe the effectiveness of vestibular stimulation by rocking on postural stability in the elderly. A total of 150 elderly male and females were part of the study after obtaining the written informed consent. After recruiting the participants, they were randomly grouped into three groups with 50 participants in each group. Neither exercise nor rocking was administered to the control group. Rocking was administered using a rocking chair once a day for 5 days in a week for 6 months for a rocking group. Rocking was administered using a rocking chair once a day for 5 days in a week + vestibular exercises were practiced two sessions per week for 6 months for rocking and vestibular exercise group. Demographic data were not significant between the groups. There was a significant decrease (P&lt;0.001) in the stress score in both rocking the only group and rocking along with vestibular exercise group. The present study highlights the beneficial role of vestibular stimulation by rocking and by vestibular exercises in improving the postural stability and reducing the negative emotions like depression, anxiety and stress. Hence, the study recommends practicing vestibular stimulation either by rocking or by exercises in day to day life for better quality of life in general.</p> Sahaya Rani, Archana R, Shyla Kamala Kumari Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/423 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Urinary N-telopeptide- A diagnostic Test or A Screening Test? https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/424 <p>Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan is the gold standard investigation for diagnosing osteoporosis. The limitations of "gold standard" Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan were many. The aim of this study is to find whether urinary n telopeptide can be used to diagnose osteoporosis — prospective cohort study done at Sri Ramachandra Medical University between August 2014 to December 2018. The study was done amongst the postmenopausal females and older males who came to the University hospital as an inpatient or an outpatient with suspected osteoporosis. We had 110 persons participated in the study. The patients were divided into two groups. Group, I was cases whose Dexa scan was osteoporosis/ osteopenia, and Group II was a control that had standard Dexa. The results from Dexa Scan are taken as the gold standard against urinary n telopeptide and a 2x2 table formed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, likelihood ratio, area under ROC curve will be calculated. The mean value of urinary N Telopeptide in the case group was 182.5 and in control group was 49.8. The ROC curve was formed and cut off was calculated to be 71. Urinary N telopeptide can very well be considered as a diagnostic test and can’t be considered as a gold standard diagnostic test as there is some limitation as it is a bone resorption biomarker having some pre-analytical and biochemical variability which can alter the results. It can be used as an adjuvant and as a screening test along with gold standard Dexa in diagnosing osteoporosis.</p> Ganesan G Ram, Jambu N Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/424 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Comparing the accuracy of Manual Tracing to Digital Tracing – Angular Measurements https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/530 <p>Macerating enzymes breaks long chain compounds during maceration for extraction of industrially important phytomolecules. Cellulase is an important class of enzyme which helps in the extraction process of phytomolecules such as carotenoids, camptothecin from their natural sources as a macerating enzyme. The extraction of phytoconstituents like carotenoids, camptothecin holds high commercial value. The uses of macerating enzymes help to the extraction process of phytomolecules and increase its yield. Quality of the product is also improved in terms of stability, texture and viscosity. Camptothecin is an important drug with potential anti-cancer activity.&nbsp;&nbsp; In this work, the effect of cellulase on the extraction of carotenoid from carrot, tomato and sweet potato have been studied. As a pioneer work, the production of camptothecin from endophytic fungi <em>Aspergillus niger</em> has been carried out using cellulase. The quantitative analysis of important pharmaceutical phytomolecules such as carotenoids and camptothecin were performed using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer, HPLC with respective standard compounds. Carotenoid extraction was made from tomato, carrot and sweet potato with cellulose enzyme found 2.5±0.25µg/g, 2.2 ±0.18µg/g, 18± 1.75 µg/g respectively. Carotenoid extracted from carrot using enzyme yielded 1.47 times higher amount of carotenoid than that of without enzyme. Carotenoid extracted from tomato showed the maximum difference of being 7.3 times higher with enzyme than without enzyme.</p> Shreya Kishore, Saravana Dinesh SP, Srirengalakshmi, Arvind Sivakumar Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/530 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation of nerve growth factor with antioxidants and sperm parameters among Iraqi infertile males https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/531 <p>The level of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the blood and seminal plasma of asthenozoospermia and oligoasthenozoospermia patients were compared to normozoospermic males and the relationship between NGF with sperm parameters and seminal antioxidant capacity were estimated to determine the role of NGF in the etiology of male infertility. Eighty-one infertile males and 40 normospermic control subjects were included in this stud. NGF levels were measured in the blood and seminal plasma, and its correlation with total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) levels and sperm parameters were studied. There was a general trend of decreased in serum and seminal NGF concentrations of asthenozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic when compared to the normozoospermic samples. There was no significant association between NGF and seminal antioxidant status in asthenozoospermia and oligoasthenozoospermia males. Nevertheless, CAT positively correlated with sperm concentration, total sperm motility, and normal sperm morphology but only showed a statistically significant correlation to total sperm motility in asthenozoospermic males. A strong positive association was detected between seminal plasma TAC activity and total sperm motility in both asthenozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermia males. A decrease NGF levels in serum and seminal plasma could have a significant role in the etiology of impaired sperm functions.</p> Shaymaa Jawad Abdulrahman, Ibtisam A. AL-Ali, Thikra Abd Aun Hassan, Ammar Mohammed Qassim Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/531 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Bioanalytical method development and validation of garenoxacin mesylate in human plasma by RP-HPLC https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/534 <p>A simple, precise, accurate Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the estimation of Garenoxacin mesylate in human plasma using Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride as an internal standard. Chromatographic conditions used are stationary phase Zorbax Eclipse XDB C18 (250x4.6 mm, 5m), Mobile phase 0.1% orthophosphoric acid and Acetonitrile in the ratio of 50:50 (% v/v) and flow rate was maintained at 1.0 ml/min, detection wavelength was 240 nm, injection volume of 50 µL and the column temperature was set to 30<sup>°</sup>C. The retention time of Garenoxacin mesylate was found to be 4.0 min. % Coefficient of Variation of the Garenoxacin mesylate was found to be 4.30. % Recovery was obtained as 98.97%. The linearity of the proposed method was established in the concentration range of 0.04 to 4 µg/ml (Correlation Coefficient = 0.999). The lower limit of quantification was 0.04 μg/ml (S/N Ratio 21) which reach the level drug possibly found in human plasma. Further, the reported method was validated as per the ICH guidelines and found to be well within the acceptable range.</p> Ajitha A, Sujatha K, Abbulu K Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/534 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A randomized clinical trial investigating pain associated with Bio-kinetic plus nickel–titanium and Conventional nickel-titanium archwires during the initial hours of levelling and aligning the phase of orthodontic treatment https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/533 <p>Orthodontic force application leads to periodontal ligament tissue injury and the initiation of acute inflammatory processes. Therefore, it is recommended that light force should be used during orthodontic treatment to minimise tissue damage and subsequent pain and discomfort. The present study was aimed to assess the pain perception between two types of nickel-titanium wires. To investigate and compare the effects of Bio-kinetics plus nickel–titanium and conventional nickel-titanium archwires on pain during the initial hours of the initial phase of orthodontic treatment. To compare and evaluate the pain perception using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) between 0.016 Conventional NiTi (Group 1) and Bio-Kinetix Plus NiTi (Group 2) at regular intervals of 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours each consisting of a sample size of 7. A total of 14 subjects participated in the study, each group consisting of 7 subjects. The mean pain perception score was 1.71±0.48 and 1.71±0.48 at 0 hours, 2.42±0.97 and 2.71±0.48 at 24 hours, 3.42±0.97 and 2.85±0.69 at 48 hours, 3.85±0.69 and 2.57±0.53 at 72 hours, for Group 1 and Group 2 respectively. There is no significant difference between the two groups, but there is a significant difference (p=0.001) in group 2, by 72 hours, indicating there is a decrease in pain perception. For overall pain, there was no statistically significant difference between the two wires. However, subjects with bio-kinetix plus nickel–titanium archwires had a significantly lower pain at peak level.