International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences <p>International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJRPS) is quarterly publishing online peer reviewed scientific journal sponsored by Pharmascope Publications. The journal publishes research articles, review articles, short communications, case studies and reports in&nbsp;Pharmaceutical Sciences.</p> Pharmascope Publications, Sponsored by JK Welfare & Pharmascope Foundation en-US International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences 0975-7538 Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in rotenone induced rat models of Parkinson’s disease <p>Parkinson disease (PD) is involved in the damage of neurons of the brain that secretes dopamine. Understanding the mechanisms involved in Parkinson's disease helps to develop effective management methods. Hence, the present work aimed to unravel to observe the variations, if any, in the parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant markers between oral and ip rotenone-induced rat model of Parkinson’s disease. Male Wistar rats weighing between 250-300g were housed in solid bottomed polypropylene cages under strict veterinary supervision and maintained in rooms with 12hrs light / dark cycle. The randomly selected male Wistar rats were equally divided into four groups, with six rats in each group. The study results provide scientific evidence for marked changes in both the oxidative and anti-oxidant parameters, followed by the ip and po rotenone administration. It is the need of the time to consider the neuroprotective and antioxidant properties while developing the newer treatment modalities for the management of PD.</p> Suchitra Kavuri Senthilkumar Sivanesan Vijayaraghavan Rajagopalan Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-03 2020-01-03 11 1 1 6 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1776 Knowledge, Awareness and Perception Of Cention Being Used As A Replacement For Amalgam Restoration <p>Cention N, a newer replacement for amalgam used in posterior restoration, has been proven to provide superior aesthetics and better retention in comparison to Amalgam. The study was carried among 150 Undergraduate, Postgraduate Students and staff in Saveetha Dental College. Each student and staff were asked to independently fill the survey, which consisted of questions related to Cention N&nbsp; being used as a replacement to Amalgam in posterior restorations. This study mainly gave us an idea of the extent of how many dental students and dental practitioners know about&nbsp; Cention N and it's a progressive increase from dental practitioners to postgraduates when compared to the final years. This can be accredited to increased awareness, knowledge and training into clinical practice and in-depth knowledge into various recent advancements in restorative material. Thought most of the students and staff seemed to be aware of Cention N, very few had used it in the clinical setup for treatment.</p> Kirtana Gopalasamy Manish Ranjan Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 11 1 7 12 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1777 Diagnosis of Kidney Renal Cell Tumor through Clinical data mining and CT scan image processing: A Survey <p>This study deals with the systematic study of the mining of data and medical image-based CAD to classify or predict Kidney Renal (KRCC) tumors. Kidney tumors are of different types having different characteristics and have different methodologies to classify or predict tumor and its stages. KRCC is the most common type of cancer of the kidney, but there are others. Several factors may increase the risk of a person developing KRCC disease like smoking, obesity, High blood pressure, and many more. In almost all cases, only a single kidney is affected, but in rare cases, both can be affected by KRCC. As cancer grows, it may invade structures near the kidney, such as surrounding fatty tissue, veins, renal gland, or the liver. It might also spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs or bones. It becomes essential to detect the KRCC tumor and classify it at the early stage to assist the pathologist in identifying the cause and severity of the tumor and in monitoring treatment. The pathologist examines the kidney diseases by using two different modes of data (Medical images and clinical databases). In this study, we reviewed different CAD tools to classify or predict KRCC tumor and its stages. For this study, two groups of methods that are data mining and medical image processing methods are selected. These methods allow the accurate quantification and classification of KRCC tumors from the clinical tools. Computer-assisted medical image and clinical database analysis show excellent potential for tumor diagnosis and monitoring.</p> Subarna Chatterjee Kiran Rao P Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-03 2020-01-03 11 1 13 24 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1778 Flavonoids content of 70% methanolic extract of Erucaria pinnata (Viv.) and its effect as anticancer and antiangiognic: in vitro, in vivo and docking study <p><em>Erucaria pinnata</em> (Viv.) is a wild annual plant growing in North-Western Coastal Region in Egypt. This study reports for the first time the cytotoxic activity of different extracts of <em>Erucaria pinnata </em>plant against HEP-G2 cell line. The 70% methanolic extract (E1) recorded the best potent cytotoxic activity (IC<sub>50</sub>=13.6 µg/ml), so we analysis the flavonoids constituent of this extract using HPLC, which show that our extract is rich with important flavonoids compounds (rutin, quercetin, leutolin, etc.). We evaluated its antitumor activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) (200mg/Kg. b.wt., i.p, single dose) after two weeks, animals received carbontetrachloride (CCl<sub>4</sub>) (3ml/Kg. b.wt., SC, once a week for 6 weeks) and the experiment continued for 44 weeks in rats. After the experimental period, the administration of DEN/CCl<sub>4</sub> showed significant increase in the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, gamma-glutamyl transferase (γGT) and significant decrease in the levels of total proteins and albumin content in the serum with reduction in the liver antioxidants, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). This was accompanied by increases in serum specific tumor markers (AFP). The 70% methanolic plant extract (E1) was orally administrated (400mg/kg/day respectively) for the whole study period, and it showed a significant improvement at the different biological liver functions, remodeled the antioxidant enzymes activity and down-regulated the serum AFP. All these findings were confirmed by histopathological studies of the liver samples obtained from all groups. In addition, we evaluated its antiangeogenic activity by docking study against VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase after it showed an ability to inhibit the VEGFR-2 expression <em>in vitro</em> and inhibit the concentration of VEGF-A <em>in vivo</em>. The hepatoprotective effect of our extract was attributed to its antioxidant and antiangeogenic activity.</p> Nadia I. Zakhary Emad E.H. El Gemeie Adel K. Youssef Marwa Abdel-salam Ibrahim Metwaly Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-03 2020-01-03 11 1 25 38 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1779 Comparison of the use of levobupivacaine with dexamethasone versus plain levobupivacaine in patients undergoing forearm surgeries under an infraclavicular block - a double-blinded randomized controlled trial <p>Regional anesthesia can provide greater patient satisfaction. An infraclavicular approach to block the brachial plexus aided with ultrasound is proven to be safe. Lesser toxic, levobupivacaine, advocates its use, with the addition of dexamethasone, to prolong the action. After approval from the ethics committee, the consenting patients, for orthopedic forearm surgeries, were recruited, randomized into two groups of 20 patients. Group-A<strong>,</strong> received 30mls of 0.5% levobupivacaine with dexamethasone 4mgs(1ml) and Group-B,30mls of 0.5% levobupivacaine and 1ml normal saline.18-70 Year olds, ASA I-III, weight greater than or equal to 50 kg, were included and non-consenting, coagulopathic, local infection, pregnant women, general anesthesia requirement, less than 50kg, allergy to local anesthetic, were excluded. Both groups received the infraclavicular block. The onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade were noted. Comparisons made at 3 and 20 minutes. Required data was acquired. Visual Analogue Scale(VAS)used to assess pain. The onset of sensory and motor blockade was assessed and graded separately on radial, median and ulnar nerves, with significant findings of about 70-80% in Group-A at 4-5 minutes,80-87% complete at 20 minutes.87.5% Patients in both groups achieved adequate surgical anesthesia. There was a significant improvement in sensory grading of the median nerve and ulnar nerve between at 3 minutes and 20 minutes and also in motor grading improvement at 20 minutes duration in the Group-A than Group-B. Postoperatively, the VAS score showed scores hovering around 1-4, over 24 hours, with no difference, in scores, duration, and use of rescue analgesia in both arms. There were no statistical differences in the onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade in both groups, with some difference in the quality of analgesia between the nerves studied in group-A. Although a larger sample size might have brought out some difference in pain scores, with the addition of dexamethasone, its clinical implication is doubtful.</p> Anandbabu Medidi Serina Ruth Salins Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 11 1 39 43 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1780 Nurses’ Perception of Factors Contributing to Medication Administration Errors <p>Safety and quality care of patients are key aspects and the mean goals of effective health care systems. The reality that medical treatment can harm patients is one that has had to be addressed by the healthcare community in recent years. This study aimed to explore nurses' perception of factors contributing to medication administration errors and reasons for which medication administration errors are not reporting. Descriptive exploratory cross-sectional design carried out to achieve the study aim. The study was conducted in two regional hospitals in Egypt. They had a total bed capacity of 512 beds distributed over three units (emergency, intensive care, and surgical units). A convenient sample of 146 nurses distributed in the morning and afternoon shifts in the units mentioned above was recruited in this study. Medication Administration Errors (MAEs) Reporting Scale used to collect data regarding the nurses' perception of factors contributing to the MAEs. The participants were ranked the most important factor for MAEs occur system reasons (24.73±1.46), followed by nurses staffing as the second reason of MAEs (24.11± 2.25). Third, fourth, and fifth-ranked reasons were physician communication (13.37± 2.7), medication packaging (12.84±1.87), transcription-related (8±0.1), respectively. Finally, pharmacy processes (6.9±2.93) viewed as the least factor for the frequency of MAE. The findings of the present study concluded seven perceived reasons for MAE, namely system reason, nurses' staffing, physician communication, medication packaging, transcription, and pharmacy process. The study recommended the development of active quality assurance systems in all health care environments concerning medications and drug administration.</p> Gehan Abd Elfattah Elasrag Hana Mohammad Abu-Snieneh Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 11 1 44 56 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1781 Antifungal activity of hydroalcholic extract of Cynodon dactylon against dermatophytes <p>Plant-derived antifungal agents will always remain as area of interest for researchers to overcome the issues pertaining to resistance and harmful adverse effects associated with synthetic drugs. <em>Cynodon dactylon</em> is a well known plant which grows wildly and used for the treatment of many diseases like wounds, warts, cramps, measles and also tumors. This research was done as, till date no scientific evidence was accessible concerning the antifungal potential of the hydroalcholic extract of the whole plant. In the present work, antifungal potential of hydroalcholic extract of <em>Cynodon dactylon</em> was evaluated against <em>Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum </em>and <em>Microsporum gypseum</em>. The antifungal potential was evaluated by means of the agar well diffusion method. The diameter of the clear inhibition zone around the well was measured. The hydroalcholic extract of <em>Cynodon dactylon </em>had promising antifungal potential against all the tested fungal strains. Finally, it can be concluded from the calculated findings that hydroalcholic extract of the whole plant of <em>Cynodon dactylon </em>may be considered as a promising antifungal herbal plant and can be exploited as a great herbal resistance free source for treatment of various fungal infections.</p> Puneet Sudan Manish Goswami Jitender Singh Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-06 2020-01-06 11 1 63 65 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1784 The examination of the water concentrates of laurus nobilis leaves antibacterial activity utilizing various strategies for extraction (in vitro) <p>The utilization of antimicrobials is essential to battle bacterial ailment. Yet, because of the expanding abuse of antimicrobial medications that are utilized in the treatment of infectious diseases, resistance by bacteria developed. The objective of the investigation is to detect the <em>in vitro</em> antibacterial impact of bay leaf water concentrates utilizing distinctive extraction strategies. The impact of water concentrates of bay leaf ( <em>Laurus noblis</em>) employing maceration and decoction extraction methods against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em> were tested by “agar well diffusion” technique. The consequences of the investigation demonstrated insignificant differences between techniques for extractions. The study concludes that the <em>in vitro</em> antibacterial effect might be potentiated against test strains by using different methods for extraction and solvent systems, which might be helpful to defeat antimicrobial resistance.</p> Al-Ogaili N Bilal R Younis H Khadim T Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-06 2020-01-06 11 1 66 69 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1786 Benefits of electronic prescriptions for administering medication and treatment, as compared to traditional written prescriptions <p>Addressing the controversies to drug therapy involves talking about and discussing emotional, cognitive, behavioural, and social problems. Also, several pieces of literature and comparative studies have been established to understand the intervention practices of medical staff in patient counselling in terms of improving patient care. But with limited knowledge in counselling-related studies, these issues can be tackled by qualified and knowledgeable pharmacists. The study aims to conduct relevant quantitative data to determine if pharmacists' role in counselling is of high essentiality towards medical care to promote public health and quality care. Also, the research topic revolves in establishing how much pharmacists' obligations are practical towards the patients' counselling. A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists (n-400) working in the Hail region hospitals in Saudi Arabia was conducted during May 2019. The survey infrastructure comprised of six different sections, gender, age, degree, profession, workplace, and experience. The qualitative data gathered was first explored using frequency distribution and descriptive analysis. The total pharmacist valid response (210) was accepted, and both genders contributed towards such results. Moreover, most of the pharmacists attested to the elements of lack of medical tools and proper training as a significant medical issue towards appropriate counselling approaches. Nonetheless, it was proven that leading problems that undermine the effectiveness of pharmacists towards promoting acute counselling were a lifestyle (mean of 2.96), smoking cessation (mean of 269), time to administer each drug (mean of 3.05), and missed a dose (mean of 2.05). Pharmacists that participated in this study were unanimous, specifically, on understanding the importance of the survey but reflected on considerable variations in their experience in counselling. Moreover, it was clear that the percentage of Saudi Arabia pharmacists are contributing perfectly. However, it is undeniable they might need additional assistance, training, and medical tools to provide enormous quality counselling to patients.</p> Alshammari Mohammad A Alenzy Muhya T Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-06 2020-01-06 11 1 70 74 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1787 Stability studies of hydralazine hydrochloride orodispersible formulations <p>Solid dosage forms also have a impervious difficulties in patients especially for geriatric and paediatric patients.Dysphagia is common among all age groups. Orodispersible formulations (Fast&nbsp; dissolving tablets &amp; Fast dissolving oral thin films) constitute an inventive dosage form that overcome the problems swallowing and provides speedy onset of action. The objective of present study was to formulate orodispersible formulations of Hydralazine HCL by different methods (Direct compression method, Sublimation method and solvent casting method). Based on physiochemical evaluations F9 (Direct compression method),SF9 (Sublimation method) for Fast dissolving tablets and H2 formulations (Solvent casting method) for Fast dissolving oral thin films were found optimized formula.The optimized formula were kept for stability under long term, accelerated and intermediate conditions for the study period of six months as per ICH guidelines.Based on stability reports the H2 formulations (Fast dissolving oral thin films) got a better drug release than Fast dissolving tablets.