</p> Shreya Kishore, Saravana Dinesh SP, Srirengalakshmi, Arvind Sivakumar Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/533 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Diallyl disulphide on Hepatic Gluconeogenesis suppression by CREB Binding protein phosphorylation https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/536 <p>Diabetes is an important human ailment affecting many lives in different countries. Diallyl disulfide (DADS), the antidiabetic compound found in garlic, acts as a therapeutic agent in diabetes mellitus condition. This research aimed to investigate the role of DADS on the gluconeogenic mechanism in the liver tissue and the potential involvement of CREB in glucose homeostasis in a Wistar rat model. The alteration in the body weight, liver weight and glycogen content in diabetic rats were prevented by this therapeutic compound: the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB), an important transcriptional regulator of the gluconeogenic mechanism. The glucose uptake potential was studied by the expression of CREB protein in DADS treated diabetic rats using the western blotting technique. A high level of hepatic CREB protein expression was noted in diabetic status in the chronic hyperglycemic model which was reversed by DADS. The antihyperglycemic effect of DADS was almost similar to that of known antidiabetic drug metformin. The therapeutic action of DADS on diabetic status is due to the control of the glycemic imbalance in liver tissue.</p> Prashanthkumar Goudappala, Ethirajan Sukumar, Kashinath RT Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/536 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Comparing the rate of retraction in canines in males and females https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/535 <p>There are multiple factors that affect the treatment duration and the rate of canine retraction between males and females. A difference in the levels of calcitonin and the maintenance of the appliance by both genders varies the treatment duration. Hence this study was conducted to analyse the difference in the rate of canine retraction between males and females using two different bracket systems, synergy and self-ligating. The study was designed as a prospective randomized controlled split-mouth clinical trial, which included 16 subjects, 8 males and 8 females, of ages 12-30 years, divided into 2 groups, the left and the right quadrants receiving Self Ligating and Synergy brackets based on simple randomization, along with a 19*25" SS wire and closed coil springs for individual canine retraction. The patients were reviewed every 21 days for four appointments and records were taken for each review. Digital Vernier calliper was used to measure the amount of canine retraction, and statistical analysis was conducted. The values were calculated and tabulated, and independent ‘t' test was used to analyse the statistical difference. There was no significant statistical difference between the two genders. There are various factors that affect the rate of canine retraction and gender of the patient undergoing orthodontic treatment is one of them. With increased amounts of calcitonin in males, making the alveolar and basal bone denser when compared to women, would likely increase the treatment time in males, when compared to females. Hence this study was conducted to compare the difference and showed that there is no statistical difference between males and females in the rate of canine retraction.</p> Shreya Kishore, Saravana Dinesh SP, Srirengalakshmi, Arvind Sivakumar Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/535 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Comparing the rotational control during canine retraction using two different bracket systems – Synergy and Self Ligating brackets – Split mouth study https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/538 <p>Canine, being the cornerstone of the dental arches, shares an important role in oral functions, esthetics, arch shape and stability. With the new bracket systems that have come to light, which have reduced friction, there is not much literature on how much of a rotation control they have on the cuspids. Hence this study is conducted to compare the efficiency of two least frictional resistance offering brackets – Self-ligating and synergy brackets in terms of rotational control. The study was designed as a prospective randomized controlled split-mouth clinical trial, which included 16 subjects of ages 12-30 years, divided into two groups, left, and the right quadrants receiving Self Ligating and Synergy brackets based on simple randomization, along with a 19*25" SS wire and closed coil springs for individual canine retraction. The patients were reviewed every 21 days for four appointments, and records were taken for each review. Photographs were taken of the cast at every review, and the degree of canine rotation was measured and compared. The results indicate that there is no statistical difference between both the groups in the amount of canine rotation during individual canine retraction with a p-value greater than 0.05 at every interval. The results also indicate that there is a significant amount of canine rotation in Group 1 – Self-ligating brackets and Group 2 – Synergy brackets independently, when comparing T0 to every interval. Overall results show that there is no significant statistical difference between Synergy and Self-Ligating brackets in the amount of canine rotation during canine retraction. The mean or average amount of canine rotation for Group I Self-ligating was 3.32º ±6.55°. The mean or average amount of canine rotation for Group 2 Synergy was 4.08º ±3.85°.</p> Shreya Kishore, Saravana Dinesh SP, Srirengalakshmi, Arvind Sivakumar Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/538 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels in blood and saliva in hypothyroidism accompanied with periodontitis https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/539 <p>Relationship between thyroid dysfunction and periodontal disease has been mediated through an immune response. Cytokines are implicated in the initiation, consequences of immune response and a crucial role in the pathogenesis of thyroid disease, directly target thyroid follicular cells; and in the development and progression of periodontitis. This study aimed to detect cytokines levels which known to be associated with periodontitis in serum and saliva, to test the hypothesis that hypothyroidism influences the levels of biomarkers of periodontitis. Samples were collected from sixty patients with hypothyroid age ranged (20-64) years, thirty of patients were without periodontitis (group I) and 30 with periodontal disease (II); moreover, 30 subjects considered as control (group III) with age (20-53) years. Detection of cytokines was performed by ELISA. The results showed a significant elevation in serum and salivary levels of IL-1β (P&lt;0.001) among patients’ groups (I and II) as compared to group III, as well IL-1β increase significantly in group II (P&lt;0.001) than in group I and also than group III. There are non-significant differences (P&gt;0.05) in serum level of IL-6 and TNF-α and salivary levels of TNF-α among all study groups. Nevertheless, the salivary level of IL-6 is increased significantly (P&lt;0.05) in group II as compared with group I and group III, and their non-significant differences (P&lt;0.05) between groups I and III. The present finding proposed that hypothyroidism might encourage periodontitis development; as well as serum and salivary levels of IL-1β, with salivary IL-6 may represent important biomarkers for the early detection of periodontitis in hypothyroid patients.</p> Sahar H. Al-Hindawi, Batool Hassan Al-Ghurabi Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/539 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Spectrophotometric determination of methyldopa in pharmaceutical preparation via ion pair formation https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/542 <p>A simple, rapid and low-cost spectrophotometric method for determination of Methyldopa (MDA) based on ion-pair formation using Bromothymol blue (BTB) as a reagent in alkaline medium (pH 8.7). The absorbance of the green-blue-coloured product is measured at 616 nm. Beer's Law is obeyed at concentration range up to 5-20μg/ml with molar absorptivity 0.8279x10<sup>4</sup> L/mol.cm. The correlation coefficient, limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.9982, 0.4318 μg/ml and 1.4393 μg/ml respectively. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of Methyldopa in pharmaceutical preparations.</p> Khalaf F Al Samarrai, Eman Thiab A Al Samarrai, Baidaa Adnan Al Samarrai Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/542 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Development of protocol for screening of formulation attributes and the assessment of common quality problems in oleuropein loaded nanostructured lipid carriers https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/545 <p>The current study aims to explore and identify the screening of formulation components and evaluates the quality issues of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for the phenolic secoirodoid Oleuropein. The stepwise screening of the components for preparation of NLCs includes the selection of solid lipid, liquid lipid based on the relative solubility of Oleuropein in different lipids. Polaxomer 188 was selected as the main surfactant for the preparation of NLCs because of its good emulsification efficacy for the solid lipid liquid mix. Lecithin was used to enhance the stability of NLC. The optimized formulation was also evaluated for different quality issues. Thermal analysis by DSC revealed that the lipid particles maintained sufficiently good melting point even after nanonization. Absence of gelation and resilience for the stress provided by autoclaving further established the quality of the developed NLCs. In a nutshell, a systematic protocol was developed for designing of Oleuropein NLC with good particulate parameters of minimum particle size and maximum zeta potential with narrow polydispersity index.</p> Sucharitha P, Satyanarayana SV, Bhaskar Reddy K Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/545 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Spectrophotometric determination of neomycin sulphate in tablets form via reaction with ninhydrin reagent https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/548 <p>A new, sensitive, simple and cheap spectrophotometric method for the determination of Neomycin Sulphate (NEO) in pharmaceutical forms has been developed. The method is based on the reaction between NEO and NIN in basic medium. The maximum absorbance was at 574 nm. The conditions affecting the reaction were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.0002-0.0011 mol/L. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 5.423×10<sup>-6</sup> mol/L, and 1.643×10<sup>-5</sup> mol/L, RSD% of seven replicate was 0.8217- 0.8321% and Rec% was between 99.2168-100.8857%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of NEO tablets form.