</p> Muthukumar Sundaraganapathy R Sankar C Sundaramoorthy C Yuvaraja K R Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-06 2020-01-06 11 1 75 86 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1788 Bioanalysis and in-vivo studies of clarithromycin modified release solid dosage formulations by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy <p>The current study was undertaken to develop the new bioanalytical&nbsp;method and validation for determining&nbsp;Clarithromycin&nbsp;by LC-MS Method and as well as to conduct <em>in vivo</em> studies. Princeton&nbsp;octadecyl silane column&nbsp;(10 cm x 4.6 mm id, 5µm) used as adsorbent and cyanomethane: 0.5 % Methanoic acid was treated as the eluent for the separation of the analyte from the biological fluid in an isocratic&nbsp;mode having the ratio 60:40 % v/v and&nbsp;0.5 ml/min as flow rate, and injection volume was set as&nbsp;20 µl. APCI and the mass detected of Clarithromycin and Azithromycin (act as internal standard) was detected at 748.45 and 749.70, respectively. Developed bioanalytical methods have been used to quantify the Pharmacokinetic&nbsp;parameters like C<sub>max</sub>, T<sub>max</sub>, AUC0-t&nbsp;&amp; AUC0<sub>-∞</sub>, K<sub>eli</sub>, and t<sub>1/2 </sub>studied and the values for reference formulation (3.382µg/ml, 7.333 h, 114.429µg.h/ml, 131.435µg.h/ml, 0.031 h<sup>-1</sup>, and 23.397h respectively) and the test formulation (3.847 µg/ml, 7.417 h, 132.318 µg.h/ml, 151.388 µg.h/ml, 0.031 h<sup>-1</sup>, and 23.187 h, respectively) were compared and found to be bioequivalent. Based on our study, the test formulation of Clarithromycin modified-release formulation containing 500 mg of Clarithromycin is Bioequivalent to that of the reference.&nbsp; Compare to our method (LC-MS) is simple, sensitive, precise as well as comparable with the reference formulation of the modified release product of clarithromycin 500 mg.</p> Nagarajan Janaki Sankarachari Krishnan Elango Kannan Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-06 2020-01-06 11 1 87 92 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1789 A cross-sectional observational study on drug utilisation pattern, prevalence and risk factors for the development of diabetic nephropathy among type 2 diabetic patients in a south indian tertiary care hospital <p>Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide, and it is estimated that ~ 20% of type 2 diabetic patients reach ESRD during their lifetime. The objective of the present study was to assess the drug utilization pattern, risk factors, and prevalence of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a south Indian tertiary care hospital. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on 613 subjects (254 with and 359 without diabetic nephropathy). Prevalence of diabetic nephropathy was measured, and risk factors for the development of diabetic nephropathy were determined by calculating odds ratios using graph-pad prism statistical software, and drug utilization pattern was assessed. Nephropathy was significantly higher in subjects who are married (98.8%, OR, 3.903; 95% CI, 1.125-13.54, P=0.0211),&nbsp; poorly educated (61%, OR, 0.3670;95%CI, 0.2635-0.5112, P&lt;0.0001), house wives (44.4%, OR, 0.5492; 95% CI, 0.3432 - 0.8789, P=0.0120), rural residents (51.2%, OR, 0.3943; 95% CI, 0.2820-0.5513, P&lt;0.0001) and risk factors were hypertension (37.44%, OR, 4.131; 95% CI, 2.687-6.350, P&lt;0.0001), other diseases (36.51%, OR, 4.963; 95% CI, 3.202 -7.692, P&lt;0.0001), Endocrine diseases (9.53%, OR, 2.460; 95% CI, 1.433- 4.224, P=0.0009), history of CVD (7.90%, OR, 17.20; 95% CI, 7.049- 41.95, P&lt;0.0001), HbA1c (36.1%, OR, 3.380; 95% CI, 2.157- 5.295, P&lt;0.0001), low HDL (23%, OR, 0.5961; 95% CI, 0.3572 - 0.9947 , P=0.0470), high FBS levels (29.3%, OR, 6.111; 95%CI, 1.283 -29.10, P=0.0113), high triglyceride levels (39.8%, OR, 0.6077; 95%CI, 0.3878 -0.9523, P=0.0293), high serum creatinine (28.3%, OR, 154.3; 95% CI, 37.92- 627.7, P&lt;0.0001), duration of T2DM(5-10years 39.8%, OR, 2.653;95% CI, 1.778 - 3.958, &amp; &gt; 10 years 37%, OR, 3.606 ; 95% CI, 2.362-5.504, P&lt;0.0001), physical inactivity(64.9%, OR, 0.5188;95% CI, 0.3727-0.7220 , P&lt;0.0001), soft drinks occasionally (31.9%, OR, 2.253; 95% CI, 1.531-3.315, P&lt;0.0001), habit of taking tea /coffee twice without sugar(42.3%, OR, 1.845; 95% CI, 1.094 to 3.112, P=0.0208) were significant risk factors for development of nephropathy. Metformin (47.05%), a combination of Glimepiride and Metformin (30.71%), a combination of insulin isophane and insulin regular (29.41%), teneligliptin (10.45%), insulin regular (9.80%) were the anti-diabetic medications mostly given to the T2DM patients with nephropathy. The present study revealed that the risk factors for the development of diabetic nephropathy were multiple.</p> Madhavi Mannam Lavanya Nalluri Dhanalakshmi Pinnika Mounika Pothuraju Ravindrababu Pingili Anjani Kumar C Jaidev Sudagani Naveen Babu Kilaru Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-06 2020-01-06 11 1 93 108 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1791 The effect of a multicomponent exercise program on cognitive function and functional ability in community dwelling older adults <p>Normal aging results in alterations in the structure and function of the brain, causing impairment in cognitive function and dependency in performing activities of daily living. A multicomponent physical activity program has been recommended to maintain physical and cognitive function in elderly individuals. The present study aimed at measuring the effect of such an exercise program on the cognitive function and activities of daily living(ADL) function in community dwelling elderly individuals. 52 elderly adults living in the community and ambulating independently were selected purposively and underwent a 10-week multi-component exercise program which included aerobic exercise, strength training, balance exercises and functional training. The participants were assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Barthel Index(BI) at baseline and every two weeks up till 10 weeks. The data obtained was analysed usind descriptive statistics and t-test for finding the effect of the intervention program on the outcome measures. The results showed a significant difference in the pre- to post-intervention scores of both the outcome measures. A multicomponent exercise program was seen to be effective in improving the cognitive function and level of ADL activity in community dwelling elderly individuals. Such an exercise program should be recommended to all elderly adults in order to maintain their cognitive and overall functioning and to improve their productivity.</p> Haripriya S Dhanesh Kumar K U Sanjay Eapen Samuel Ajith S Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-06 2020-01-06 11 1 109 114 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1793 In-vivo studies of metformin modified release formulations <p>The current study was undertaken to conduct In vivo studies and to establish the new validated bioanalysis for the determination of Metformin present in Blood Plasma by using the Reverse Mode-LC Method. The separation of the Metformin was carried out on Reverse mode LC using Shimadzu® LC - 10AT with the following Stationary Phase: Kromasil octadecyl silane column (25 cm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5µm) Eluent: Cyanomethane: 25 mM Pentane Sulfonic acid of pH 3.5. ratio 09:91 % v/v with 1.0 ml/min flow rate has been fixed, and this has been measured at 232 nm, and the sample volume will be 10 ul using Rheodyne 7725i injector. Based on the method established for Metformin, the drug peak is well resolved at 11.11 min and validated as per US FDA guidelines with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness ruggedness, and stability. The calibration curve was found to be linear over a range of 0.025 –1 μg/mL (r2&nbsp; = 0.9999). The method has proved high sensitivity and specificity. Established method have been used to quantify the Pharmacokinetic&nbsp;parameters like C<sub>max</sub>, T<sub>max</sub>, AUC0-t&nbsp;&amp; AUC0-∞, K<sub>eli</sub>, and t<sub>1/2 </sub>studied and the values for reference formulation (660.05±91.52 ng/ml, 4.46 ±1.10 &nbsp;h, 8280.41 ± 1356.39 ng.h/ml, 9200.31± 1569.26 ng.h/ml, 0.11±0.03 h<sup>-1</sup>, and 6.96±1.53&nbsp; h respectively) and the test formulation (&nbsp;&nbsp; 705.06±102.58&nbsp; ng/ml, 4.13±0.74 h, 8185.21±2101.56 ng.h/ml, 8946.39± 2457.66 ng.h/ml, 0.12±0.03 h<sup>-1</sup>, and 6.06±1.61 &nbsp;h, respectively)&nbsp;were compared and found to be biologically equivalent. Based on the Pharmacokinetic and statistical analysis Test formulation of Metformin Hydrochloride containing 500 mg Metformin Hydrochloride (modified release formulations) is biologically equivalent to that of the Reference.</p> Nagarajan Janaki Sankarachari Krishnan Elango Kannan Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-06 2020-01-06 11 1 115 119 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1794 Stability indicating UPLC method to quantify Emtricitabine, Tenofovir, and Efavirenz simultaneously in tablets: Method establishment <p>An easy, precise, specific, and accurate UPLC method for the quantification of emtricitabine (ETC), tenofovir (TFR), and efavirenz (EVR) in their tablet dosage form was developed and validated. ETC, TFR, and EVR were separated and estimated using Waters UPLC with HSS C18 (100 × 3 mm, 1.7 μ) column. The mobile phase was 0.01 N potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 4.5) and acetonitrile (40:60, vol/vol). The elution of ETC, TFR, and EVR was achieved using flow rate at 0.4 ml/min and detected at 265 nm using a photodiode array detector. The detector response was linear from 75 to 450 μg/ml for TNF, 50 to 300 μg/ml for ETC, and 150 to 900 μg/ml for EVR. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.601 µg/ml and 1.82 µg/ml, 0.330 µg/ml and 0.100 µg/ml, 0.911 µg/ml and 2.76 µg/ml for TNF, ETC and EVR respectively. Validation was carried out in compliance with ICH guidelines. It was noticed that all validation parameters were inside the permissible range.</p> Sravanthi T Madhavi N Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-06 2020-01-06 11 1 120 128 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1795 Fifth stage pharmacy students’ knowledge and perceptions about generic medicines <p>The aim of the current study was to evaluate the knowledge and perception of the fifth stage pharmacy students (college of pharmacy/ University of Baghdad /Iraq) regarding generic medicines. This study is a cross-sectional study carried in a college of pharmacy /University of Baghdad during the period from (November 2018- March 2019). The number of students included in the current study was 168 undergraduate stager pharmacists. A questionnaire was used to collect data of the study. Nearly 86% of the students said that they had heard of generic and brand medicines, and pharmacy was the main source of knowledge regarding generic medicines (66.7%).&nbsp; About (33.3%) of the respondents agreed that generic medicines are bioequivalent to brand medicine. However, (38.1%) perceived generic medicines might not be the therapeutic equivalent of brand medicines. In addition, (35.1%) of the respondents believed that generics are lower in quality, which is why they are cheap and produce more side effects. Moreover, (41.1%) of the sample agreed that generic medicines should be avoided in life-threating situations. About (56.5 %) of the students were found to have a poor level of perception regarding the use of generic medicines. The majority of the fifth stage pharmacy students (college of pharmacy/ University of Baghdad /Iraq) were found to have a good knowledge but a poor level of perception about the use of generic medicines.</p> Dheyaa J. Kadhim Fajir I. Ahmed Ronak A. Hussein Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-07 2020-01-07 11 1 129 134 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1796 Inhibition of carbohydrate degrading enzymes by the root of Borassus flabellifer – an in vitro evaluation <p>Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder which is characterized by hyperglycemia. Chronic elevation in blood glucose level causes micro and macrovascular complications. Therapeutic management of diabetes involves the control of hyperglycemia by inhibiting carbohydrate degrading enzymes like amylase and glucosidase. This study was aimed at investigating the inhibitory potential of the root of <em>Borassus flabellifer</em> against enzymes such as amylase and glucosidase. The hexane, chloroform, petroleum ether, ethanol, and hydroalcoholic extracts of the root of <em>Borassus flabellifer</em> were studied for their inhibitory potential against amylase and glucosidase. The inhibitory potential of the extracts were compared to the potential exhibited by the standard inhibitor, acarbose.&nbsp; The hydroalcoholic extract was found to be the most potent inhibitor of both the enzymes with an IC<sub>50</sub> of 652.37 and 607.06 µg/ml, much comparable to that of acarbose (612.55 and 550.38 µg/ml). The extract could inhibit 50 % of aldose reductase activity at a concentration of 1 mg/ml.&nbsp; The observations of this study suggest that the root of <em>Borassus flabellifer</em> may be a promising source for developing effective oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs.</p> Natarajan K Sangeetha R Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-07 2020-01-07 11 1 135 139 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1797 Povidone iodine loaded film-forming topical gel and evaluation of its chemical stability <p>The main aim of this study was to develop Povidone Iodine loaded film-forming gel for excellent wound healing property with various formulations, and corresponding application stratification was prepared with Povidone Iodine, polyethylene glycol-400, polyethylene glycol-4000, aloe vera, and honey. Povidone Iodine is a broad spectrum antiseptic for topical application in the treatment and prevention of infection in wounds. Among the antiseptic and antimicrobial substances, Povidone-Iodine still occupies its position of lasting importance in everyday human and veterinary medicine. Povidone-iodine products display the broadest spectrum of antimicrobial effect with high clinical efficacy together with extremely low toxicity in clinical practice. The purpose served by dressing includes protecting wounds, promoting healing, and providing, retaining, or removing moisture. Wound repairing is a complex process involving an integrated response by many different cell types and growth factors to achieve rapid restoration of skin integrity and protective function after injury. In recent years, there have been tremendous advances in the design and composition of bandages and dressings, and there are numerous wound care materials. Some wound dressing types are biosynthetic dressings, composite dressings, gauze, hydrocolloid dressings, hydrogels, transparent films, etc. Povidone Iodine is completely soluble in cold and mild-warm water, ethyl alcohol, Iso propyl alcohol, Polyethylene glycol, and glycerol. The developed Povidone Iodine loaded film-forming gel was evaluated for their physical and chemical stability. The film-forming optimized gel formulation composed of povidone-iodine, polyethylene glycol-400, polyethylene glycol-4000, aloe vera, and honey and this composition provides suitable consistency, spreadability, and adhesiveness. The prepared trials were coded PGAH-01, PGAH-02, PGAH-03, PGAH-04, and PGAH-05, respectively. Among these all formulations, the PGAH-04 formulation parameters was found within the limit.</p> Jamal Mohamed A Perinbam K Vahitha V Devanesan S Janakiraman K K Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-07 2020-01-07 11 1 148 153 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1799 Determination of Sunscreen activity of Viola odorata (Banafsha) ethanolic extract and its formulated Gel by UV Spectroscopy <p>In the present study, ethanolic extract of Banafsha i.e., <em>Viola odorata</em> (Violaceae) and its gel formulations was evaluated for its sun protection activity by ultraviolet spectroscopy method. The phytoconstituents like flavonoids, phenolics present in <em>Viola odorata </em>may be responsible for scavenging action on UV-induced reactive oxygen species.&nbsp; Extraction of aerial parts of the plant was done in the Soxhlet apparatus using ethanol as solvent. 1ml, 2ml, and 4ml of ethanol extract (200µg/ml) of the plant were used to formulate three gels (F1-F3) using Carabopol 940, 0.5% Methyl paraben, 0.2% Propyl paraben, Propylene glycol 400 and Triethanolamine. &nbsp;Mansur <em>et al</em>. UV spectrophotometric method was used to investigate the <em>in vitro</em> SPF of the <em>Viola odorata</em> ethanolic extracts (100&amp;200µg/ml) and its formulated gels (F1-F3). &nbsp;Physical parameters like color, appearance, spreadability, pH, homogeneity, viscosity were determined to evaluate formulated gels. Based on the calculated SPF value, F3 formulation was chosen for the stability study. Ethanolic extract of <em>Viola odorata</em> (100 µg/ml and 200µg/ml) have SPF value 4.05±0.07 and 11.66±0.04, respectively. Gel formulations (F1-F3) containing 1, 2,4ml of 200µg/ml of ethanol extract have SPF values about 2.89±0.11, 4.20±0.08, and 5.63±0.07, respectively. The SPF values determined to confirm the capacity of gels to absorb UV radiation. No significant alterations in physicochemical parameters and SPF values were observed during the stability evaluation of F3 gel. Results proves that <em>Viola odorata</em> is a safe alternative which can be used over harmful chemical sunscreens used now a days in the industry and in the future plant can be explored for active component for better protection against sun rays.</p> Reecha Madaan Rajni Bala Anuja Verma Rajdeep Sarma Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-07 2020-01-07 11 1 154 159 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1800 Pharmacognostical standardization of balamula churna (Sida acuta Burm.f. root powder) <p>&nbsp;In this study, an effort was performed to produce the data on, physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical screening, histochemical studies, and HPTLC data required for the standardization of Balamula Churna concerning root powder of <em>Sida acuta</em>. The physicochemical parameters such as water-soluble extractive, alcohol soluble extractive, and loss on drying at 105 °C, total ash, and insoluble acid ash were determined according to standard methods. HPTLC studies were carried, and Rf values were documented.