</p> Khalaf F Alsamarrai, Menaa Abdulsalam Al-Abbasi, Eman Thiab Alsamarrai Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/548 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of acute and delayed antiemetic effect of adding Aprepitant to Odansitron ‎and Dexamethasone regimen ‎in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/581 <p>Cancer is a class of <em>‎</em>disease in which group of cells show out of control growth, invasions <em>‎</em>and <em>‎</em>sometimes metastasis to different parts of the body. Few side effects of cancer treatment are <em>‎</em>more feared by the patient than nausea and vomiting. Although nausea and emesis (vomiting <em>‎</em>and retching) can result from surgery or radiation therapy, chemotherapy-induced nausea <em>‎</em>and vomiting (CINV) are potentially the most severe and most distressing. A randomized, single-blind controlled clinical trial conducted in Hiwa <em>‎</em>Center for Cancer in Sulaimani city for the period <em>‎</em>from January to December 2015. A total of 70 Hodgkin lymphoma patients presented to <em>‎</em>Hiwa <em>‎</em>Center for Cancer and treated with ABVD chemotherapy regimen <em>‎</em>were selected. The patient's <em>‎</em>received either the treatment (Aprepitant, <em>‎</em>Odansitron and Dexamethasone) or the standard <em>‎</em>regimen (Odansitron, <em>‎</em>Dexamethasone) in a 1:1 ratio, <em>‎</em>computer-generated, random allocation <em>‎</em>schedule. A total of sixty-three Hodgkin lymphoma patients were included in <em>‎</em>the present study <em>‎</em>with a mean age was 47.8±14.4 years; 34.9 % of them were <em>‎</em>ageing 60 years and more. Nausea and vomiting score was significantly higher in the treatment group from 2<sup>nd</sup> day to 4<sup>th</sup> days; the number of rescue therapy was significantly higher in the standard therapy group. In conclusion, the use of Aprepitant, Odansitron and Dexamethasone regimen <em>‎</em>showed superior and valuable results in the prevention of cancer <em>‎</em>induced nausea and vomiting by patients on chemotherapy.</p> Dara Abdulla Mohammed, Esraa Ghazy Jabar, May Siddik Al-Sabbagh, Hayder Adnan Fawzi Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/581 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Biological effective dose, cumulative radiation dose, risk of malignancy and mortality rate estimation in adult patients who have a history of cancer and exposed to recurrent computed tomography https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/585 <p>Computed tomography is commonly used for the initial diagnosis of a tumour to provide information about the stage of cancer &amp; to assess whether the disease is responding to treatment. Leukemia &amp; solid tumour may have developed as a result of exposure to a low dose of diagnostic ionizing radiation so another primary tumour may develop as a result of radiation exposure. We used information in the patient sheet to measure patient effective radiation dose(E) in millisievert (mSv) &amp; calculate cumulative dose by summation of dose over three years, estimated life attributed risk &amp; mortality rate. The results of the current study revealed that from 50 patients 37 (74%) of them were female &amp; 13 (26%) of them were male, age range 23- 80yr, breast cancer was the commonest cause of malignancy follow by lung cancer. Cumulative dose in mSv/yr rang 12-80 mSv, about 43(86%) of our patients exposed to more than 20mSv /yr &amp; 7(14%) of them expose to 20 &amp; less than 20 per year. Collective dose in three years’ range was 35-250 mSv mean 97 ± 37 Estimated radiological effective dose was more than 100 mSv in 22 (44%) per three years &amp; 28(56%) of them had less than 100mSv. Life attributed risk for incidence of cancers was 1:285 -1:40 &amp; mortality rate 0.21%-1.5%. A high percentage of patient 86% with cancer receive high radiation dose annually from CT scan more than considerable safe radiation dose for a worker in this field and 44% of our patient expose to cumulative dose more than 100 mSv per three which is also excess allowed dose for the radiological worker.</p> Amjaad Majeed Hameed, Dergham Majeed Hameed Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/585 Mon, 29 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Memory enhancing effect of Nelumbo nucifera seedpod extract and its active component quercetin in noise stress-exposed rats https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/706 <p>Stress is an unavoidable phenomenon which disturbs the physiological homeostasis. Noise is the highest encountered stressor that affects the well-being of mankind. Hippocampus, a region of the brain crucial for memory is highly influenced by stress and thereby deteriorates memory. Male albino Wistar rats of 11-12 weeks were used in this study. Nelumbo nucifera (NNE) 400 mg/kg body weight (BW) and its active principle Quercetin (QRCT) (40 mg/kg bw) were administered orally to the animals 10 days before noise stress exposure of (100dB 4h/d). Ability to retain information by Learning and spatial memory was assessed using eight-arm radial maze apparatus. It was observed that after noise stress exposure errors in working, reference memory and time period to move into all baited arms were increased; however, the drug pre-treated animals showed a decrease in all the above parameters. The observations in the present work have proved that NNE and QRCT groups were effective in ameliorating the noise stress-induced changes, but the active component quercetin group had a higher protective impact on the changes.</p> Ruvanthika PN, Manikandan S, Vishnu Priya V Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/706 Tue, 16 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Hide and seek in pathology- A research on game-based histopathology learning https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/606 <p>To know the effectiveness of a Game-Based Histopathology learning method.&nbsp;</p> <p>To create a new Image oriented Game Based Histopathology slide reading method. To know the usefulness of the new method.&nbsp;To compare the conventional learning and game-based learning methods. Two groups of undergraduate students were tested with two different learning methods to identify pathology slide sections of four lesions. For each group, sixteen Undergraduate dental students were selected randomly. A game was created by using histopathology images of those four lesions, and circulated among the group one. The conventional method of slide reading was given to the group two. Both the group was tested for diagnosing the four pathology lesions through light microscopy spotter identification. Results were calculated accordingly. A questionnaire survey was done based on the pattern and pathology features oriented diagnostic capacity. Results of the questionnaire survey were also analyzed.&nbsp;Statistically, the results of both the two groups were analyzed. An Independent t-test was done and found out there was no significant difference between the two learning methods. The questionnaire survey revealed that the group learned through game-based pathology slide learning method learned the morphological features better than that of the conventional slide learning method.&nbsp;The image oriented game based pathology slide learning helps the undergraduate students to diagnose the pathology lesions with proper knowledge of morphological features than the conventional slide learning method, which is mainly pattern oriented. Though it is a very complicated procedure, the game based slide learning method is fun, creative and involves a majority of the student’s attention towards morphological features of any pathological lesions.</p> Brundha MP, Deepak Nallaswamy Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/606 Mon, 29 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of flipped class based teaching in orthodontics & dentofacial orthopedics – A prospective study https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/619 <p>The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate the students appearing for university examination in Orthodontic dentistry. A total of 150 students enrolled in this study from two consecutive academic sessions. In Group I (2015-2016) final year graduate students of 75 students received conventional class room lectures; group II (2016-2017) final year graduate students of 75 students received flipped class room lectures. The curriculums for both the groups were approved from the department of Orthodontic Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Committee Members for Education, Saveetha University. At the end of each academic year marks scored out of 200 marks were obtained and subjected to statistical analysis. All the students cleared the university examination held at respective academic years for both the groups. The mean marks obtained for CCR group was 130.93 ± 9.12 and for FCR group was 150.35 ± 10.93.). Independent samples test revealed there is highly significant difference seen (p &lt;0.01). In the recent year it was found that the flipped class system has gained a significant attention amongst all educators. The characteristic feature of flipped class system is that in flipped class they have videos &amp; clipping related to the subject. The students will be given the videos of the classes on the previous day of the class so that they can go through it &amp; will have a better idea regarding the topic &amp; it will even motivate them to even search &amp; know better of the topic. The only point is such that teachers have to spend a bit more extra time is creating the video’s related to the topics.</p> Deepak Nallaswamy V, Saravana pandian S, Subha M Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/619 Mon, 29 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Spectrophotometric method for the determination of benzocaine by cerium ammonium sulphate with promethazine hydrochloride in pure and phar-maceuticals preparation https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/707 <p>Easy, the accurate, sensitive spectrophotometric method used to determine Benzocaine in a pure and pharmaceutical preparation. The proposed method depends on using Promethazine hydrochloride as a reagent. Where it depends on oxidative coupling reaction of benzocaine by cerium ammonium sulphate with promethazine hydrochloride in the presence of hydrochloric acid to form green dye product, lmax 615 nm. Beers law is obeyed in the concentration of (5 –300 µg.ml<sup>-1</sup>). The molar absorptivity is (1.77 * 10 <sup>3</sup>) L.mol <sup>-1</sup>.cm<sup>-1</sup>, a sandal sensitivity of (0.0098) µq.cm<sup>-2 </sup>and RSD (± 0.56 %). The method gave a successful determination for benzocaine in a pharmaceutical preparation.