&nbsp; Physicochemical parameter values were recorded as pH (6.73 LOD (114.2gms) water-soluble extractive value (4.48%), alcohol soluble extractive value 6.88%) total Ash (11.00%) and Acid Insoluble Ash (2.72%). Preliminary phytochemical screening reveals the presence of glycoside, alkaloid, carbohydrate, phenol, flavonoid, and saponin. HPTLC screening showed the occurrence of significant phytoconstituents with Rf values 0.07, 0.21, 0.54, and 0.86. The obtained results from this study can be effective in the evaluation of quality, detection of adulteration and substitution, and highlighting the importance of standardization</p> Jyostna Kumari T Penchala Pratap G Murthy P H C Goli Penchala Prasad Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-07 2020-01-07 11 1 160 165 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1801 Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity of different extracts of entire plant of Ipomoea pestigridis Linn <p><em>Ipomoea pestigridis</em> (Linn) (family Convolvulaceae) is commonly known as “Tiger Foot Morning Glory” in English and locally known as ‘Pulichuvadi’ or ‘Pulichuvadu’ in Malayalam. The current study, aerial parts of different concentrates(Pet.ether, ethyl acetate, and methanol) of <em>I.pestigridis</em>, was evaluated for its <em>in-vitro </em>antioxidant potential by nitric oxide activity, total antioxidant activity, iron chelating activity taking ascorbate &amp; Ethylenediamine tetraacetate as the standard correspondingly. An IC<sub>50</sub> value was originated that EA concentrates of <em>I.pestigridis</em> &nbsp;more efficient in nitric oxide activity, total antioxidant activity, Iron chelating capacity compared methanolic &amp; PE concentrates. The ethyl acetate concentrates of <em>I.pestigridis</em> &nbsp;&amp; ascorbic acid exhibited antioxidant potential possessing IC<sub>50 </sub>226µg/ml &amp; 66µg/ml (Nitric oxide). 185µg/ml &amp; 60µg/ml (total antioxidant) , 287µg/ml &amp; 65µg/ml (iron-chelating Activity) respectively. The difference in the scavenging potential of the extracts can be due to variation in the percentage of bioactive compounds present in different solvents. &nbsp;Invitro antioxidant studies obviously show&nbsp; EA concentrates of <em>I.pestigridis</em> have better antioxidant activity. These results indicate that aerial parts of methanolic concentrate <em>I.pestigridis</em> &nbsp;could serve as a natural antioxidant, which may be useful in preventing free radical-induced diseases.</p> Bheemreddy Thrinitha Murali R Manichandrika P Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-07 2020-01-07 11 1 185 190 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1805 Immunomodulatory Activity Test of Syrup Dosage Form of Combination Phyllantus niruri Linn. And Sterculia quadrifida R.Br. Extract <p>Meniran (<em>Phyllantus niruri</em> Linn.) is used generally as an immunomodulator and hepatoprotector. Empirically, bark of faloak (<em>Sterculiaqudrifida</em> R.Br.) is used as a medicinal plant to cure diseases such as hepatitis, gastroentritis, and diabetes. The combination of meniran extract and bark of faloak extract has the potential as a natural immunomodulatory agents. Immunomodulators are compositions of either recombinant, synthetic, or natural, which can restore the immune system. Therefore it is necessary to optimize the optimal formula in obtaining syrup preparations which have optimal immunomodulatory activity. The aim of this study was to find out the optimal syrup combination of meniran extract and faloak bark extract to produce optimal response values ​​in the in vitro immunomodulatory activity test with TNF-α and NF-κB parameters, and immunomodulatory activity tests in vivo with activity parameters macrophages. The extract was obtained through reflux extraction. The results of the extract were formulated and approved to determine their ability to induce TNF-α and NF-κB, and in the test of mice balb/b (<em>Mus musculus</em> L.) orally for 21 days. The lymph organs were isolated, rinsed with an RPMI-1640 solution, and analyzed using ELISA reader 450 nm. The determination of optimal formulas is done by using Rstudio v.3.5.3 software with ANOVA test parametric test and using Design Expert v.11 software using the Simplex Lattice Design (SLD) method. The results showed that the formula for the preparation of combination syrup to produce results induced TNF-α and NF-κB, and macrophage activity, namely the formula using meniran and faloak 0.96993: 0.0300704.</p> Rollando Rollando Mauren Engracia Eva Monica Siswadi Siswadi Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-07 2020-01-07 11 1 191 199 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1806 Comparative Study of Effect of Silver Nitrate Gel and Differentiated Dermal Precursors (BMSCs) on Third Degree Burn in Wistar Rats <p>Skin is an ectodermal derivative that maintains internal homeostasis of the body. Any damage to the skin like burn injury internal homeostasis is lost, resulting in delayed healing. The aim is to study the histoarchitecture comparative effect of silver nitrate gel, and BMSCs (DDP) on third-degree burns in Wistar rats. A burn wound of size 2.5 cm (length) x 2.5 cm (breadth) x 6 mm (depth) was created using a preheated metal plate on flanks of Wistar rat. Every burn wound was treated with silver nitrate gel (commercially available as silverex), bone marrow differentiated dermal precursors, and monitored for 1, 7, 14, 21 days until wound healing. Wound surface area was measured and compared among groups with histological and gross observations. The healing time was faster in bone marrow differentiated dermal precursors (DDP) group compared to control. Prolonged silver nitrate gel usage heals burn wound with no infection, but silver toxicity was noted. Wound contraction is slower but steady using bone marrow differentiated dermal precursors (DDP) cell when compared to the group treated with silver nitrate gel. The data from this study help use to use bone marrow differentiated dermal precursors (DDP) cells as an alternate and effective way to treat burn wounds.</p> Balaji K Perumal Saraswathi Prabhu K Shila Samuel Melani Rajendren Siva T Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-07 2020-01-07 11 1 200 206 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1906 Knowledge, awareness, and practice (KAP) towards intestinal parasitic (IP) infection among university student in Selangor <p>This study was aimed to obtain baseline information on the knowledge, awareness, and practice (KAP) towards intestinal parasitic (IP) infection among university students in Selangor, Malaysia. Questionnaire surveys were circulated among 150 university students <em>via</em>&nbsp;online to assess&nbsp;social demographics, knowledge, awareness, and practice of parasitic infection. The simple questions with yes-no and listings were used in this survey. Total correspondents were 60 university students from various fields of study from Selangor. Total participation of male and female students was 28.30%, and 71.10%, bachelor students (51.67%), followed by diploma students (45%) and both master and PhD students at 1.67%. Assessment on knowledge indicated that 56.67% of students knew about IP, and 8.3% had an idea on the protozoan parasites, which can be transmitted <em>via</em> unclean environment or contaminate food. However, the students showed a higher level of awareness for IP infection but failed to know that food handlers can spread IP infection. Lastly, for the assessment for practice, generally, all responded positively, despite not knowing that poor hygiene is causative for IP infection. KAP among university students a lacuna still prevails, which can aid them to be susceptible for parasitic infection.</p> Mehru Nisha Nurul Nadiah Khairul Nizam Mohd. Isa Fabian Davamani Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-07 2020-01-07 11 1 215 220 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1809 Development and evaluation of medicated cosmetic cream to produce triple effect on skin for the treatment of uneven skin tone <p>Combinations of drugs are available in the market only to produce a single effect. To overcome this, a combination of three drugs namely α-arbutin, glutathione, and grape seed extract, are used to benefit the triple effect on the skin. The set forth study to formulate and evaluate medicated cosmetic cream in an effective curative strategy for derma to produce a triple effect. Medicated cosmetic cream containing triple bioactive agents formulated by the O/W dispersion method. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was carried out for characterization. The formulated cream assessed for physical appearance, homogeneity, pH, viscosity, particle size analysis, spreadability, percentage yield, drug content, diffusion studies, release kinetics, acute dermal toxicity studies, and short-term stability studies. FT-IR and DSC studies revealed that no chemical interaction existed between the drug and excipients used. The optimized formula A5 revealed to be off white, semisolid, pleasant odor, smooth &amp; slippery texture, non-greasy smear, easy to remove, and homogenous. The A5 cream exhibited a pH of 5.89, Viscosity of 1597.73 CPS, Spreadability of 20.86, the Particle size of 0.237%, Percentage yield of 98.8%, Drug content of 99.22 at 289 nm, 99.75 at 200 nm and 100.1 at 286 nm. The optimized cream demonstrated prolonged drug release 94.41% at 289 nm, 92.68 at 200 nm, and 92.78 at 286 nm up to 12 hrs. The optimized cream remained stable after the heating-cooling cycle at 4° C, 45° C and at room temperature. Furthermore, acute dermal toxicity studies showed the optimized formulation to be non-irritant, with no erythema, and no edema. The present study signified that the multiple combinations showed a better synergistic effect, superior efficacy, and multiple activities that resulted in the best, smooth, and stable medicated cosmetic cream.</p> Sharadha M D V Gowda Famna Roohi N K Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-07 2020-01-07 11 1 221 232 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1811 Evaluation of Clinacanthus nutans leaves extract on Prothrombin Time and Activated Partial Prothrombin Time test <p>Limitations in existing anticoagulants have prompted a search for the natural origin of anticoagulants. Since there is an increasing need to source for pharmacological and medicinal materials from a plant source, thus an exploratory effort towards identifying and characterizing new anticoagulants from plants is worthwhile. Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans) commonly known as Sabah snake grass belongs to Acanthaceae family was chosen since it has therapeutic and medicinal benefits. This plant possessed anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic activities. This study was carried out to identify the anticoagulant activities of C. nutans leaves in aqueous and methanol extracts at different concentrations based on prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). The dried leaves of C. nutans were ground into a fine powder and extracted using aqueous and methanol. Anticoagulant assays of PT and aPTT were done on three different concentrations of C. nutans aqueous and methanol extracts (10 mg/mL, 20 mg/mL, and 30 mg/mL) and control group respectively. PT and aPTT of plasma samples were prolonged in both types of extracts (p&lt;0.05). This study highlights that the anticoagulant activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of C.nutans affects the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway, possibly due to the inhibitory action of the clotting factors. These results suggested that aqueous and methanol extracts of C. nutans exhibited anticoagulant activity at certain concentrations.</p> Nur Farahhim Abd Rahman Azlina Muhsin Norhaida Che Azmi Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-08 2020-01-08 11 1 241 246 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1813 Formulation and evaluation of antifungal agent in a hydrogel containing nanoparticle of low molecular weight chitosan <p>The research aimed to formulate and prepare hydrogel of low molecular weight chitosan nanoparticles with the help of antifungal agents such as clotrimazole and Nystatin for the topical application. Using the ionic gelation process, placebo and nanoparticles containing drugs were prepared. By cationic interaction is suitable for pH, and gel sodium tripolyphosphate is used as a crosslinker which cross-links the chitosan particles to form the gel, interaction between drug and polymer was observed during the formulation development. Formulated nanoparticle with chitosan and nystatin and clotrimazole showed the mean diameter 273.7nm, 983nm, and 501nm. Clotrimazole and Nystatin had encapsulation capacity was about 74.6% and 63.0%, respectively. <em>In vitro</em> drug release at pH 4.7 chitosan molecules are examined for the version of clotrimazole and has noticed that both the formulation shows sustained drug release about 12 hours. Using SEM, nanoparticles are directed for surface morphology character; it shows that nanoparticles are smooth and spherical in structure. Chitosan itself has the antimicrobial property; it was carried out for the antifungal activity against the fungus <em>Candida Albicans</em> along with the prepared formulations drugs for the comparative study. And the result showed that clotrimazole had maximum fungal growth inhibition next followed by the nystatin and chitosan is least. This inhibitory effect was due to the parameter such as zeta potential and particle size of chitosan nanoparticles. And it shows the least antifungal activity of nanoparticles, which are formulated from the TMC. Hence CTZ and Chitosan were formulated and applied as a natural antifungal agent into nanoparticle to increase the fungal activity. According to the ICH Q1A (R2) guidelines, stability studies are conducted to prove no degradation of the drug. The prepared formulation of chitosan nanoparticles based hydrogel incorporated with clotrimazole and nystatin are promising and significant properties for the efficient treatment of topical fungal infections</p> Deekshitha H M Namratha S Saraf Kulkarni P K Akhila A R Jayaprakash J S Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-08 2020-01-08 11 1 247 259 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1814 The effect of calpain inhibitor on neutrophils spreading ability <p>Neutrophils spreading are a key event in the development and progression of inflammation, which is signaled by cytokines. In order to undergo inflammation process, neutrophils will migrate towards the site of infection by adhering along the endothelium and undergoing a major morphological transition from a spherical shape to a flattened shape, which is known as neutrophils spreading. Neutrophils transmigrate, whether by migration between the endothelial cells or through an endothelial cell. Calpain are involved in several key aspects of migration, including adhesion and spreading. Neutrophils were isolated from whole blood and observed under the microscope in order to study their spreading behavior. The results of neutrophils spreading were recorded and measured in terms of the cells surface area of spreading after stimulation with chemoattractant. This study showed the inhibition of calpain, which is triggered by Ca<sup>2+ </sup>influx has prevented neutrophils from changing its shapes and spread to its optimal. fMLP induced calpain inhibitor-treated neutrophils demonstrated smaller spreading areas (116.09µm<sup>2</sup>±2.58) as compared to the positive control cells (219.88µm<sup>2</sup>±3.73). Therefore, a calpain inhibitor may play an important part in preventing neutrophils from spreading, which could halt the progression of inflammatory disorders.</p> Nur Sakinah Nor Adami Mohammad Rohani Jais Elysha Nur Ismail Reezal Ishak Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-08 2020-01-08 11 1 274 279 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1816 Zingerone Ameliorates Hepatotoxicity <p>In medical sciences, toxicity is an area wherein extensive studies have been carried to improve the diseases as well as to prevent. So, there is a high requirement for novel and improved alternative therapeutic strategies to manage diseases. The liver is the largest gland in the body, which executes several important mechanisms; it stores minerals and vitamins and releases them in periods of need. The main aim of this study was to give a closer insight into potent non- toxic compounds that is capable of modifying the responses. Animals were divided into five equal groups viz control (Group 1), administered with food and water ad libitum, (Group 2) administered with olive oil, (Group 3) administered with zingerone, (Group 4) administered with concanavalin A, (Group 5) administered with cyclosporine A followed by zingerone. Our results revealed significant changes in liver marker enzymes and liver histology of zingerone treated rats when compared to control rats.&nbsp; A corollary, zingerone has no toxic effect on hepatocytes and was found to be safe at a dose of 10mg/kg b wt and also ameliorates hepatotoxicity.</p> Julietpoornamathy J Parameswari C.S. Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-08 2020-01-08 11 1 280 284 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1817 Maser The Medication Adherence, Factor Influencing Adherence and The Executives Of Intense Asthma Children’s In Tamilnadu <p>The commonness and related Weight of ailment because of asthma, it required to get an ideal control of the malady and improve the results of these patients. In any case, it has been seen that there is poor adherence to the treatment, which prompts the problematic control of the illness. To read the adherence for treatment in these patients to survey the effect of Wellbeing instruction and self-activity plan to improve adherence. A forthcoming report Was done in a sum of 986 asthma patients over a time of 3 years. When incorporated into the examination, the patients are followed up after 12 Weeks of non-adherence to the treatment. It was seen that solitary 108 patients (10.95%) had normal non-adherence, and 878 patients (89.05%) Were adherence to the treatment. Elements that Were related to poor adherence Were: LoWer instructive level, poor financial status, changes in routine, and patient's evil mentalities toward Wellbeing. Subsequent to utilizing the different systems for improving the adherence in these patients, the adherence expanded in patients (61.32%) among the prior defaulted patients, while the staying 188 patients (38.68%) Were seen as non-adherence even after different instructive procedures. Nonadherence in asthma the executives is an unavoidable truth and adherence improving system likely as a viable decent doctor and patient relationship. Individualized composed activity plans dependent on pinnacle expiratory stream are proportionate to activity plans dependent on indications.</p> Arulprakasam K C Senthilkumar N Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-08 2020-01-08 11 1 285 289 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1818 Features of humoral immunity in cows infected with the leukaemia virus <p>The article presents the results of studying the dynamics of the formation of antibodies and immune complexes, reveals the prospects for improving the early diagnosis of cattle leukaemia. Studies were conducted for 6 months on an experimental group of animals consisting of 12 cows. The titers of free and bound antibodies in blood serum and milk were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results of studies showing that changes in titers of anti-leukaemia antibodies in the blood serum of cows naturally infected with BLV (bovine leukaemia virus) are significantly different from experimental infection data are adduced. In cows infected with BLV, there is no definite relationship between antibody titers in milk and in blood serum.&nbsp; With sufficiently high titers of serum antibodies, antibody titers in milk can be minimal for the same cows; conversely, with low titers of serum antibodies, there can be high antibody titers in milk.&nbsp; In the titers of antibodies free and bound in the immune complexes in blood serum with the development of the disease, a certain dependence is traced. With a decrease in titers of free antibodies, in most cases, an increase in titers of “bound” antibodies is observed, i.e., the degree of formation of circulating immune complexes (CECs) increases. There is no clearly defined dependence in the dynamics of changes in titers free and bound in immune complexes of antibodies in milk samples. They can remain at the same level for a long time, both at low and rather high levels.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Talgat R. Yakupov Mars M. Valiev Farit F. Zinnatov Azat M. Alimov Albert K. Galiullin Damir D. Hairullin Radiy M. Papaev Sergey Yu. Smolentsev Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-08 2020-01-08 11 1 290 293 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1819 Evaluation of the hepatoprotective activity of various extracts of Dyschoriste littoralis nees on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity rats <p>The current investigation was to examine the hepatoprotective potential of <em>D.littoralis</em> Nees. (family Acanthaceae) On paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The aerial parts of <em>D.littoralis</em> Nees. The powder was concentrated with various solvents (PE, EA, and methanol) through Soxhlet concentrates and different crude concentrates utilized for hepatoprotective activity. &nbsp;Hepatotoxicity was induced by paracetamol (2g/kg b.wt.) on the 5<sup>th</sup> day of the investigational period and given orally. &nbsp;Paracetamol-induced rats to exhibit elevated activities of liver enzymes such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, total cholesterol &amp; triglyc in serum. Furthermore, Oral administration of the ethyl acetate concentrates of&nbsp; <em>D.littoralis</em> (200 mg/ kgb.wt.) given rats were significant reduction the level of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, total cholesterol &amp; triglycerides when compared to other concentrates. They also significantly elevated the concentration of complete protein and albumin when compared to other concentrates. Thus, results suggested that ethyl acetate concentrates of <em>D.littoralis </em>could afford better hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity rats.</p> Ravi Teja P D Balakrishnan K Kottai Muthu A Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-08 2020-01-08 11 1 294 300 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1820 Clinical assessment of Sara and Blood investigations in Madhumeha (T2DM) <p><em>Pratyaksha</em> (direct perception), <em>Anumana</em> (inference), <em>Aptopadesha</em> (testimony), and Yukti (reasoning) are the tools that helps for the diagnosis of the disease.&nbsp; To fulfill this purpose <em>Atura-Pariksha </em>(examination of patients), <em>Dravya Pariksha</em> (examination of medicinal drug and preparations), and <em>Roga-Rogi Pariksha</em> (examination of the patient and disease), etc. are a very important tool. The concept of <em>Sara </em>is described under<em> Dashavidha Atura Pariksha</em> (tenfold examination), and it is an important concept in both <em>Swastha-rakshana</em> (maintenance of health) and <em>Aturasya Vikara Prashamana</em> (treatment of disease). The concept of <em>Sara</em> is explained by different <em>Acharyas</em> elaborately in their own way. In spite of tremendous success in modern medical science, the incidence of diseases are increasing enormously. A sedentary lifestyle and improper dietary habits has led to the emergence of several health problems, including Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus<strong> (</strong>T2DM), and it is emerging as a major disease affecting mankind with many complications.&nbsp; Hence present study has been undertaken to understand <em>Sara </em>because all persons vary from one another in many ways, and a personalized approach to patient care should be adopted to plan appropriate therapeutics. Dietary factors, lifestyle, and psychological factors are involved in the aetiology of <em>Madhumeha</em> (T2DM)<em>. </em>The <em>Twak Sara</em>, <em>Shukra</em> <em>Sara</em>, <em>Asthi</em> <em>Sara</em>, and <em>Majja</em> <em>Sara </em>persons are more prone to develop<em> Madhumeha</em> (T2DM). The Meda<em> Sara</em> and <em>Mamsa Sara</em> are less prone to develop<em> Madhumeha</em> (T2DM). We don’t find the <em>Rakta Sara</em> individuals in our study.</p> Santosh Kumar Ranjan Byadgi P S Tripathi N.S Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-08 2020-01-08 11 1 301 310 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1821 Detection of tetracycline antibiotics in honey using high-performance liquid chromatography <p>It is hard to overestimate the value of honey since the constituent substances in it are of great importance in the food industry and medicine. The quality of honey is established by the legislation of the Russian Federation (GOST). But the levels of these standards are regulated by outdated methods of analysis, which can not give reliable results. The detection of antibiotic residues in honey is a central issue in the quality and safety control of this product. Accumulation of drugs in honey used to treat bee colonies can cause allergies and dysbiosis in people who have eaten such honey, as well as develop antibiotic resistance in microorganisms. At present, one of the promising directions in the field of detecting medicines in honey is the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It helps selectively and accurately detect antibiotic substances in honey bee products. In Russia, the HPLC method is used with mass spectrometry to detect tetracycline residues in honey. A significant drawback with this method that limits the widespread use of it is the application of expensive, technically sophisticated equipment that needs high-quality reagents and consumables. The purpose of this work was to develop the simultaneous identification of tetracycline antibiotics in honey and carry out their quantitative analysis by a reversed-phase HPLC method. A sample preparation algorithm was developed, and the conditions for chromatographing combined indication of tetracyclines in honey at an acceptable concentration according to the MRL (0.01 mg/kg) with Agilent 1260 Infiniti liquid chromatograph equipped with a column thermostat, a gradient pump, and a UV detector were selected. According to the results of the research, the most optimal condition for the simultaneous analysis of oxytetracycline, tetracycline hydrochloride, chlortetracycline in honey by HPLC method with ultraviolet detection was a wavelength of 254 nm, a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min and a column temperature of 25° C. Under these conditions, the antibiotic retention time was determined: 4.069 minutes for oxytetracycline, 4.331 minutes for tetracycline hydrochloride, 4.642 minutes for chlortetracycline. The developed HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of tetracycline antibiotics in honey was tested on honey bee products from the regions of the Republics of Tatarstan and Bashkortostan.</p> Gulnara G. Galyautdinova Vladislav I. Egorov Alexander M. Saifutdinov Elvira R. Rakhmetova Andrey V. Malanev Damir V. Aleyev Sergey Yu. Smolentsev Eduard I. Semenov Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-08 2020-01-08 11 1 311 314 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1822 Antidiabetic potential of Triphala Guggul - an ayurvedic formulation in alloxan-induced diabetes animal model <p>The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential antidiabetic drug Triphala guggul (TG), an indigenous polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation in an alloxan-induced diabetes rat model. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats. The rats were divided into nine groups, including the groups of normal control which received the vehicle, the standard group (Glibenclamide) and rats with induced diabetes were treated with the tablet of Triphala guggul and Triphala guggul churna in doses of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. They were administered orally for 28 days on a single dose. Blood was collected from the vein in the tail on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. Biochemical estimates were made using blood serum. Acute toxicity studies did not reveal toxicity in rats. For 28 days, Administration of Triphala guggul tablet and Triphala guggul churna formulations improved oral glucose tolerance in diabetes-induced rats and after 28 days, resulted in a significant reduction in serum glucose level compared to normal control rats. These formulations do not affect the kidney, adipose tissue, and liver. The Triphala guggul formulation has a promising antidiabetic property and is effective in the treatment of diabetes.</p> Krishna Murthy Snehal D. Jagadale Solunke R. S. Shete R. V. Priyanka Nangare Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-08 2020-01-08 11 1 315 322 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1823 Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory activities of the flower extracts of Argemone mexicana L. <p>To assess the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the powder sample&nbsp;derived from the ethyl acetate fraction of the floral Argemone mexicana L. For antioxidant efficiency, the floral extract was evaluated using 1, 1–diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the FRC (Ferric Reduction Capacity) assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was assessed using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and&nbsp;the production method of nitric oxide (NO). The powder sample extracted from ethyl acetate fraction of the floral of Argemone Mexicana L showed good antioxidant activity with the comparative standard sample in scavenging DPPH radicals and in FRC assay. In the cell viability (PBMC influenced by LPS) method and the Nitric oxide (NO) assay, this sample showed even able anti-inflammative activities. Such results indicate a significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in the powder sample&nbsp;obtained from ethyl acetate fraction&nbsp;in the&nbsp;flower of&nbsp;Argemone mexicana L. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Prabhakaran D Rajeshkanna A Senthamilselvi M M Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-08 2020-01-08 11 1 323 330 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1824 Evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of the roots of Borassus flabellifer <p>Inflammation is a defense mechanism triggered by several agents and is observed as a co-morbid condition in various diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Chronic inflammation may lead to organ damage and mortality, and hence synthetic inflammatory agents are administered to cure inflammation. These synthetic drugs induce undesirable side effects, and hence natural agents are preferred. Plants have significant anti-inflammatory potential, and this study intended to assess the anti-inflammatory potential of the hydroalcoholic extract of the root of <em>Borassus flabellifer </em>(REBF). The evaluation was done using in-vitro models like inhibition of hemolysis and denaturation of proteins.&nbsp; The activity of the extract was compared with that of diclofenac, the standard drug of choice. The study results revealed that 800 μg of REBF inhibits hemolysis by 50%. The IC 50 of REBF in manifesting hypotonicity induced hemolysis and heat-induced hemolyses was 2.26 mg and 820 μg. The IC50 of REBF required to inhibit protein denaturation was 2.1 mg. All the assay models reveal that the effect of REBF is comparable to that of diclofenac, and thus REBF is a potent anti-inflammatory agent.</p> Natarajan K Sangeetha R Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-08 2020-01-08 11 1 331 334 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1825 Study on lipid peroxidation and In vivo antioxidant activity of various extract of Dyschoriste littoralis nees on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity rats <p>The current investigation was to examine the antioxidant potential of <em>D.littoralis</em> Nees. (family Acanthaceae) On paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The aerial parts of <em>D.littoralis</em> Nees. The powder was concentratesed with various solvents (PE, EA, and methanol) through Soxhlet concentrates and various crude concentrates utilized for hepatoprotective activity. &nbsp;Hepatotoxicity was induced by paracetamol (2g/kg b.wt.) on the 5<sup>th</sup> day of the investigational period and given orally. &nbsp;Paracetamol-induced rats to exhibit elevated activities of TBARS&nbsp; and reduction the enzymes levels such as Superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAD), Glutathione peroxidise (GPx), Glutathione S transferase(GST) and Glutathione (GSH) in liver and kidney. &nbsp;Furthermore, Oral administration of the&nbsp; ethyl acetate&nbsp; concentrates of&nbsp; <em>D.littoralis</em> (200 mg/ kgb.wt.) given &nbsp;rats were major reduction the level of TBARS and &nbsp;also significantly elevated the levels of the enzyme such as Superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAD), Glutathione peroxidise(GPx), Glutathione S transferase(GST) and Glutathione (GSH) &nbsp;in liver and kidney as compared to other concentrates. Thus, results suggested that ethyl acetate concentrates of <em>D.littoralis </em>could be afford better antioxidant effect against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity rats.</p> Ravi Teja P D Balakrishnan M Kottai Muthu A Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-08 2020-01-08 11 1 335 341 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1826 A comparative study between effects of aerobic exercises and conventional treatment on selected outcomes of heart failure clients <p>Heart failure (HF) is now a major public health issue with a current prevalence of over 23 million worldwide.&nbsp; Physical exercise is now mandatory for HF management to improve a sense of wellbeing. The purpose of the study was to compare the effect of aerobic exercises with the conventional treatment methods with selected patient outcomes among heart failure patients. A quantitative experimental research approach with a post-test-only control group design was adopted. A total of 40 HF patients were taken as study sample, and they were randomly divided into two groups. &nbsp;&nbsp;One group was given conservative treatment, whereas the other was trained with aerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise training was given to the training group for 30 days, and physical, physiological, and psychological changes were assessed by standardized rating scales.&nbsp; A difference of post-test scores of the exercise training group and conservative treatment group were examined using t<strong>-</strong>tests and Chi-square tests. Out of 40 patients (45% above 60yrs of age, 62.5% male), two groups exhibited an extremely significant difference in terms of HF&nbsp; symptoms,&nbsp; pain, and anxiety (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.00001).&nbsp; HF symptoms, chest pain, anxiety exhibited a significant association with age, edema showed significant association with occupation and oxygen uptake showed a significant association with age and occupation. This study concluded that aerobic exercises are highly effective to improve the activity tolerance of the body and can significantly reduce pain, edema, and anxiety levels in heart failure patients receiving conservative treatment.