</p> Amal H. Mhemeed Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/707 Tue, 23 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Mechanical properties improvement of epoxy composites by natural hy-droxyapatite from fish scales as a fillers https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/708 <p>This study was carried out to prepare epoxy<em>/</em> natural hydroxyapatite composite for potential biomedical application. Natural hydroxyapatite (nHAp) powder was extracted from Tilapia fish scales via the thermal method. The natural hydroxyapatite was milled for 48 hours and dried by spray method. The nHAp particle size was determined using mastersizer 2000 particle size analyser and the chemical structure was confirmed using (XRD) and FTIR analysis. The particle size of nHAp was identified to be between 1 and 10 microns. Mechanical properties of epoxy<em>/</em> natural hydroxyapatite were investigated by using impact and flexural test. The highest flexural strength of epoxy/nHAp composite was recorded when the nHAp filler was 10 wt% which is 77 % increment as compared to epoxy alone. The impact strength was increased up to two-fold as compared to neat epoxy. The scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and EDX analysis showed uniform dispersion of nHAp particles within the epoxy matrix for the composites with 10 wt% filler loading.</p> Majhool AA, Zainol I, Azziz SSSA, Aiza Jaafar CN Copyright (c) https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/708 Tue, 23 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Development and evaluation of Punica granatum fruit based herbal lipstick https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/709 <p>Cosmetics are designed to enhance and bring out the facial features of women, beautify them, in hope to boost their confidence. One of the most commonly used and known cosmetics is lipstick. Lipstick formulations are mostly used to enhance the shape and beauty of lips and add a touch of glamour to the makeup, completing the whole look. Most of the lip product available commercially on the market globally is based on chemical compounds, with the possibility of various side effects such as skin irritation or rash to certain women with skin sensitivity issues. The chemical in the cosmetic also possesses a risk to the wider environment. In order to cope with this problem, some of the cosmetic company started creating environmentally friendly vegan products based on natural sources, creating products that possess less harm to the consumers as well as to the environment. With this aim and objectives in mind, I attempt to develop an herbal-based lipstick by using <em>Punica granatum</em> extract. The herbal-based lipstick was manufactured through various stages of melting, mixing, moulding, flaming and packaging. The formulated lipsticks were then evaluated for its physiochemical evaluation such as melting point, hardness, spreadability, surface anomalies, aging stability, solubility, pH, and perfume stability. The formulated lipstick will also be evaluated for its manufacturing defects such as sweating, bleeding, laddering, deformation, cratering and stability study.</p> Venkatalakshmi Raganathan, Chan Xia Pyng, Prasanthi Sri Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/709 Tue, 23 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Socio-demographic profile of a sample of drug dependent patients who visit the psychiatric unit at Al Dewanyea teaching hospital, Iraq https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/710 <p>Like many other subjects, not enough data is present about drug addiction in Iraq. So it is needed to be researched especially for the social and economic impact it has on the society in general. To identify different sociodemographic characteristics of patients with drug abuse and to know what types of drugs that have been abused, and to know the settings that introduced these patients to drugs. A sample of 150 patients was selected from those who attended the psychiatric unit at Al Dewaniya teaching hospital along 6 months' period and were interviewed and diagnosed according to DSM 5 criteria for substance dependence disorders. The mean age of patients was 36.94 ±11.93 and men formed 88% of the sample. The sample most common sociodemographic characteristics were primary school education (46.7 %), unemployment (45.3 %) and mostly married (44 %). The most commonly abused drug was procyclidine 52.7% followed by diazepam 45.3%, then alprazolam&nbsp;&nbsp; 24.7%. of the sample only (48 %) had psychiatric comorbidity and 70% of them were introduced to drugs via a non-medical source. Procyclidine, benzodiazepines and tramadol are the most commonly used drugs, and patients with mental illness are at risk of developing drug dependence introduced to them via a doctor prescription.</p> Sahar Albermany Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/710 Tue, 23 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The validity of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in serum and saliva as a new type for diagnosis in Iraqi kids having cystic fibrosis https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/713 <p>Cystic fibrosis is a life-limiting, recessive disease; it occurs due to mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19.9) is a tumour-associated<strong>, </strong>primarily occur in patients having biliary tract and pancreatic cancers but are also observed in patients having other malignancies. Conditions related to benign like cholestasis, cirrhosis, cholangitis, plus pancreatitis also result in CA 19-9 elevations. Raised levels of serum CA 19-9 seems in CF patient to be related to disease pulmonary exacerbation also in the lung the amount of sputum. Investigate whether serum and saliva (CA19.9) level may contribute to cystic fibrosis diagnosis establishment in patients. This "case-control study" consists of 80 individuals (30 patients and 50 healthy controls). Their age was range between one month and 18 years<strong>. </strong>Blood and saliva samples were taken from patients<strong>.</strong> Saliva level in patients was 1.775±1.030U/ml (P&lt;0.001) as compared to control group (0.956±0.682 U/ml)<strong>. </strong>A serum level of CA19.9 was found to be increased (P&lt;0.001) by 0.818±0.601 U/ml in CF patients as compared to healthy (0.334±0.101 U/ml) control. From this study, we can conclude that the salivary CA19.9 level can be diagnosed as a marker for cystic fibrosis.</p> Maryam Qussay Issa, Shatha MJ AL-Khateeb, Hala Sameh Arif, Muhi Kadhem AL-Janabi Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/713 Tue, 23 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 In vitro anti-motility and antispasmodic effects of Garcinia mangostana extracts in isolated chicken ileum preparation https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/714 <p><em>Garcinia mangostana</em> pericarps have been traditionally used in Southeast Asia for a variety of medicinal conditions. The present study was carried out to determine the anti-motility and antispasmodic effects of methanolic and aqueous <em>G. mangostana </em>extracts (MEM and AEM) on isolated chicken ileum. Extracts were prepared from the pericarp of <em>G. mangostana</em> using maceration technique with methanol and distilled water. Isolated ileum preparations were set up for recording in Tyrode’s solution at 37°C.&nbsp;Dose-response curves were plotted using various doses of agonist as control such as acetylcholine (ACh) and histamine. Atropine, mepyramine and extracts were used as an antagonist. The results showed that methanolic and aqueous extracts possess significant concentration-dependent inhibitory effects (p&lt;0.05) on agonist-induced contractions. The half maximal effective concentration (EC<sub>50</sub>) of extracts and standard antagonists were higher than the agonist alone. Both methanolic and aqueous extract of <em>G. mangostana</em> exerts anti-motility and antispasmodic effects on smooth muscle contractions. The study provides findings that support <em>G. mangostana</em> can be the potential treatment for diarrhoea and spasm.</p> Michelle Ooi Yi Ching, Sasikala Chinnappan, Mogana Sundari Rajagopal Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/714 Tue, 23 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Level of pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients with transfusion-related acute lung injury - Multiple comparisons between patients, controls and donor https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/715 <p>Transfusion-related acute lung injury recently regarded as the leading cause of death after transfusion. Several pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF, IL6 and IL8 have been linked to the pathogenesis of TRALI, supported by the findings of increased their serum levels in recipient patients. This is a prospective case-control study, twenty-five patients with a diagnosis of TRALI after transfusion of blood products were included and compared to another 25 transfused patients. Serum was obtained after the onset of TRALI in patients and controls. Other samples were obtained from the saved donor transfused bag or segments. All samples were utilized for cytokines assay. The intubation rate among TRALI patients was 48%. No difference was found in the regarding the type of transfusion and the cytokine level for each specific type of blood or blood component transfused between TRALI and controls. The overall TRALI associated mortality was 4%. Results revealed significantly increased TNF alpha IL-6 levels in sera of TRALI patients as compared with control and donor unit for patients with TRALI. Serum levels of IL-8 were significantly higher in patients with TRALI (mean42.11 pg/ml) as compared with sera of control and donor unit for TRALI patients. Serum level of TNF, IL-6 and-8 in patients with TRALI was significantly higher in patients with longer incubation time. Serum cytokines assay in patients with TRALI may add the significant advantage of assessing the severity, associated mortality and predicting the time of ventilator support.</p> Adil Shaker Al-Tamimi, Israa A. Dheeb Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/715 Tue, 23 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of duodenal giardia using giemsa stain https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/717 <p>The objectives of this study are to evaluate the benefit of using Giemsa staining in endoscopic duodenal biopsies if it provides an appropriate tool to diagnose giardia parasite more accurate than the usual hematoxylin-eosin stain. Method: a retrospective study including fifty patients have been nominated with upper abdominal pain, attended gastrointestinal&nbsp;tract(GIT) consultation unit in medical City of Imam Al-Hussein-Karbala/ Iraq complaining from upper abdominal discomfort. They have been examined by esophagio- gastro duodenoscopy. All duodenal biopsies have also been collected from pathology excluding all celiac disease cases. All biopsies have paraffin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin looking for Giardia; in the following, the slides are stained with Giemsa stain following the manufacture-instruction. Results: 50patients (27 females and 23 males) have been examined depending on the hematoxylin and eosin staining, respectively, the diagnosis is non-specific chronic duodenitis with low MARSH score. Eleven patients from total fifty-two ones (21.15%) have shown positive symptoms for giardia cyst and trophozoite using the Giemsa stain. Conclusion: Giardia infection is difficult to be diagnosed with hematoxylin-eosin stain, especially with low infection. Consequently, Giemsa stain might be used to increase the efficacy of histopathological diagnosis of the parasite.</p> Ali Fadhil Hashim Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/717 Tue, 23 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Antimicrobial activity of some Bacillus spp. Separated from the soil https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/718 <p>In this study select two active isolate from nine isolates of local agricultural soil of Mosul, were collected from 10 sample of 6 different region depending on antimicrobial activity to some test bacteria and fungi, Identified as gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria and, biochemical test, the selected isolates belonged to <em>Bacillus</em> genus, gave signal B1 and B2 were effective against both pathogenic bacteria Gram-positive and Gram-negative, two isolates gave high inhibition zone about 23mm against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> whereas gave less inhibition zone against <em>Escherichia .coli</em>, <em>Klebsiella spp</em>, <em>Aspergillus niger and</em> <em>Candida spp</em>, <em>20</em>, 16, Furthermore studied the effect of temperature on the growth of two isolates which gave good growth at 40-45 degree whereas there was no growth at low temperature 5°C. Furthermore studied the effect of salt on the growth of two isolates that gave good growth at concentration 3% NaCl; the two strains were analysed utilizing agar publishing way and cross streak method.</p> Zhara Tareq Abdulhameed Baqqal, Rafal Mhaidi Younus, Saja Dhyaaldain Mustafa Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/718 Tue, 23 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of polyamide microparticles addition on some mechanical prop-erties of light-cured acrylic resin https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/719 <p>The general upgrading of polymer denture base material and research continuously looking for ideal restorative dental material with better properties, adequate esthetic properties, less expensive and easier to handle material to develop photo polymerization dental materials. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of addition polyamide on mechanical microparticle properties light cure denture base material. One hindered sixty specimens from light-cured acrylic resin (Aurora). The divided mainly into four groups according to test used (Transverse strength test, impact strength test, hardness test and tensile strength test) with 40 specimens for each group. The results show an increase in Transverse strength, impact strength, hardness and tensile strength in all experimental group when compared to control group the highest mean values for all tests included in the study appeared in group B 1% polyamide. The addition of polyamide microparticle improves transverse, tensile, impact strength and hardness properties of denture base material.</p> Adnan R. Al Assal, Abdalbaset A Fatalla, Mohammed Moudhaffar, Ghasak H Jani Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/719 Tue, 23 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical study in ethanolic leaves extract of Aloe vera using Gas chromatography https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/720 <p>Medicinal plant <em>Aloe vera </em>are reported to have anti-cancer properties. In the present work, a phytochemical study in <em>Aloe vera</em> was evaluated qualitatively and further analysed using gas chromatography. <em>Aloe vera</em> leaves were washed, shade dried and homogenized to get a filtrate which was extracted in ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The ethanolic extract was subjected to various phytochemical tests and also evaluated using gas chromatography. As a result, the qualitative phytochemical analysis of <em>A.vera </em>ethanolic leaves extracts confirmed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, proteins, saponins, phenols, terpenoids and phytosterols. Gas chromatographic analysis of <em>A.vera </em>ethanolic leaves extracts showed all these eight compounds. All these compounds are of pharmacological importance as they possess properties such as anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, analgesic, antibacterial, and antifungal activity. Future work is essential to explore its therapeutic applications.</p> Jannathul firdous, Karpagam T, Varalakshmi, Sugunabai J, Gomathi S, Revathy, Noorzaid Muhamad Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/720 Tue, 23 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from various clinical samples of the patients attending in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Puducherry https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/721 <p align="justify"><em>Staphylococci </em>spp has been reported as a major cause of hospital and community-associated infections. <em>Staphylococcus</em> <em>aureus</em> is the most common pathogen causing a variety of infections relatively begins minor skin in sections (abscess. cellulitis, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome) to live threating systemic infections like endocarditis, septic arthritis, pneumonia joint, and bone infections, toxic shock syndrome. Methicillin resistance was reported in 1961 and emerged in the last several decades as one of the most important nosocomial pathogens which were reported just one year of the launch of methicillin. MRSA now a day a big problem is because it is creating life threating problems medical institutions. The knowledge of MRSA prevalence and current antibiogram profile is necessary for the selection of appropriate treatment for related infections. Isolation and identification of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> were done by standard conventional microbiological methods. The Methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> strains were tested by using Cefoxitin 30μg disc on Mueller - Hinton agar and antibiotic susceptibility testing were done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Insititute guidelines (CLSI). All the 164 MRSA (100%) strains were sensitive to Tigecycline, Vancomycin, Teicoplanin followed by Linezolid (92. 68%). Tigecycline, Vancomycin, Teicoplanin has until now excellent activity against clinical isolates of Methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus.</em></p> Vamsi Muni Krishna P, Sreenivasulu Reddy V, Praveen Kumar V, Suresh P Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/721 Tue, 23 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Antibiotics susceptibility patterns of Citrobacter freundii isolated from pa-tients with urinary tract infection in Al-Najaf governorate – Iraq https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/722 <p align="justify"><em>Citrobacter freundii </em>is one of the most causative agents of urinary tract infection in human due to their high antimicrobials resistance. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the ability of <em>Citrobacter freundii </em>to resist to fifteen antimicrobials. A total of 461 urine samples were collected from patients infected with urinary tract infection, females and males, age groups between 18 to 60 years old performed in Al-Najaf central hospital in Al-Najaf City, Iraq, during April to December 2018. Antimicrobials susceptibility testing was performed by disc diffusion method according to the Kirby-Bauer method onto Mueller Hinton agar surface. There were 30 isolates (6.5%) diagnosed as <em>Citrobacter freundii</em>. Antimicrobial resistance rate of the 30 isolates to Amoxicillin and Chloramphenicol were all high (25 isolates 83.4%), Ciprofloxacin, Streptomycin and Sulfonamide (24 isolates 80%). The good resistance rate was observed for Penicillin, Amoxiclav and Ceftazidime (21 isolates 70%). The moderate resistance rate was observed for Cefotaxime (19 isolates 63.3%), Ceftriaxone (20 isolates 66.7%), Gentamicin (15 isolates 50%), Tobramycin (18 isolates 60%) and Erythromycin (20 isolates 66.7%). The lowest resistance rate was observed for Tetracycline (19 isolates 63.3%). While Imipenem provided full antibacterial activity (30 isolates 100%). Of the total 30 isolates, 22 (73.3%) were multi-drug resistance, 8(26.7%) extensive-drug resistance and no isolates were pan-drug resistance. While 19 isolates (63.3%) were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing <em>Citrobacter freundii</em>. <em>Citrobacter freundii </em>has highly resistant against most antimicrobials and became more dangerous bacteria cause urinary tract infection.</p> Thualfakar Hayder, Ahmed Abdul Jabbar Jaloob Aljanaby Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/722 Tue, 23 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Development and radiographical evaluation of floating tablets with combination of Amoxicillin Trihydrate and Ranitidine Hydrochloride https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/727 <p align="justify">Stomach Specific Floating Tablets (SSFT) with a combination of Amoxicillin-Trihydrate (AT) and Ranitidine Hydrochloride (RH) were developed by using different grades of Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMCK) (i.e.HPMCK <sub>100</sub>M, HPMCK<sub>4</sub>M and HPMCK<sub>15</sub>M), to treat patients with H. pylori-infected duodenal ulcer. Floating tablets were prepared by direct compression method, developed formulations were evaluated for different pre-compression and post-compression parameters like angle of repose, compressibility index, hardness, weight variation, floating lag time, content uniformity, and in-vitro drug release. In-Vitro release of two drugs (Amoxicillin-Trihydrate and Ranitidine hydrochloride) from the developed formulation was estimated by the Simultaneous Estimation method (Vierordt's Method). The optimized formulation was subjected to Radio graphical evaluation by incorporating the BaSO<sub>4</sub>, a radio-opaque substance by replacing a part of the drug from the optimized formulation of into the formulation and then it was administered to the healthy human volunteers to find out the in-vivo residence time. In-vivo X-ray studies were conducted both in fed condition, as well as fasted condition the optimized formulation showed a gastric residence time of more in fed state than that of fasting state. From these studies it was clearly observed that the floating tablets should be given to patients after a standard food and with frequent intake of water.