</p> Sujyotsna Jena Sasmita Das Rashmimala Pradhan Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-08 2020-01-08 11 1 342 346 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1827 Cognitive dysfunction in diabetes is associated with glycemic control in an urban Indian population: A prevalence study <p>We evaluated the correlation between HbA1C and Cognitive derangement of type 2 Diabetics in the current prevalence study.HbA1C as a Biomarker to predict Cognitive Derangement in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects based on the correlation findings in a prevalence study in urban Indian population. We further investigated the role of poor Diabetes control versus hypoglycemia episodes as independent predictors of cognitive derangement&nbsp; in 240 type 2 Diabetics.In pilot phase ,comparison between Diabetics(n=30)and non-Diabetic subjects(n=30)for Cognitive derangement&nbsp; using cognitive batteries: GPCOG, AI tool &nbsp;and MIS was done. PET CT brain findings of&nbsp; one of Diabetic subjects were also observed. Further study was conducted on 240 diabetic subjects using batteries validated in the pilot phase. Pilot study provided statistically significant results of correlation between HbA1C levels versus GPCOG Score, Pearson's Correlation r1= -0.448*, for AI Score Pearson’s Correlation r2= -0.196*and for MIS score Pearson’s Correlation r3= -0.472*. The prevalence ratio for both groups was calculated as 5.8125, which implies Diabetics had &gt; 5 fold risk of deranged cognition as compared to the non-Diabetic group. Using independent T-test, mean GPCOG score in the Hypoglycemia group(n=162) and without hypoglycemia group(n=78) were found to be 3.02&nbsp; and 4.63&nbsp; respectively. Similarly, based on the independent T-test, the mean AI score in the Hypoglycemia group(n=162) and without hypoglycemia group(n=78) were found to be&nbsp; 2.068 and 2.564, respectively. PET CT brain findings were suggestive of reduced FDG uptake indicating Alzheimer’s type of cognitive derangement.HbA1C can be linked to poor cognitive derangement in case of poor diabetes control. Hence HbA1C can be a useful biomarker to predict cognitive derangement in type 2 Diabetics.*Significance level &lt;0.01, Negative correlations are indicative of lower the values of battery scores higher would be cognitive derangement.</p> Aman Gupta Abhishek Kumar Singh Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-09 2020-01-09 11 1 347 357 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1829 A Characteristic Study on the Effect of Ginger and Nutmeg Extracts on Pseudomonas and E.coli biofilms <p>A number of phytochemicals or secondary metabolites were produced by herbs and spices. These were used as food preservatives and also as traditional medicines from long back. These were having various pharmacological benefits which included antioxidant, analgesic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic properties. In the present study two different plant species (<em>Zingiber officinale, Myristica fragrans</em>) were used for studying their antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity. The phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts was done by using standard methodology. FTIR analysis of the ginger and nutmeg extracts were carried out to study the functional groups present in the respective plant extracts. The extracts were also subjected to NMR spectroscopy. Two different bacteria were used for the studies which are good biofilm producers, <em>Pseudomonas </em>and <em>E.coli</em>. The antimicrobial activity of the methanolic and choloroform extracts of ginger and nutmeg were studied using air liquid interphase coverslip assay and biofilm assay. The results suggest that the ginger and nutmeg extracts have biofilm inhibition activity. The reduction in biofilm was observed in all the 3 concentrations of the nutmeg chloroform extract with maximum biofilm reduction in 100% and was compared with the control. Both <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>and <em>Escherichia coli</em>, biofilm inhibition was observed in all 3 concentrations of ginger and nutmeg.</p> Challaraj Emmanuel E S Vinni Biji Gayathri N. Krishna Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-09 2020-01-09 11 1 386 396 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1832 An Investigation of free radical scavenging activity of various extracts of Olax scandens (family Olacaceae) <p><em>Olax scandens </em>Roxb. (family <em>Olacaceae) </em>Available in throughout tropical India. The current study, aerial parts of different extracts of <em>Olax scandens</em> by different <em>in-vitro </em>methods<em>. </em>The antioxidant activity was evaluated by Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity(OH radical), Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity(NO radical), and total antioxidant activity (Phosphomolybdic acid method) with reference standard Ascorbic acid. An IC<sub>50</sub> value was originated that methanolic extracts of <em>Olax scandens</em>is more efficient in Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, Nitric oxide radical scavenging, total antioxidant activity than that of EA and petroleum ether extract. The methanolic &nbsp;extracts &nbsp;of <em>Olax scandens </em>&amp; ascorbate exhibited antioxidant potential possessing IC<sub>50 </sub>253µg/ml &amp; 135µg/ml (NO radical ), 205µg/ml &amp; 57µg/ml (Phosphomolybdic acid method), 265µg/ml &amp; 65µg/ml (OH radical) respectively. But when compared to all the three extracts with ascorbate (standard), the methanolic extract of the <em>Olax scandens </em>showed a better result. Moreover, the results were observed in a concentration-dependent manner. Invitro antioxidant studies obviously showed that methanolic extracts of <em>Olax scandens</em> have better antioxidant activity. These results indicate that aerial parts of methanolic concentrates <em>Olax scandals </em>could serve as a natural antioxidant, which may be useful to prevent free radical-induced diseases.</p> Pranaya P AkilaDevi D Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-09 2020-01-09 11 1 397 402 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1833 Development, characterization and solubility enhancement of BCS class II drug phenytoin by solid phospholipid dispersion technique <p>The poor aqueous solubility acts as a core challenge in oral dosage form development for BCS class II drugs. Phenytoin is taking as a model drug; the present study adopted an innovative solid phospholipid nanoparticle (SPLN) line of attack, and it is parallelly equated with the industrialized methods (freeze-drying) which are used for the boosting of solubility and dissolution of Phenytoin. Phenytoin was articulated along with phospholipid and mannitol at a diverse ratio of phenytoin, PL, mannitol, in which 1:12:18 was the correct ratio for ideal preparation. Freeze-drying helps to prepare SPLNs in orbicular shape, which is amorphous in nature with ≤ 1µm diameter on average. While the amorphous matrix-like structure of solid phospholipid dispersion with larger particle size is obtained by freeze-drying technique. Formulating the formulation from this method improved the dissolution rate in a remarkable way. Tris buffer with pH 7.4acts as an apparent solubility dissolved concentration of phenytoin. The poor aqueous solubility acts as a core challenge in oral dosage form development for BCS class II drugs. The decrease in the particle size or cumulating the drug surface area is the widely used practices to proliferate the solubility. The target of the present work was improvisation in solubility, dissolution of a poorly water-soluble drug, and its release by using solid phospholipid nanoparticles. Phenytoin is taking as a model drug. The solid phospholipid nanoparticles were primed by freeze-drying technique along with phospholipid and mannitol in diverse drug to excipients ratios (1:1, 1:2w: w). These preparations were assessed for compatibility study using FTIR, solubility enhancement study by XRD, entrapment efficiency, surface morphology by SEM, and in-vitro release study. As per the results, there is no influence of the excipients on the drug used. The solubility was increased by folds compared to in house prepared formulation.&nbsp;</p> Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Sathish Ananthan Lavanya Mude Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-09 2020-01-09 11 1 403 410 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1834 Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial studies of Schiff bases of acyclovir <p>There is a crucial medical need for the progress of new antibacterial agents with new and more efficient mechanisms. Schiff bases are stated to have a wide range of pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, and anticancer activities, which are largely due to the distinguishing C=N group. Furthermore, heterocyclic compounds containing acyclic hydroxylated side chains, for example, acyclovir (ACV), are an essential class of antiviral acyclonucleosides. Therefore, this work was to synthesize and evaluate a new series of acyclovir analogues bearing a Schiff base moiety. Some of Schiff's bases synthesis in an ethanolic solution of drug, aldehydes, and glacial acetic acid as a catalyst followed in the synthesis of substituted acyclovir drug compounds. In this work, two new series of acyclovir analogues bearing a Schiff base moiety were Synthesised, characterized, and confirmed by various spectral techniques like FTIR, CHN, and 1HNMR spectra, in addition to melting point and retardation factor (Rf.). The biological activity of synthesized Schiff base compounds measured against a panel of various bacteria. The results revealed that these compounds showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as <em>bacillus</em> and Gram-negative bacteria such as <em>proteus</em>, <em>E-coli</em>, <em>pseudomonas</em>, and <em>klebsiella</em>. It concluded that synthesized Schiff base compounds showed higher antibacterial activity than acyclovir that they derived from it.</p> Abood S Huda Abdullah S. Asia Wrewish S Zainab Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-09 2020-01-09 11 1 411 415 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1835 Studies on Antidiabetic Activity of Atylosia Albicans in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats <p>The present study was aimed to investigate the Antidiabetic effect of <em>Atylosia Albicans</em> extracts in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Wistar rats. Rats have fasted overnight, and the plant extracts at doses 100 and 200 mg/kg were administered for 14 days.&nbsp; Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes mellitus. The standard hypoglycaemic agent selected for this work was Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg). The different test solutions at doses 100 and 200 mg/kg of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts respectively were given a respective group of rats. &nbsp;The anti-diabetic potential was assessed by determining oral glucose tolerance, fasting blood glucose,&nbsp; Blood glucose levels, glycated hemoglobin (HbA<sub>1</sub>c), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high‑density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) were evaluated parameters. The methanolic extract with 200 mg/kg was more significant in anti-diabetic activity (P&lt;0.001) on the 14<sup>th</sup> day and also significantly decreased TG, TC, VLDL‑C, LDL‑C and &nbsp;HbA1c (P&lt;0.001) when compared to diabetic control rats<strong>. </strong>&nbsp;From the obtained results, it can be revealed that the methanolic extract of <em>Atylosia Albicans </em>has great potent antidiabetic activity. The results suggest that <em>Triumfetta rotundifolia </em>has anti-diabetic activity, thereby justifying its traditional use.</p> Sharvana bhava B S Umasankar K Kottai Muthu A Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-09 2020-01-09 11 1 416 424 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1836 An Approach to Derive Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Therapeutic Significance <p>“Mesenchymal Stem cells (MSCs)” are distinct type of cells naturally present in the body that has the ability to separate into any cell type like bone, cartilage, muscle, nerve, tooth etc. There are numerous studies available to efficiently isolate culture, characterize and expand the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Similar such method was utilized to isolate the MScs from femoral and tibial bone of female wistar rats and the standardized method was used to culture and expand MSCs. The cultured cells were determined to be MSCs with their hallmark properties of spindle shape morphometry, cellular plasticity &amp; cell adherence property. The cells after expansion were subjected to flow cytometry analysis for characterization. The BMSCs showed positive expression for CD90 &amp; negative expression for CD34. In the present investigation, we obtained the BMSCs that would have potential clinical significance as it was performed in a GMP environment with all necessary requirements that could enable its therapeutic value.</p> Balaji K Perumal Saraswathi Prabhu K Shila Samuel Siva T Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-09 2020-01-09 11 1 425 430 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1837 The impact some of nutrients on swarming phenomenon and detection the responsible gene RsbA in clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis <p>The effect of ten different chemical compounds (comprised of carbohydrates, nutrients and nanoparticles) were tested against the swarming phenomenon of clinical isolates that belong to&nbsp;<em>Proteus spp</em>. The responsible gene of swarming <em>RsbA</em>&nbsp;was detected by PCR at 310 pb in size. The results were appeared Starch, Peptone, indomie (commercial local noodles) additives, yeast extract, and glucose had shown stimulatory effect on swarming diameter of&nbsp;<em>P. mirabilis</em>. The carbohydrates used in the experiment were starch, sucrose, lactose and glucose. The largest swarming diameter of the test culture occurred in the presence of glucose due to its stimulatory effect. However, sucrose and lactose showed an inhibitory effect on swarming of the test culture. On the other hand, starch had different effects according to its concentration; it showed an inhibitory effect at 1% and 2%, while it stimulated the swarming at 5 % concentration. Comparatively, when test culture grown on MacConkey agar, swarming did not occur due to the inhibitory role of bile salt and crystal violate. The yeast extract and indomie additives were stimulators for swarming with increased concentration, while Peptone showed moderate effects and red pepper powder had an inhibitory effect on swarming. This study was aimed to isolate and investigate the effect of some<span dir="RTL">&nbsp;</span>chemical and nutrient compounds on swarming phenomenon of&nbsp;<em>P. mirabilis</em>&nbsp;that allows<span dir="RTL">&nbsp;</span>the microorganism to invade human urinary tract and cause infection. We can concluded that Red pepper as natural alternative of antibiotics could be employed in the treatment of patients diagnosed with UTI caused by&nbsp;<em>P. mirabilis&nbsp;</em>due to its inhibitory role on the swarming action<em>.</em>&nbsp;However, consuming indomie noodles with its additives may have a stimulatory effect on swarming which may allow&nbsp;<em>P. mirabilis</em>&nbsp;to reach and colonize other sites of urinary tract and cause infection.</p> TahreerHadi Saleh SabaTalib Hashim Salma Nassrullah Malik Bahaa Abdullah Laftaah AL-Rubaii Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-09 2020-01-09 11 1 437 444 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1839 Biological Effective of organic solvent extracts of Datura innoxia Leaves in the Cumulative and Non-cumulative for mortality of Immature insect Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera : Culicidae) <p>The present research included the evaluation of the efficiency of organic solvent extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol) separately using ppm (100, 250, 5001500, 1000, 2000) concentrations of<em> Datura innoxia</em> leaves. In the non- cumulative and cumulative mortality of the immature stage of <em>Culex quinquefaciatus </em>Say mosquitoes where LC50 and LC90 by probit analysis were estimated. The hexane extract of the leaves <em>D.innoxia</em> plant was the most affected hexane extract was the most effective of ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol in the non-cumulative mortality of the immature instar where LC50 for egg mortality was (1495.8, 1727.2, 2199.9) ppm for hexane extract, ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol respectively &nbsp;For the four larva linstar, the first larval instar were the most sensitive of the larval instar of all extracts The hexan extract was LC50(245.8, 301.1, 418.4, 1128.6) PPM The ethyl acetate extract was LC50 (246.9, 375.3, 622.6, 1188.2) ppm for the four larvae instar respectively. The LC50 for ethyl alcohol extract (332.4, 568.5 1004.7, 1446.6) ppm. In instar pupa, the value of LC50 (1146.5, 1179.6, 1249.6) ppm for hexane extract, ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol, respectively. As for the cumulative depreciation, the cumulative mortality rate of the immature stage reached 100% at the concentration of 2000ppm and for all organic solvents compared to the control, which was limited to (8-17) %.</p> Wassen Ali Adday Mohammed Ridha Annon Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-10 2020-01-10 11 1 452 459 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1841 Sustainability Reporting Pattern in Pharmaceutical Sector : A Study of Top 10 Economies across the Globe <p>Sustainability reporting is now a mainstream activity of global corporations and is an important issue of the decade. Transparency and accountability for stakeholders are the most demanding issues in pharmaceutical sectors. Companies or Industries can’t survive without sustainable growth. Since most of the stakeholders are aware of recent problems such as community health, climate change, education and development, business sustainability, etc., the demand for disclosures in these areas have also been remarkably increased. Global companies have started business sustainability for economic and non-economic activities of the venture, along with the accountability of external and internal stakeholders towards the goal of sustainable development. This paper examines the sustainability reporting practices of the top 10 economy's pharmaceutical companies across the globe. For this purpose, sustainability reports based on GRI and Non- GRI guidelines for 5 years (2012 to 2016) of the top 10 economy's pharmaceutical companies were collected from the GRI-Database. The number of pharmaceutical companies along with a country name that published sustainability reports has been classified into four categories such as companies with GRI reports are published for 5 years, less than 5 years, Non-GRI reports and mixed reports (GRI &amp;Non-GRI) and a total number of reports published in the given time periods. The results revealed that the sustainability disclosures in Pharmaceutical sectors are dominated by both the 1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd</sup> largest economies across the globe USA, China, and Brazil, and the worst sustainability disclosures are Canada, Italy, Germany, and India. It means pharmaceutical companies in the USA, China, and Brazil are more conscious about sustainability reporting as compare to the rest of the countries of the top 10 economies in the world.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Mahesh Kumar Birajit Mohanty Madhusudan Narayan Vadera M L Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-10 2020-01-10 11 1 460 465 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1842 Effectiveness of Marketing Strategy Formulation in Biomedical Healthcare Industry <p>Marketing strategies stimulate the firm to unearth areas that are being disturbed by several factors. This is adopted to determine the target market in order to achieve prosperity in the organization. An effective marketing strategy would perhaps help in captivating new customers as well as sustaining for the longer-term. Consequently, this can result in the following benefits such as products and services can be offered with exclusive components, effective department coordination, concentration on scarce resources, thereby building a better marketing plan, selection of target market for easy entry and accumulation of four marketing p's. As a result, the increase in sales can be achieved. The strategy should be effectively formulated to witness the performance outcome. This study focuses on the determinants of marketing strategy on performance outcomes. &nbsp;The data captured from 119 marketing professionals in the field of the biomedical healthcare industry by using a questionnaire. The questionnaire includes variables to measure the demographic profile of the professionals and three constructs of marketing strategy creativity, marketing strategy improvisation, and performance outcome. Collected data were analyzed through analysis of frequency, mean, variance, and regression. Results show that marketing professionals have similar viewpoints on marketing strategies. The findings of the regression analysis argue that the improvisation determines performance outcomes in the marketing strategy</p> Praveen Kumar P Subhasini J Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-10 2020-01-10 11 1 466 470 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1843 Coronary blockage of artery for Heart diagnosis with DT Artificial Intelligence Algorithm <p>Coronary blockage of an artery (CBA) is a fundamental problem cause of heart attacks. There are different techniques used to diagnosis this CBA as like other category of heart diseases. In this research, open heart surgery operation and quick diagnosis have been analyzed. This CBA diagnosis &amp; operation requires clear images of heart i.e., CTA pictures. Fast and reliable detections are possible with professional image processing techniques (IMT) with the help of Artificial intelligence algorithms (AIA). &nbsp;By the help of Decision Tree (DT) based IMT and “AIA” is used to find the region of heart image CBA diagnosis with a concentration of determination. Total work contains two stages; 1<sup>st</sup> is pre-processing means image processing training 2nd is decision step, in this extraction, and statistical calculations are performed using the DT-AIA model. Implementation has been achieved and progressed by using 4.766% OV, OF by using 6.5%, OT by means of 2.5%, AI with the aid of 0.21% these are very good results.</p> Saikumar K Rajesh V Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-10 2020-01-10 11 1 471 479 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1844 β-glucan: Immune boosting potential and antioxidant candidate <p>In literature, β-glucan is abundantly found in oats and currently used as well as tested against various varieties of food products. The objective of our study is to evaluate its immune-boosting potential of β-glucan extracted from oats and tested against specific protein antigen i.e., bovine serum albumin (BSA) and also measure its antioxidant activity. For these studies, β-glucan using variable concentration and tested in human whole blood samples (exposed with an optimized concentration of bovine serum albumin, BSA) and examined its immune-boosting potential. In contrast, estimation of Th1 (IFN-gamma) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines were also measured from cell culture supernatant and also measured its antioxidant potential through DPPH assay. The results showed that β-glucan enhanced immune-boosting activity in a concentration-dependent manner against BSA. In contrast, there is enhancement in Th2 (IL-4) cytokines in a dose-dependent manner, but there is no significant effect in Th1 (IFN-gamma) as compared to control. In addition, β-glucan showed drastic enhanced antioxidant potential, which is confirmed through DPPH assay. The data demonstrate that β-glucan showing immune-boosting properties and antioxidant potential.</p> Abhishek Kamboj Aanchal Jain Tanya Singh Ajam Shaikh Amit Gupta Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 11 1 491 496 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1849 A novel approach of MRI-CT Image fusion using CWT for finding Disease location <p>Medical&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Image processing has tremendous applications in medical diagnosis. This broadsheet offerings the idea of a fusion of MRI(Magnetic Resource Imaging)-CT (Computed tomography) using Coverlet wavelet transform(CWT), which is used to find the disease location in an image. In the Medical field, CT provides maximum information on denser tissue with less amount of distortion and higher resolution images. Whereas, on the other hand, MRI provides information on softer tissue with much distortion. However, both are similar; the main difference lies where CT uses X-rays to produce images while MRI uses radio-Waves to produce images. This paper presents a fusion by concatenating of images using a coverlet wavelet transform technique.&nbsp; The presentation is estimated on the source of locating the disease in the resultant image. In this research, various image type like MRI, CT, PET, ECT, SPECT models has been collected and apply the fusion process such that calculate the performance analysis parameters like SSIM, PSNR, entropy, CWT, etc. this research consist of processing and classification in the step -1 process the image with fusion model has been implemented, for classification estimate the samples with probabilistic functions. Finally calculated the parameters for disease finding and location estimation such that this research is helpful for disease location estimation and finding. At final achieves the better outcomes compared to existed methods.</p> Syed Inthiyaz Hasane Ahammad Sk Praveen SR Konduri Apoorva Inani Nagineni Risthitha Dhiraj V Siva Kumar M Saikumar K Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 11 1 497 506 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1850 Combined Treatment with Oral Hypoglycemic Agents and Insulin in Longer Run May Lead to Cognitive Derangement Secondary to Hypoglycemia <p>To determine the risk associated with combined therapy of oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin in the development of cognitive decline secondary to hypoglycemia. The study comprised of two arms, in arm 1 (n=30) diabetic patients on OHA and insulin combined therapy were observed for cognitive derangement based on Mini Cog score (Pearson’s correlation r was calculated between the two)and the patients were also ruled out for hypoglycemia episodes. Similarly, in arm 2(n=30), only OHA therapy patients were evaluated on the same parameters using Pearson’s correlation. Mean Mini Cog scores were found to be 1.79&nbsp; in patients on combinational therapy of OHA and insulin. In the case of patients only on OHA for diabetes control mean Mini Cog, the score was 2.0. Pearson’s coefficient r 1 between OHA plus insulin duration of therapy in years with Mini Cog score was <strong>&nbsp;</strong>-0.5831 at a statistically significant p value of 0.0007. While on the other hand, patients only on OHA therapy (in years)were not significantly correlated with Mini Cog scores.(r 2= - 0.0149 ; p value =0.93771).In the arm 1 (OHA + Insulin(n=30)), the average number of hypoglycemia episodes were found to be 2.633 as compared to the OHA only group in which mean hypoglycemia episodes were 0.866. There was a significant difference in the hypoglycemia episodes, as confirmed by the student t-test (4.06368) at a p value = 0.000147. Based on the study findings, combined Treatment with Oral Hypoglycemic agents and insulin in longer run may lead to cognitive derangement secondary to hypoglycemia.*Significance level &lt;0.01, Negative correlations are indicative of lower the values of battery scores higher would be cognitive derangement.</p> Aman Gupta Abhishek Kumar Singh Ramesh Deka C Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 11 1 511 518 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1852 Box-Behnken design for development and characterization of nanostructured chitosan-based nanoparticles containing sulfasalazine for the treatment of ulcerative colitis <p>The present research was designed to improve the permeability of sulfasalazine by loading it into chitosan nanoparticles using the ionic gelation method. The process parameters were screened and optimized through Box-Behnken design. 13 formulations containing sulfasalazine chitosan-based nanoparticles (SCSNPs) were optimized using particle size, zeta potential, and % encapsulation efficiency as responses. Results were optimized based on the desirability function shown in 2D contour plots and 3D response surface plots. The effect of every factor on responses was statistically analyzed using ANOVA and p-Value, and the correlation coefficient of all the responses was found to be &gt;0.99 and &gt;0.96 for optimized CSNPs and optimized SCSNPs respectively with p&lt;0.05. From the predicted and observed values of responses, the optimized formulation (SCSNPs) has a particle size of 261±3.06 nm, with an encapsulation efficiency of 81.3±5.3%. Morphology of the particles using scanning electron microscopy reveals nearly spherical shaped particles with a zeta potential of +41.4±0.5 mV. In-vitro studies acknowledge that sulfasalazine was released in a sustained manner for about 24 hrs in simulated colonic fluid pH 7 and phosphate buffer pH 7.4, &nbsp;when compared to a simulated colonic fluid at fed (pH 6) and fasted state (pH 7.8). Optimized SCSNPs followed Korsmeyer Peppas kinetics with a drug release mechanism as non-fickian diffusion (anomalous transport).</p> Ganesh Narayan Sharma Praveen Kumar Ch Birendra Shrivastava Kumar B Arindam Chatterjee Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 11 1 532 545 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1855 The Association Between Iron Over Load and Tanner Stage Retardation in the Females with B-Thalassemia Major <p>Despite optimal therapy of patients with B- major thalassemia included repeated transfusion of blood program and iron chelation agents helped by increasing survival of these patients&nbsp; but remained a major problem in adolescents of these patients such as growth failure and hypogonadism. This study was aimed to determine the relationship between iron overload and tanner stage retardation among female &nbsp;patients with B- major thalassemia in Thalassemia Hospital in Diwaniyah Governorate. The current study occurred on all female patients diagnosed β-thalassemia major depends on the blood tests, with their age range from 13years to 16 years who registered in Thalassemia unit in Al- Diwaniyah&nbsp; Governorate, Republic of Iraq. In the physical examination, the patients were assessed for weight, height, Tanner stages, and body mass index(BMI), which recorded. S. Ferritin value was used to assess the iron load, and pelvic ultrasound was checked to assess the size of the uterus and both ovaries. &nbsp;The results of the currents study revealed that the total numbers of B- thalassemia major female patients are 31 patients, aged 13-16 years. Age of patients at which diagnosed of B- major thalassemia range from 0.17 to 5 year. The frequency of Blood transfusion (time/Year) ranges from 6 to 33 times/Year. The level of serum ferritin of the patients was ranged from 913-12000 ng/ml with. Tanner stage I was predominant, accounting for 87%, whereas stage II and III accounted for 10% and 3%, respectively. There was a significant negative relation between times transfusion of blood and Tanner. There was a significant correlation between Uterus size, ovarian size, and Tanner stage. Because of inflammation falsely increase serum ferritin or due to the relation between body iron in the body and level of serum ferritin is not always within the linear range, especially in the condition of inflammation or tissue damage. So that level of serum ferritin is not an adequate measure of iron stores in patients with major thalassemia. Therefore, we needed another indicator to measure iron stores in patients with thalassemia major such as liver iron concentration.</p> Suzan Sabbar Mutlag Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 11 1 546 552 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1856 Role of Herbal Medicine in Oral and Dental Health; Ethnopharmacological Study of Medicinal Plants in Iraq/Baghdad <p>Dental/Oral diseases are one of the major public health problems globally. The application of Herbal medicines for the manager of oral diseases are considered as an effective alternative to synthetic compound due to their lower side effect. The object of This study is a study of the traditional medicine role in dental health, based on active constituents in herbal medicines, which have been practiced by people. in this study, we sought to gather information from Bedouins in Baghdad region of Iraq about used herbs medicine in dental health. depth interviews (unstructured interviews) are used to collect the data by asking face-to-face to the respondent. The research has been done in two stages, first one directed to traditional healers, folk practitioners, to know the most common used Herbal in dental health, and the second stage was directed to people. Our results shown that Syzygium aromaticum, Camellia sinensis, and Mentha shown the highest used value (UV) up to 0.90, and mostly used for treatment of Toothache, Canker sore and Oral ulcer, also they used <a href="">them</a> as a homemade mouth wash. Our studies also shown an increasing in demand of herbal medicine in Iraq day by day as an alternative method of oral/ dental diseases treatment due to economic reasons and its lower side effects in comparison with a synthetic compound.&nbsp;</p> Humam M. Al-Somaiday Manar E. Al-Samaray Ali Al-Samydai Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 11 1 553 560 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1857 Design of MEMS-based Microfludic Channel to Detect Cancer Cells in Blood <p class="Abstract" style="text-indent: 0in;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">Cancer refers to any of countless infections characterized by the development of abnormal cells that divide uncontrollably and can invade and destroy normal body tissue. Malignant growth frequently can spread all through your body. Cancer is the second driving reason for death on the planet. In this paper, we propose to found a H-cell to screen carcinogenic cells in a given sample of blood based on the principle of diffusion. This model incorporates the planning of a MEMS-based microfluidic channel to screen and recognize different cells depending on the size and various characteristics of the cells. Some of the methods which are implemented not efficient models for cancer cells detection in blood. The mass, displacement technique has been implemented in this investigation for cancer cell detection, with the help of this achieves the accuracy and better throughput. One cancer cell contains = 1.70371e-24 mass, such that with a weight of this formula, find out the total no of cells in the blood. This is the best method compared to existed methods. Using this count, the weight has been calculate early-stage cancer and treatment with a simple manner, CTCs in the blood is the un potential matter for health, H-cells have been measured with proposed weight and force technique such that in this investigation also calculate the healthy and cancer cells also. Finally, using this methodology achieves 93.58% accuracy, 0.00124 MSE. These are very good results compared to conventional methods. </span></p> Syed Shameem RamaKrishna T V Sahithi M Rohitha B Keerthana J Hasane Ahammad Sk Srinivas Babu P S Saikumar K Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 11 1 561 566 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1858 Formulation, characterization and evaluation of nanoparticles based dry powder insufflation containing terbutaline sulphate and itraconazole for the treatment of asthma <p>Many factors affect the pulmonary drug delivery and stability of the nanoparticles an acupuncture consisting of bronchial asthma. Present research envisages on the development of dry powder nanoparticles as insufflation a acupuncture consisting of bronchial asthma (allergy due to <em>Aspergillus fumigatus</em>) using physical mixing and spray drying. Different founding are prepared and characterized with suitable excipients like lactose and trehalose. The particle size distribution of nano milled and spray-dried particles of Terbutaline Sulphate and Itraconazole showed unimodal size distribution. The formulations prepared with trehalose as the carrier showed less D<sub>v90</sub>, D<sub>v50</sub> and D<sub>v10</sub> values due to the fineness in the particles of trehalose when compared to lactose. The <em>D</em><sub>v50</sub>&nbsp; and D<sub>v10 </sub>values were in the range of mountains of 0.43-0.89 µm and 0.21–0.49 µm for all formulations, which shows the primary particle size in the nanometer scale. Smooth and nearly spherical particles were produced for spray-dried formulations when compared to milled formulations. Zeta potential comes across until be between +17±0.13 to +32±0.12, which explains the particles as moderately stable. MMAD values ranges from 3.19 µm to 4.78 µm for milled nanoparticles and 3.45 µm to 4.21 µm for spray-dried particles. Formulated nanoparticles exhibited good spreading properties, which will allow all the particles to deposition palmy profusion territories consisting of the lung. <em>In-vitro</em> drug release studies explains that spray-dried formulations of Terbutaline sulpahte and Itraconazole using lactose as excipients released the drug upto 98.9% and 99.1% in 180mts.