</p> Parepalli Srikanth, Hemalatha S, Suggala Venkata Satyanarayana Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/727 Tue, 23 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Chemotherapy and Dyslipidemia (Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide Regimen versus Taxane) in Iraqi Women with Breast Cancer: A Compara-tive Study https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/728 <p align="justify">Lipids are a major component of the cell membrane, essential for the growth and division of both the normal and malignant cell. This study aimed to study the effect of different chemotherapy regimens in the induction of dyslipidemia in Iraqi women with breast cancer. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Biochemistry, Medical College, University of Baghdad and at the Oncology Hospital, Medical City Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq, during the period from May 2018 to October 2018. It involved 56 regularly menstruated women (25-45 years) categorized into: group 1 [G1] included 29 women with primary breast carcinoma, group 2 [G2] consisted of the same 29 women of G1 but after finishing the first course of treatment [4 cycles of anthracycline chemotherapy], and group 3 [G3] which involved 27 women who completed full regimen of chemotherapy treatment [course 1 and 4 cycles of taxanes; the course 2]. Serum cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and TG were measured using colorimetric methods. The mean (± SEM) of serum cholesterol was significantly increased in G1 (p&lt; 0.05) and G2 (p&lt;0.01) compared to G3. Also, the mean values of serum LDL-C were significantly elevated in G2 than G1 and G3 (p&lt;0.05). Serum TG level showed no significant differences among the three groups. While that of serum HDL-C levels was significantly decreased in G3 compared to G1 (p&lt;0.05), this study showed that breast cancer chemotherapy-associated dyslipidemia is transient, and anthracycline course has a significant effect than Taxane one.</p> Zainab Nazar Hassan Anber, Basil Oied Mohammed Saleh, Eisa Raad Jasim Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/728 Tue, 23 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Design, synthesis, characterization and antitubercular activity of some nov-el 2, 4-disubstituted thiazole derivatives https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/729 <p>Literature reviews reveal that thiazole and pyrazine carboxamide derivatives exhibit anticonvulsant<strong>,</strong> antimicrobial, anticancer and anti-tubercular activities due to the presence of –S-C=N- and-CO–NH- moiety. A series of thiazolyl pyrazine carboxamide derivatives (5a-j) were synthesized by condensation reaction between 2-amino, 4-substituted phenyl 2-amino thiazole and pyrazine 2-carboxylic acid. These synthesized thiazole derivatives (5a-j) were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), H<sub>37</sub>Rv using microplate Alamar Blue assay (MABA). The compound, 5c and 5h showed high anti-mycobacterial activity with MIC value of 6.25 µg/ml, and the compound 5g also exhibited anti-mycobacterial activity with MIC value of 12.50 µg/ml. Molecular docking studies of these synthesized molecules with b-Ketoacyl-ACP Synthase (KasA) protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) have been carried out to understand the mechanism of anti-mycobacterial action.</p> Gobala Krishnan P, Gnanaprakash K, Chandrasekhar KB Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/729 Tue, 23 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity for some new synthesized Schiff bases derived from Ascorbic acid https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/730 <p align="justify">This study was carried out to synthesise some new Schiff bases compounds through condensation of ascorbic acid (keto form) with some compounds which have amine group in their structure also these compounds synthesized by using of microwave irradiation and traditional method and compare the results obtained. Microwave irradiation of organic reactions has quickly acquired popularity as it increases the speed of the reaction towards multiple kinds of synthetic transformations, solventless procedures without the use of supporting reagents and therefore eco-friendly, the antioxidant properties were studied for all compounds included in this study, the results indicate that IC50 for the compounds synthesized by using of microwave irradiation method were higher than the traditional method, and also the biological activity of the prepared compounds were also studied to estimate capability of suppressing <em>Enterococcus, Staphyllo coccus aureus </em>and<em> E. Coli </em>than the starting materials that have biological activity on these bacteria. This study shows that the diameters of inhibitions in Petri dishes have higher and wider at a concentration (10 mg / ml) for used bacteria.</p> Taiseer Abdul-Kader Saleh, Rafah Razooq Hameed Al-Samarrai, Noor Essam Abdul-Razzaq Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/730 Tue, 23 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of patients with myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using low dose dobutamine stress echocardiography https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/781 <p>Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a spectrum of heart diseases which has the highest mortality in the world. Systolic left ventricular (LV) function is an important predictor of outcome, and its precise assessment remains of great importance for the choice of treatment in populations with myocardial infarction (MI). This study was aimed to assess the function and viability of ischemic myocardium of LV before and after the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) by using 2dimentional (2D) STE with LDDSE and to know the usefulness of low dose dobutamine (LDD) test in detecting the viable ischemic LV area. The results of the current study revealed there was a significant decrease (improvement) in GLS before dobutamine from (-10.49±3.4) to (-12.87±3.44) after dobutamine. Then there was a significant increase (deterioration) in GLS from (-12.87±3.44) after giving 5 mg/kg/min dobutamine to (-11.56±3.29) after giving 10 mg/kg/min dobutamine (P value &lt; 0.001). While there were no significant differences in GLS after low dose dobutamine (-12.87±3.44) with the same parameters 3-6 months after PCI (-13.48±3.7). Left anterior descending artery (LAD) is the most common affected artery in our study. The study concluded that GLS provides a sensitive measure of LV function and appears reduced despite preserved LVEF also GLS can detect the viability of ischemic myocardium of LV with using LDD test which then assessed by PCI.</p> Reem Jamal Jabir, Affan Ezzat Hasan, Qasim Mohammed Jumaah, Layth Rafea Taqa Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/781 Thu, 25 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Identification of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from pregnant women by 16srRNA gene https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/783 <p>The main goal of the current study is to isolate and diagnose of <em>Streptococcus agalactiae</em> by using the diagnostic 16 SrRNA gene. <em>S.agalactiae </em>was isolated from 850 samples including (425) vaginal swabs, (425) rectal swabs and identified by studying the morphological characteristics of colonies on culture, microscopic characteristics of bacterial cells, biochemical methods, Vitek 2 system, API-20 Strep, and then confirmed the identification by detection of 16SrRNA gene by Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR) followed by DNA Sequence analysis for this gene. A total of 16 isolates of <em>S.agalactiae </em>were isolated from 12 (2.82%) vaginal swabs, 4 (0.99%) rectal swabs, and 16SrRNA was detected in 100% of the <em>S.agalactiae </em>isolates.</p> Haneen Kadhum Abdul-Hamza, Ghaidaa Jihadi Mohammed Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/783 Thu, 25 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of acute Atorvastatin treatment in an experimental model of colitis https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/782 <p>Acute atorvastatin treatment in an experimental model of colitis was studied using the acetic acid induction modality for colitis in rats. This study was aimed to evaluate possible therapeutic effects of atorvastatin against acetic acid-induced colitis in a rat model and to find out the correlation between severity index with oxidative stress parameters and inflammatory markers. Experimental colitis was induced in rats by rectal administration of 4% acetic acid (vol/vol). Rats with colitis were received either atorvastatin 10mg/kg or sulfasalazine 100mg/kg orally for 7 days. Macroscopical and microscopical assessment and the measurement of the colonic cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α), oxidative stress markers; myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and adhesion molecules (E-Selectin and ICAM-1). Both the macroscopical lesion area and histological colonic injury induced by acetic acid were reduced significantly by both atorvastatin and sulfasalazine. These were associated by attenuation of the increased colonic MPO activity, MDA and proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, there is the downregulation of the adhesion molecules. In the present study, Atorvastatin had shown therapeutic effects in experimental colitis. The anti-inflammatory actions involve antioxidant effect related to phenolic moiety along with inhibition of adhesion molecule synthesis in the colonic tissues.