</p> Venugopalaiah Penabaka Kumar B Prasad N.B.L Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-18 2020-01-18 11 1 567 580 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1859 To evaluate the impact of patient education on self-reported adherence, and management behavior of children with asthma <p>The failure to stick to a recommended remedial program for the treatment of an incessant illness might be mindful to some extent for proceeding with the infection movement. Adherence the key territories of enthusiasm for Asthma. The focal point of examination were to recognize issues detailed by families to influence their Adherence to asthma care. To evaluate the effect of patient education to Self-reported Adherence, Management, and Barriers. Children introducing during an intense assault of asthma were enrolled in this investigation. The restorative record of the experience were preoccupied and contrasted and data that were acquired at first visit and after 3 months. There are 986 youngsters 4 to 15 years old living in city evaluation tracts in the examination. The parental report of drugs endorsed, and the data on the disconnected report concurred 95.15% of the ideal opportunity β-Agonists, 86.24% are steroids, and 7.71% are cromolyn. Meds were overlooked a portion of time by 45.2% of the kids, and 52.8% attempted to escape to taking medication. Arrangements of follow-up consideration were kept by 69% of those given an arrangement, by an expected 60.0% of the individuals who were advised explicitly to require an arrangement. Just a single third of guardians report that they had the option to fend off the youngster from realized asthma triggers about constantly. After the subsequent, the huge changes are seen. Adherence to asthma-the executives program includes various territories: prescription, arrangement keeping, avoidance, and applying a crisis strategy. A barrier to Adherence may exist in one or every one of the four of these areas, prompting ineffectual control of asthma. The patient education improving the patient-doctor organization and furthermore improve Adherence.</p> Arulprakasam K C Senthilkumar N Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-18 2020-01-18 11 1 581 588 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1860 Microwave-Assisted Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Potencies of N-Substituted Iminothiazodin-4-One Derivatives <p>The biggest and most multifaceted class of organic compounds includes heterocyclic compounds. Currently, several heterocyclic compounds are identified, and persistently gratefulness to tremendous synthetic work and synthetic usefulness, the number is increasing exponentially.&nbsp; In most fields of science, including medicinal, pharmaceutical, and agro-chemistry, heterocyclic compounds have a function, and biochemistry is also another area. In this research article, the green approach is administered for achieving the nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur centered five-membered heterocyclic derivatives. By t<em>aking the whole thing into account of hetero-chemistry,</em> the moderately effective analog for gram-positive and gram-negative strains was shown for the five-membered heterocyclic compound series of N-substituted iminothiazodine-4-one and N-(benzylideneamino)thiazol-4(5H). The compound 6b showed very much active potency in accordance with the type standard drug the 6c compound against gram-positive <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> bacteria compared to the standard drugs and 6b indicated very active potency against the gram-negative <em>Escherichia</em><em> coli </em>bacterial strain<em>.</em>&nbsp; The 5a and 6a compounds showed very strong activity against the fungal strain of <em>Candida albicans</em> and 6b or 6c were more active and highly potent than the standard drugs against <em>Aspergillus niger </em>species. In the view of this research, drive states that all the synthesized compounds might be used for the development for further heterocyclic entities.</p> Sharad K. Awate Suresh V. Patil Ravindra S. Dhivare Renukacharya G. Khanapure Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-18 2020-01-18 11 1 589 595 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1861 Ameliorative effect of Cubeba Officinalis dried fruits against Tacrolimus induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar albino rats <p><em>Cubeba Officinalis</em> is traditionally effective in the treatment of various kidney ailments, and the main adverse effect of tacrolimus is nephrotoxicity. There is no documented evidence about the ameliorative potential of <em>Cubeba Officinalis </em>in tacrolimus induced nephrotoxicity. The main endeavor of the study was to determine the nephroprotective activity of ethanolic extract of <em>Cubeba Officinalis </em>dried fruits against tacrolimus induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. The <em>Cubeba Officinalis </em>dried fruits were collected from the local market, and Male albino rats weighing 200-250 g were used for the study. The dose of is lower 200mg/kg, higher dose 400 mg/kg of test drug (EECO) was used, and silymarin is used as the standard at the dose of 20 mg/kg. The animals were divided into five groups, six animals each, which is started prior to oral administration of tacrolimus and continued with the fourteen days tacrolimus treatment. After the whole period of study, the rats were sacrificed, and histopathological studies and biochemical estimations were carried out. The BUN values&nbsp; were decreased from 33.60±3.84 in nephrotoxic rats to 28.27±2.48 (200mg/kg) and 20.70±0.81 (400mg/kg),creatinine levels from 1.645±0.21 to 0.926±0.19 (200mg/kg) and 0.638±0.07(400 mg/kg),uric acid levels from 1.822±0.249 to 1.092±0.306 (200 mg/kg) and 0.806±0.181 (400 mg/kg) sodium, potassium and chloride levels from 1.607± 0.091, 2.548± 0.293 and 259.8±6.42 to 1.302± 0.169 , 1.023±0.174 and 134.7±9.138 (200mg/kg of EECO) and 0.586±0.092 , 0.831±0.174 and 130.2±2.29 (400mg/kg of EECO). The Ethanolic extract of <em>cubeba officinalis</em> was found to be effective in treating the nephrotoxicity in tacrolimus induced nephrotoxicity.</p> Suman S Hayagreeva Dinakar Y Suhas reddy P V Sai Sudha Yadav B Venkateshwar Reddy V Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-18 2020-01-18 11 1 596 602 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1862 Effectiveness of reflexology related interventions on physiological and biochemical parameters of metabolic syndrome among women <p>The purpose of the study was First to evaluate the effectiveness of reflexology related interventions on biochemical and physiological parameters of metabolic syndrome among women; &nbsp;Second to find out the association between physiological and biochemical parameters of metabolic syndrome among women with socio-demographic variables. The study used a true experimental design with one experimental group and one control group. Data were collected from 40 self-help group women who were the members of Kudumbashree from a selected area in South India. Samples were collected by using multistage sampling. Reflexology related intervention was given to the experimental group for 12 weeks. The control group did not receive an intervention. Repeated measures ANOVA and t-test were used for data analysis. The study found there is a significant change in the physiological and biochemical parameters of metabolic syndrome among the experimental group as compared to the control group (p&lt;0.001). Even if there is no statistically significant difference between the different groups, the observed difference is clinically significant. The study concludes that reflexology related intervention was effective in improving the parameters of metabolic syndrome. It can be implemented in the clinical setting for patients with metabolic syndrome and related lifestyle disorders</p> Elizabeth A J Aruna S Mercy P J Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-18 2020-01-18 11 1 603 610 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1863 Characterization and antibacterial activity of cocos Nucifera L. Meat extract and powder as a drug and cosmetic agent <p>Cocos nucifera L. or Kopyor coconut is the natural material plant that has nutrients content, including&nbsp;carbohydrates, proteins, fats and fatty acids. The potential of Kopyor coconut is mainly produced from water and soft flesh or meat.&nbsp;Some benefits of the meat have not been widely studied as an active drug agent.&nbsp;This study was aimed to identify and characterize kopyor meat extract and to test activity as an antibacterial agent. The maceration method was used to extract kopyor meat. The optimized extraction resulted in a yield of 23% efficiency. Kopyor meat extract was identified in terms of loss on drying, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, extract content and saponification value. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of both dried meat kopyor and extract were conducted. The standardized extract had a loss on drying of 35%, total ash of 8.95%, acid-insoluble ash of 31%, and extract content soluble in water and ethanol of 56.9% and 0.6% respectively. The saponification value showed a value of 56. It was shown that both powder and Cocos nucifera extract had as same high activity as an antibacterial agent against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis therefore this recommended for further formulation and evaluation as drug and cosmetic.</p> Dewi Melani Hariyadi Sisunandar Suciati Isnaeni Noorma Rosita Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-18 2020-01-18 11 1 611 616 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1864 Vitamin D status and its determinants in Pre Diabetic pregnant mothers attending tertiary care centre in Tamilnadu, India <p>Vitamin D is a vital nutrient factor in the healthiness of the mother and infant. Vitamin D is mainly amalgamated in the skin following exposure to ultraviolet B radiation. Insufficiency of vitamin D in Pregnancy had been related to various sicknesses, such as respiratory infection, type 1 diabetes mellitus, high risk of childhood wheezing. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Vitamin D supplementation on the incidence of pregestational diabetes in pregnant women referred to antenatal clinics in SRM Medical College hospital, Tamilnadu, India. 200 pregnant women were recruited, and oral glucose challenge test (OGCT), serum calcium and 25(OH) D were determined. Participants were in the age group of 18 to 35 years, with a mean age of 26.29. Among the participants, 59% were multiparous. The present study showed that a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (61.5%) and insufficiency (34%) in pregnant women before supplementation with a mean of 16.84. Vitamin D supplementation during the early weeks of pregnancy might help in the improvement of maternal and child health.</p> Kavitha Durairaj Muthulakshmi M Venkataraman P Murali R Rukumani J Sunitha Samal Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-18 2020-01-18 11 1 617 622 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1865 A comparative study on the effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors as an add on therapy in patients with type 2 DM <p>There were about 65 million diabetic population in 2016 in India. There were studies which concluded that the Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors and Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors were providing non-glycaemic control and cardiovascular benefits. Hence, it is important to find out the effect of those drugs on various parameters among the Indian Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus population. The aim is to evaluate and compare the effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors and DPP-4 inhibitors in Type 2 DM patients. The objective is to find out &amp;compare the effects of both class of drugs on the physical profile [Body Weight (BW), Body Mass Index (BMI), Hip-Waist ratio), Diabetic Profile [Fast Blood Sugar (FBS), Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1C)] &amp; Side Effect Profile. The patients were categorized into two Group 1 &amp; 2. Both groups were containing 50 patients, each based on the inclusion &amp;exclusion criteria. The collection of demographics and history were done. Group 1 patients were initiated with DPP-4 Inhibitor, Group 2 patients with SGLT-2 Inhibitors, respectively. At baseline and during follow-up, the parameters like the physical profile, Diabetic Profile were noted. In Body Weight, the mean difference between the groups was found to be 2.9 ±0.79 (p&lt;0.05). Similarly, for BMI, it was 2.9±1.36 (p&lt;0.04). For the Hip-Waist ratio, it was 0.07 (p&lt;0.05). For FBS, it was 22.08 mg/dl (0.0001), for HbA1c it was 1.09 (p&lt;0.0043). On the Side effect profile, SGLT-2 Inhibitors were showing higher incidence for the occurrence of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) while comparing with DPP-4 Inhibitors. This can be overcome by proper patient counseling. This study concluded that SGLT-2 inhibitors may serves as the best medication choice for add on therapy in Type 2 DM patients.</p> Vishnupriya S Andhuvan G Saravanan T Velammal P Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-21 2020-01-21 11 1 630 634 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1867 Iatrogenic pulmonary edema as a cause of death in burns <p>Global mortality from the burn is decreasing while in Iraq is still rising. This study was designed to determine the paucity of data regarding the cause of death in the burn, which may be a participating factor and should eliminate it. A post-mortal field study was conducted in the Department of Forensic Medicine in the province of Babylon, Iraq, for a year period, from the 1st of January 2017 to the 1st of January 2018. The total deaths were 1310, and the whole number of deaths by burn accidents in Babylon, Iraq, was 81(6.18% of all causes of death in a year). 65 were females (80.24%), 16 were males (19.75%). Deaths with no history of admission more than 3day in burn units, age over 45years, cardiovascular diseases patients, heavy smokers, inhalational injuries victims, all were excluded, so 68 burn victims were subjected to a full, typical autopsy at the Department of Forensic Medicine in the province of Babylon for one year period, with all necessary laboratory tests, in order to diagnose the direct cause of their death. For assessing small size area burn, we used small paper the size of the victim whole hand (represent 1% of TBSA), for a larger area, the Lund and Browder chart was used. Deaths were divided into 2 groups according to the period of admission at the burn unit. The first group (3-7 days of admission) with 60 victims, and the second (more than 7 days) with 8 victims. 17 victims with in the first group, had no prominent autopsy findings, but severe pulmonary edema, edema of other organs, no pathogenic organisms were isolated, the laboratory tests were accepted. Their medical records in the burn unit showed overestimation in the assessment of burn area size above the actual percentage by (20-35%). The major causes of death in the first group were septicemia 42.46%, pneumonia 32.35% and primary pulmonary edema 25%, caused mainly by overloading the circulation with fluids. Precise assessment of burn area size, ensuring proper fluid replacement and lowering the mortality rate.</p> Thamir M. Kadhim Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-21 2020-01-21 11 1 635 638 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1868 Iraqi Experience of Factor VII use in Children <p>Bleeding disorders in pediatrics is an important issue and can be life-threatening if not diagnosed and treated appropriately. We aimed to evaluate Iraqi pediatric practice (as an example of resource-limited settings) about the use of Recombinant Activated Factor VII (RFVIIa) in bleeding disorders, with emphasis on its effectiveness and safety, in comparison with adjuvant therapy. Budget restrictions may affect the availability of even lifesaving drugs such as (RFVIIa). Therefore, we tried to investigate the local experience of pediatric bleeding, with the evaluation of the potential ability of adjuvant therapy of blood products and vitamin K to substitute RFVIIa in case of non-availability. During a complete one year`s period, 35 patients were recruited prospectively and divided into two categories; study group (on RFVIIa, with or without adjuvant therapy) and control group (only on adjuvant therapy of blood products, and vitamin K), involving 19, and 16 patients, respectively. The mortality rate in the study group was significantly less than the control group; (36.84%) versus (56.25%). Larger drops in prothrombin time (PT) (42%), and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) (47%), with less multi-organ dysfunction (29%) were noticed with the use of RFVIIa. Septicemia-associated disseminated intravascular coagulation was the most frequent indication of both groups; (31.58%) versus (37.50%), with a significant positive outcome in the study group. Total serum bilirubin levels were found to be lower in all neonates with jaundice within the study group. One patient had venous thrombosis following the RFVIIa administration.In conclusion, RFVIIa has the potential to stop pediatric bleeding episodes significantly better than adjuvant therapy alone, with significantly less mortality. Safety was ensured in all survived cases except one who had thromboembolism. Neonatal jaundice was improved by the use of RFVIIa.