</p> Mohammed J Manna, Eithar S Al-Karagoli, Zahra Shakir Fadhil Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/782 Thu, 25 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Physicochemical characterization of atenolol mucoadhesive tablet https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/784 <p>The buccal mucosa has confirmed principally valuable and provides more advantages than other dosage forms such as bypass of the GIT, improving the bioavailability of therapeutic agent that has high first-pass metabolism, controlled drug delivery, ease of application and immediate withdrawal of delivery by detaching the system. The aim of the study was to formulate and evaluate mucoadhesive atenolol buccal tablets for systemic delivery. Atenolol tablets were prepared by direct compression using ethyl cellulose and mucoadhesive polymers namely, Sodium alginate, Hydroxyl propyl cellulose and Methylcellulose. All the formulations were subjected to physicochemical evaluation such as hardness, thickness, friability, surface pH, swelling index and weight variation.&nbsp; The mean surface pH and <em>ex-vivo</em> residence time of the prepared tablets were found to 6.8-7.10 and 6.6±0.92 to 7.00±0.01 which is favorable for oral mucosa. <em>In-vitro</em> drug release studies demonstrated that atenolol release from the selected tablets followed diffusion kinetics with a maximum drug release and it is confirmed that the tablet has the ability to deliver the drug. The present study indicates atenolol buccal tablet for systemic delivery with an added advantage of circumventing the hepatic first-pass metabolism.</p> Venkatalakshmi Ranganathan Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/784 Thu, 25 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative evaluation of antiulcer activity of combination of extracts of Embilica officinalis Gaertn and Musa sapientum Linn in rats https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/821 <p>The present study is to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of methanolic extract of unripe fruits of <em>Musa Sapientum</em> Linn. and the fresh juice of the fruits of <em>Emblica Officinalis </em>Gaertn in Wistar rats. The methanolic extract unripened fruits of <em>Musa Sapientum</em> Linn.&nbsp; and the fresh juice of the fruits of <em>Emblica Officinalis </em>Gaertn were combined and evaluated for the gastroprotective activity by ethanol-induced model and indomethacin-induced model in rats at a dose of 25mg/kg (p.o) and 50mg/kg (p.o) respectively. Biochemical parameters like ulcer index, the volume of gastric juice, pH of gastric juice, free acidity and total acidity were studied. The unripe fruits of <em>Musa</em> and the fresh juice of <em>Embilica</em> will contain flavonoids, flavones, abscisic acid which shows a significant reduction in gastric volume, pH, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index at the doses of 25mg/kg (p.o) and 50mg/kg (p.o). The results show that the unripe fruits 0f <em>Musa Sapientum</em> Linn. and fresh juice from the fruits of <em>Emblica Officinalis </em>Gaertn will combinedly possess greater antiulcer activity than that of the individual drugs.</p> Keserla Bhavani, Gnanavel V, Ratna B, Jayakar B, Aanandan, Natukula Praveen Kumar, Koya Prabhakar Rao, Namburi Lakshmi Anjaneya Amarbabu Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/821 Tue, 23 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-venom activities of methanol extract of Marsilea quadrifolia Linn (Marsileaceae) against Russell’s Viper venom https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/873 <p>The methanol extract of <em>Marsilea quadrifolia </em>Linn is explored aimed for the first time for anti-venom activity. The <em>Marsilea quadrifolia </em>Linn extract extensively antagonized <em>Russell’s viper </em>venom-induced lethality, haemorrhage, necrotizing, defibrinogenating and paw edema activities were extensively neutralized by plant extract. The above explanation confirmed that methanol extract of <em>Marsilea quadrifolia </em>Linn acquire persuasive snake venom neutralizing capability and could theoretically be used for therapeutic rationale in case of snakebite envenomation.</p> Mohanraj Subramanian, Sangameswaran Balakrishnan Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/873 Wed, 24 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of the outcome of the tubularized incised plate (T.I.P) tech-nique in the management of distal hypospadias; prospective single-centre study https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/874 <p>To assess the consequence of tubularized incised plate urethroplasty on primary hypospadias repair. Total of 42 male patients underwent hypospadias repair in AL-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital/Iraq. from April 2016 to April 2018. The levels of the hypospadias defect, age at operation, type of sutures and dressing, type of catheter and time of removal and complications were verified. Tubularized incised plate urethroplasty done for all patients and mean patients age at operation was 4.4 years (range 1 year to 8year). Postoperative follow up was 1 to 3 months. Generally, meatal stenosis, dehiscence due to infection and an urethrocutaneous fistula occurred in 3,2and 6 patients, respectively. T.I.P. urethroplasty has come to be the favourite surgical procedure of distal hypospadias cases at our hospital. The technique has a small number of complications in addition to prove success and adaptability that continue to increase its application.</p> Ahmed Abdulameer Alwan, Ahmed Ali Obaid, Hussain T. Ajeel Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/874 Wed, 24 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A comparative study for the effectiveness of Tamsulosin alone versus Tamsulosin plus Tadalafil combination as an expulsive medical treatment in the management of lower ureteric calculous in Al-Diwaniyah teaching hos-pital https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/875 <p>To evaluate the efficacy &amp; safety of tamsulosin alone versus tamsulosin plus tadalafil combination as expulsive medical treatment of distal ureteric calculus. From March 2015 utile March 2017, two hundred patients (one hundred thirty males and seventy females), who attended the outpatient urology clinic and presented with stones size 5 to 10 mm in distal ureteric part, have been randomly allocated into two equal treatment groups. Group A treated with tamsulosin alone, and group B treated with tamsulosin plus tadalafil. Both treatments were given for a maximum of six weeks’ duration. The rate and time to the calculous passage, type of analgesic use, adverse effects of the drugs, number of outpatient urology clinic visits for pain, and follow-up were noted. Both treatment groups have higher expulsion rate with a lower time to expulsion with no statistically significant differences between them (p=0.350, p=0.074, respectively). Group B showed a significantly lower rate in admission to the hospital for pain and need for analgesia than in group A. no dangerous adverse events had been observing in both groups. Additional benefit seen in group B was the improvement in erectile function regarding male patients. Using tamsulosin and tadalafil as an expulsive medical treatment for distal ureteric calculous is safe and efficacious. Such combination therapy may provide additional advantages in cases of erectile dysfunction co-exist with distal ureteric calculi.</p> Ahmed Abdulameer Alwan, Hussain T. Ajeel, Ahmed Hamza Abd Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/875 Wed, 24 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Characterization and Spectroscopic Study of 4- (4-Nitro Benzene Azo)-3-Amino Benzoic Acid Compound by Gaussian 09 Program: A review https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/253 <p>Gaussian 09 program was used to follow up the theoretical calculations of 4- (4-nitro benzene azo)-3-amino benzoic acid in a method of Hartree-Fock to calculate IR, H-NMR and C-NMR spectrum, as used method ZINDO to calculate the electronic spectrum (UV), was adopted method (TD-SCF (self consistent field) /DFT (density functional theory)/ B3LYP to calculate the energies of orbital's (HOMO and LUMO) and found that the electron density centered at the carboxylic group COO and N=N group this means that the compound is capable of working as a ligand to synthesize many complexes, bond lengths and thermodynamic functions (∆H<sup>o</sup>, ∆G<sup>o</sup> and ∆S<sup>o</sup>) were calculated and found that the values of ∆H<sup>o</sup> and ∆G<sup>o</sup> to be negative, which refer to exothermic and spontaneous reaction.</p> Barakat A. F. Kamel, Olfat O. Neif, Hanan G. Shaaban , Mohammed A. K. Alsouz Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/253 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Identification of anticancer activity of phytoconstituents from mangrove https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/254 <p>Medicinal plants from the marine ecosystem are a rich source of medicinal plants having a potential for miracle drugs. It is clear from the observation that the local inhabitants of Pichavaram mangrove forest have excellent knowledge about the phytomedicine. Thus they have developed their traditional system of utilizing these mangroves for medicinal purposes. Cancer is the name given to a collection of related and multistep disease. In all types of cancer, a few of the body's cells begin to divide without stopping and spread into the surrounding. It is developed by environmental, physical, chemical, metabolic and genetic factors. In this study, methanol was used to prepare an extract from <em>A. marina </em>leaves and screened for anticancer activity. The phytoconstituents like alkaloids, flavonoids, saponin and tannin present in the extract were quantified, and anticancer activity of the same was identified. Further, the apoptotic cell death effect of methanol extract on the Hela cell line was determined. The flavonoids of <em>A. marina</em> showed higher anti-cancer activity on Hela cells followed by tannin, alkaloids and saponin. The result of the apoptotic cell death effect of <em>A. marina</em> may provide an effective therapeutic strategy against cervical cancer. Finally, it is concluded that the extract of <em>A. marina</em> exhibited anticancer activity.</p> Sheela Devi A, Joseph J, Bhuvaneshwari V Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/254 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Health implications of exposure to coal mine dust in workers –A Review https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/257 <p>Major health problem for workers is prevalent in all nations due to occupational hazards. Coal mining is one of the largest and oldest industries in the world. However, no such information is available in the literature regarding the health status of coal mine workers. Coal is a basic necessity for the production of electricity and steel. Along with machines, humans are the workforce in every coal mine industry. Air pollutants and dust mixed with silica are the two major factors that affect the health of coal mine workers. Coal mine workers run the risk of getting respiratory damage due to high levels of dust and other chemical particulate matters. Some of the disorders caused by coal mines are Chronic Pulmonary Obstructive Disease (COPD), Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis (CWP), Asthma and massive fibrosis. Prolonged exposure to coal mine dust may cause a variety of diseases like Tuberculosis, Chronic Bronchitis, Heart Diseases, Lung Cancer, Pneumonia, liver disease, kidney damage, DM and Reproductive disorders. All these diseases may be induced if mine workers are subjected to prolonged exposure. This review article highlights the outcome of research works done in the past three decades on the health implications of coal mine workers. Further studies are required with respect to the degree of damage to each organ and to prepare a set of guidelines to be followed by coal mine industries to be strictly followed to safeguard the wellbeing of coal mine workers.</p> Ganesan S, Sangeetha R Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/257 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Diagnostic Usefulness of 1, 5 Anhyroglucitol in Diabetes Mellitus: A Review https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/278 <p>1,5 AG is a six carbon chain monosaccharide and is one of the major polyols present in humans. The approximate normal levels of 1,5AG are about 20 -40 µg/mL. The main source of 1,5AG is diet containing carbohydrates, and this 1,5AG undergoes similar metabolic pathways like other saccharides and is distributed in all organs and tissues. Once DM is confirmed and treatment initiated, it is important to monitor glycemic control at regular intervals of time. While HbA1c has been used as a gold standard to monitor diabetic control during the preceding 2-3 months, GA and FA were used to monitor short time glycemic control. But none of the above three serves to monitor glycemic excursion after meals. 1,5AG has been emerging as an alternative short-term diabetic control monitoring marker to assess short term glycemic excursions. 1,5 AG has also been found to be useful to monitor CVD, CLD patients as well in the clinical usefulness of subtypes of DM. This review article gives a condensed version of research findings during the last two decades and will be very useful for future researchers to expand the clinical usefulness of 1,5AG in other areas of human health.</p> Swaminathan S, Abirami MJ, Oviya Senthilraj Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/278 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A Review on the role of BCG Vaccine in type-1diabetes https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/389 <p>Diabetes mellitus (DM) is outlined by mistreatment of continual hyperglycemia and proteins, weakened sugars, and lipids digestion as a result of overall or incomplete inadequacy of hypoglycemic agent discharge or doubtlessly hypoglycemic agent hobby. Two types of Diabetes mellitus less common "INSULIN DEPENDENT" and most common "NON-INSULIN DEPENDENT". Vaccines constitute a useful contribution to the branch of biotechnology as they supply protection in opposition to numerous sicknesses. All organisms are liable to one or greater styles of infectious and noninfectious sicknesses throughout their lifestyles. To save you those infection researchers discovered plant-primarily based vaccine which is an immune-biological substance, used for particular protection in opposition to each infectious and noninfectious illnesses.<strong>&nbsp;</strong>Use of vaccines for the diabetic patient will reduce the inflectional disease caused by diabetes, but it not prevents diabetes. Because the polygenic disease is of unconventional immune mechanisms, and vaccines act with the help of making a defence to numerous pathogens and some vaccines (in specific BCG) had been studied to seem if they supply safety in opposing to polygenic disease. In animal experiments, BCG will appear to be protecting con to polygenic disorder, but researchers have not been able to translate this profit to humans. The establishment of an Institution was initiated by the Australian Government Department of the diabetes institution.</p> Manjuladevi K, Rajashanmugam B, Sukhdev R, Subhash Krishnan R, Rahini P Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/389 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Levetiracetam and Memory Loss https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/416 <p>Epilepsy is defined as a chronic disorder that causes a sudden rush of electrical activities in the brain. These seizures may be partial or general. While fractional annexations affect a solitary part of the brain, comprehensive seizures distress the entire brain and its activities. There exist myriad options for seizure treatment. Use of Keppra, the brand name for Levetiracetam, is one of the most adopted forms of treatment. These seizures are generally caused by low blood sugar, alcohol withdrawal as well as head trauma. For one to be prescribed seizure drugs, signs such as simple partial seizures, complex partial seizures as well as general seizures must be present. There are other options for managing seizures such as brain surgery, adopting a Ketogenic diet and anti-epileptic drugs. Levetiracetam is typically prescribed as an add-on to these seizure drugs to boost their effectiveness and as well ensure improved quality of life. While essential resources and information are recommending the use of Levetiracetam, there are also sources discrediting the drug with evidence of causing memory loss and reduced quality of life. Therefore, this study aims at collecting information from different scholarly articles, journals, and websites about the side effects of using Levetiracetam in different populations. After the data is explored, the study offers a comprehensive conclusion based on the information available. The study, therefore, affirms that the use of Levetiracetam improves the quality of life and it does not affect or interfere with the cognitive functions of the brain. The study seeks to demystify the linking of Levetiracetam to memory loss of its users.</p> Elham Alshammari Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/416 Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of herbal drugs and its clinical application https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/537 <p>Since ancient times until now exploring the importance of herbal medicines to treat the variety of diseases. Currently the herbal medicines searching for health, wellness and aim to achieve effective treatment without much side effect. Recent days the impact of herbal medicines well established even herbal treatment is one of the alternative medicines for most of the diseases such as hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus etc. Medicinal plants always have been rich sources of bioactive compounds, and that will be very helpful to human health. The reasons for herbal medicines attracted by the health care professionals and common individuals, including concern about confidence and safety of drugs. Allopathic medicines have many side effects and sometimes failing to treat and most of the herbal drugs proven better therapeutic effects without any major adverse effects. With the demand for phytomedicine user, this review highlights modern herbal drug formulation and its clinical use.</p> Vetriselvan Subramaniyan, Saminathan Kayarohanam, Ashok Kumar J, Vinoth Kumarasamy Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/537 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Ethnobotanical treatments for earache and sore throat https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/541 <p>Different organs of the body may develop complications for various reasons and cause pain. The pain may also occur in the ear and throat, and cause discomfort in the patient. In traditional medicine, medicinal plants are used to treat these complications. Therefore, in this review, the medicinal plants used for the treatment of ear pain and sore throat in the Iranian ethnobotanical studies will be reported. The information obtained in this review article was obtained by searching for relevant materials using keywords such as ear pain, sore throat, pain, ethnobotany, phytotherapy, medicinal plants and Iran in articles indexed in databases such as <em>Megiran</em>, <em>Scientific Information Database</em>, <em>PubMed</em>, <em>ScienceDirect</em>, and <em>ISI</em>. Artemisia, pumpkin, <em>Quarcus brantii</em>, sheng, barangan, <em>Solanum nigru</em>, <em>Mentha pulegium</em>, hashshir, sage, eucalyptus, currant, bullfish, cannabis and cumin are among the most important medicinal plants used to treat sore throat and ear pain in Iranian traditional medicine.</p> Behrooz Farzan, Saber Abbaszadeh, Hassan Teimouri Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/541 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of natural antioxidants and important herbal medicines on blood infections and sepsis: A systematic review https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/546 <p>Phytochemical and pharmaceutical studies have shown that medicinal plants are rich sources of antioxidant and biologically active compounds. The medicinal plants can have inhibitory effects on various types of parasitic diseases, microbial infections, blood infections, and sepsis. This review was done to report important medicinal plants effective on the prevention and treatment of blood infections and sepsis. Based on the results obtained from the review of numerous articles, indexed in the databases <em>Information Sciences Institute</em>, <em>Scopus</em>, <em>PubMed</em>, <em>and Google</em> <em>Scholar</em> etc., the most important medicinal plants effective in the treatment and prevention of sepsis and parasitic, microbial, and viral blood infections are <em>Veronica officinalis, Allium sativum, Paeonia lactiflora, Angelica Sinensis, Hippophae rhamnoides, Melissa officinalis, Ziziphus Spina-Christi, Astragalus species, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Rheum palmatum, Sophora flavescens, Scutellaria species, Phyllanthus amarus, Calendula officinalis, Scrophularia striata, Lawsonia inermis, Artemisia species, and Plantago major.</em> Sterolic, luteolin, tannins, quercetin, saponins and some other bioactive ingredients are the most important bioactive compounds and flavonoids of these medicinal plants that may be used in producing new anti-blood infections and anti-sepsis drugs.</p> Hamid Reza Sherkatolabbasieh, Afshin Hasanvand, Saber Abbaszadeh, Behrooz Farzan Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/546 Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000