</p> Hayder Al-Momen Ban Abdulhameed Majeed Ali Abdulrazzaq Obed Mohammed Jalal Hussein Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-21 2020-01-21 11 1 639 645 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1869 Antifungal potential of Fenugreek Seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Crude Extracts against Microsporum gypseum <p><em>Trigonella foenum-graecum </em>(<em>fabaceae</em>) is commonly used as condiments and spices in Indian and Asian food to flavour, colour, and texture of food, and it is employed in various medicinal purposes in traditional systems. The biological activity of fenugreek can be easily accessed from previous research conducted by several researchers. The present research was conducted to find out the antifungal potential of various extracts of dried powder of fenugreek seeds by means of paper disc diffusion method, with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and aqueous solvents in 25 μml, 50 μml and 100 μml concentrations against Microsporum gypseum. Clotrimazole was used as a standard. The present study revealed that fenugreek is a potent antifungal agent against <em>Microsporum gypseum</em>. The ethanol extract of fenugreek using 100 μml concentrations depicted the highest zone of inhibition of 16.510+ 0.85mm and 38.395% of mycelial inhibition against a tested pathogen. While drug extracts in other solvents also revealed reasonable to least antifungal potential. This finding tells us that fenugreek extracts tested proved to be a potent antifungal agent against <em>Microsporum gypseum</em>. It was found that ethanol extract of fenugreek is best effective against tested strain. This exploration of fenugreek extracts has confirmed its importance, particularly in the area of influence on dermatophytic fungal strain.</p> Puneet Sudan Manish Goswami Jitender Singh Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-21 2020-01-21 11 1 646 649 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1870 Role of Trospium chloride and tamsulosin therapy for treating patients with symptoms of over-active bladder related to benign prostatic enlargement <p>To assess the benefit and safety of composite therapy (Tamsulosin and Trospium drugs) in treating benign prostatic enlargement complain, mainly overactive urinary bladder symptoms. OBJECTIVE: The study has been designed to estimate the benefit and safety of Trospium and Tamsulosin in processing of symptoms of excessive bladder and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Patients and Methods: Prospective clinical trial study conducted at Al-Diwaniya teaching hospitals and private clinics from march 2016 to march 2017, to patients BPH and bothersome symptoms. 60 patients were treated with Tamsulocin and 60 patients were treated by Tamsulocin and Trospium. RESULTS: Median scores of IPSS, OABSS, and QOL proved no big difference between two study sets before staring treatment (<em>P</em> = 0.544), (<em>P</em> = 0.287) , (<em>P</em> = 0.668) consecutively. After one month, both treatments led to a big reduction in IPSS, OABSS median score; (P &lt; 0.001), (P &lt; 0.001). Following three months, both treatments resulted in significant reduction in IPSS (P &lt; 0.001), OABSS (P &lt; 0.001), QOL result, (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.001) consecutively. Conclusion: These results suggest which treatment with Trospium and tamsulosin therapy provides benefit for men with natural - Syndrome of the acute urinary tract and benign enlarged prostate.</p> Falah Mahdi Ali Hayder Mahdi Alaridy Ahmed Ali Obaid Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-21 2020-01-21 11 1 650 656 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1871 In-vitro Anti-inflammatory activity of Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) using Aqueous Extract <p>The <em>G.glabra</em> is otherwise called liquorice is a medicinal plant is used for various diseases like cold, cough, hypokalemia and muscle weakness, etc. The liquorice family belongs to the Fabaceae family of the <em>G.glabra</em>. Hence this study tells about the anti-inflammatory and antioxidants.&nbsp; The quantitative study of phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity assay using a response from the root extract of <em>G.glabra</em> &nbsp;The results are showed above preliminary activity phytochemicals were present Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Coumarin, Saponins, Terpenoids, Steroids, Cardiac Glycosides. The antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of <em>G. glabra</em> were evaluated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide radical (NO), superoxide radical (SO), hydrogen peroxide radical (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>), and hydroxyl radical (HO) scavenging activity. This study shows about the activity of <em>Glycyrrhiza glabra</em> herbal medicinal plant aqueous extract using antioxidant assays, Anti-inflammatory assays. &nbsp;The <em>in vitro</em> MTT 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide Cytotoxicity assay were studied GG(<em>G.glabra</em>) &nbsp;extract using the macrophages&nbsp; Raw 246.7 Cell line. The cell line assay were studied in two different activity. One is anti-inflammation studies, and another is cytotoxicty of GG aqueous extract. The anti-inflammation IC50 value is 143.65, and GG extract dry sample were against the IC50 value is 326.27. From above, the results were a potential activity of GG extract R-value 0f 0.991.</p> Vasanth M P Purushotham KG Sathish M Vimal Raj D Venkatesh M Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-21 2020-01-21 11 1 657 662 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1872 Heightening the solubility of poorly soluble fenofibrate by Solid Dispersion Technique <p>The intention of the current study was to boost the solubility of Fenofibrate by solid dispersion technique which is an efficient technique in improving the solubility and hence the dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs in the form of eutectic mixtures by producing fine dispersion when in contact with gastrointestinal fluid and also the technique offers the choices of carriers to be combined with drug conveniently to improve the solubility to a considerable extent. Fenofibrate a BCS class II Antihyperlipidemic drug belongs to fibrate class and it is a lipid-lowering drug used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Fenofibrate is insoluble in water and hence shows poor dissolution in gastric fluid with reduced absorption characteristics. In order to improve the solubility, dissolution rate, gastrointestinal absorption and oral bioavailability, it was decided to prepare fenofibrate solid dispersion and evaluated. They were prepared using poly ethylene glycol 4000, 6000, 8000 and β-cyclodextrin by fusion technique and optimized solid dispersion was also lyophilized. Physical characterization of solid inclusion complex of fenofibrate was studied and showed that there were no drug excipients interactions. Dissolution studies showed a momentous rise in a dissolution of Fenofibrate when dispersed in polymers. Inturn aqueous solubility was enlarged linearly as a function of the concentration of β- Cyclodextrin.</p> Yasmin Begum M Prathyusha Reddy G Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-21 2020-01-21 11 1 663 668 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1873 Adenoid hypertrophy among school-aged Iraqi children, the effect of severity and duration on its co-morbidities <p>Adenoid hypertrophy is a common pediatrics health problem that usually results in several morbidities such as sleep disorder, adenoid facies, impaired physical growth, cardiac complications, glue ear and nocturnal enuresis. Patients and methods: Forty-two school-aged children were enrolled in this study (6-12 years old), thirty were male and twelve were female, all are suffering from chronic snoring. All of them were subjected to standard history and physical examination to the most related health problems such as assessment of physical growth, craniofacial malformation, associated tonsillar enlargement. Investigations were performed in the form of lateral neck X-ray and ECG for all of them. The study period was 9 months from 1<sup>st</sup> of March 2018 to the 1<sup>st</sup> of December 2018. Results: There was a significant association between a higher grade of disease and speech disorders, tonsillar hypertrophy, adenoid facies, recurrent otitis media, nocturnal enuresis, impaired school performance, physical growth impairment, apnea at sleep, day time drowsiness, ECG abnormalities and deglutition problems (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.05). <strong>&nbsp;</strong>The associated co-morbidities, namely Speech disorders, tonsillar hypertrophy, adenoid facies, recurrent otitis media, nocturnal enuresis, impaired school performance, impaired school performance, physical growth impairment, apnea at sleep, day time drowsiness, ECG abnormalities and deglutition problems, were significantly correlated to the longer duration of disease. Conclusion: Longer duration of disease and higher grade of adenoid hypertrophy are strongly correlated with disease complications and morbidities, hence early diagnosis and properly timed management is important to prevent these complications.</p> Hulal Saleh Sahib Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-21 2020-01-21 11 1 669 675 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1874 Surgical management of perforated bowel due to typhoid infection. What are the predictive factors for pre-operative diagnosis in the endemic area <p>Perforated typhoid fever is a common cause of peritonitis in the endemic areas and associated with high mortality and morbidity if not managed properly. This prospective study included 75 patients with perforated bowel that operated upon in two years( 2017-2018) and other 29 cases of non-perforated typhoid enteritis presented as acute abdomen. &nbsp;Of 75 cases, 13 (17%) presented as local peritonitis, while 63 (87%) as general peritonitis, which was confirmed by chest X-Ray/ gas under the diaphragm in 80%. 61(81%) patients were males. The age was 15-40 years in 54 (72%) patients. White Blood Cell count [WBC] is low or normal in all cases. &nbsp;35(46%) patients were presented as an acute abdomen without fever. All patients had at least one perforation in the terminal ileum. There was single perforation in 47(62%) patients. The midline incisions were complicated by dehiscence in 15 (24%) of 54 cases and by wound infection in 35(64%). &nbsp;Six(8%) cases were complicated by fecal fistula and 3(4%) patients unfortunately died. Wound infection complicated 4 (26%) of 15 cases of gridiron incisions, but no wound dehiscence or incisional hernia. Conclusion: WBC is helpful in the diagnosis of perforated bowel due to typhoid infection. This is important for the proper choice of an incision. <br>Grid iron incision is associated with minimal complications and is preferred to the midline one. Acute diffuse peritonitis indicates perforation in almost all cases, but only one-third of local peritonitis caused by perforation. Early limited surgery and the proper choice of antibiotics according to local microbiologist opinion or culture decreased the mortality to 4%.</p> Hussain Taher Abbas AL Baaj Ali Abdul Hussein Handoz Aws Rassul hussain Al-Salih Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-21 2020-01-21 11 1 676 683 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1875 Detection of Aflatoxin B1 in secondary school students in Al-Diwanyia city <p>The purpose of this study is to investigate mycotoxin (Aflatoxin B1) in high school student blood samples. Thus, 350 blood samples were collected randomly from students in various schools in Al-diwanyia city, and then toxin was detected using ELIZA method. The results showed 287 ( 82% ) of student were had aflatoxin in their blood in a different concentration varying from 2.301 to 3.245 ng/ml and these concentrations were high (2.610&nbsp; to&nbsp; 3.245) n/L in male rather than female&nbsp; (2.301 to 2.541) ng/L. Intrahepatic AFTs-B1 is activated by the enzymes p450 hemogenic protein, which is reborn into AFTs-B1-8, 9 epoxide, which is responsible for the effects of cancer within the secreted organ. Based on the fact that AFB1 recorded the most important effects of strong malignant tumor disease in both humans and animals, and thanks to the acute problems related to the contamination of AF More attention has been paid to food and feed and its negative impact on public and economic health compared to various fungal toxins. Because absolute safety is incredibly difficult to achieve, many developing countries have tried to reduce aflatoxin toxicity under the rules that management exposure prohibits the limits of such toxins in food and feed. This research was therefore designed to determine the levels of aflatoxin B1 in secondary school students ' blood samples.</p> Baheeja A.Hmood Al-Khalidi Hayder Kamil Jabbar Al-Kaabi Khatam Ibrahem Al-Mhnna Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-21 2020-01-21 11 1 684 687 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1877 A bacteriological study of septicemia in Hilla city <p>Septicemia is a serious bloodstream infection; it can quickly become life-threatening.&nbsp; The current study aimed to isolate and identify the causative agents of septicemia cases with reference to the antibiogram test.&nbsp; 52 blood samples were collected from a number of incomings and those who lie in Hilla general hospital. After incubation and culturing on suitable media, 30 samples gave growth of one or two species of bacteria. A total of 33 bacterial isolates were obtained, most of them (16 isolates) were belong to coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., followed by E. coli (6 isolates), Pseudomonas sp. (5 isolates), Streptococcus sp. (2 isolates), and one isolate for each of Staphylococcus aureus, &nbsp;Streptococcus pneumonia, Acinetobacter sp., and Listeria monocytogenes. When antibiotics sensitivity test was accomplished, most Staphylococcus spp. were sensitive for daptomycin and had high resistance to both of vancomycin and clindamycin, whereas Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive for most the used antibiotics. Half of E. coli isolates were sensitive, while the second half were resistant to the used antibiotics. Imipenem inhibited the growth of all Pseudomonas isolates, whereas 80% of them were resistant to amikacin. The epidemiology of bacteremia is altering with the aging of the population, shifts in healthcare, and progress in medicine, such as increased use of immunosuppressive treatment, intravascular devices, and invasive procedures.</p> Rana S. Al-Taweel Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-21 2020-01-21 11 1 688 692 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1878 Assessment of in vitro Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Caesalpinia Bonducella Seed Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles <p>Membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA, protein damage is mediated by free radicals, which form the basis of chronic pathological complications.AgNPs are an important class of nanomaterials for a wide range of biomedical applications. The present study endeavors <em>in vitro </em>antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using medicinal plant extract from <em>Caesalpinia bonducella seeds</em>. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents were determined. The antioxidant potential of capped AgNPs was assessed using DPPH assay, Phosphomolybdenum assay, FRAP assay, metal chelating, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging methods. <em>In vitro</em> anti-inflammatory assay of <em>CB</em> seed, AgNPs were performed against the standard drug. <em>CB</em> seed AgNPs possessed high flavonoid and phenol compared to aqueous <em>CB</em> seed extract. The antioxidant methods confirmed that the silver nanoparticles have more antioxidant activity as compared to vitamin C. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited potential anti-inflammatory activity with the IC50 71.3µg/ml. Hence, this work clearly demonstrated that the coated AgNPs with&nbsp;CB seeds act as a potent free radical scavenger and could be considered as a potential source for anti-inflammatory drugs.</p> Gloria Jemmi Christobel R Kasi Selvi N Shyam Sundar J. Abirami M.P. Nebita Maria Jarrett Radhakrishnan S. Abirami S. Shah Dupesh Khan Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 11 1 693 701 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1879 Preparation of modified chitosan - Amino acid nanoparticles <p>Chitosan nanoparticles have increased more consideration as medication transporters in view of their better solidness, basic arrangement and flexible courses of organization. Common and engineered degradable polymers are perfect bearer particles. The medication can be joined into the polymer where the discharge relies on upon either their progressive dissemination from the polymeric lattice, the disintegration of the network, or discharge from the surface of the grid. Chitosan is a remarkable characteristic polymer for the conveyance of helpful specialists since it is non-toxic, biocompatible, biodegradable, and has mucoadhesive properties. To be named "chitosan," the deacetylated chitin ought to contain no less than 60% of D-glucosamine deposits. By fusing drug particles in chitosan nanoparticles, the leeway can be diminished, and the flow half-existence of the medication augmented. The results of this study show that there is a good relationship between the weight of carrier (chitosan) and weight of drug (silymarin), it gives the best total releasing percent at the weight percent 10:1, while the best-encapsulating percent and loading capacity percent occurred at the weight percent of 10:2, and there is no effect on continuous increase in the weight of the carrier. With respect to the dialysis period, it seemed that there is no evidence of increasing the dialysis time more than 12 hours because of the stability of the total releasing percent and loading capacity percent.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Abdulhussien Mahdi Aljebory Tamadhr J. Alsalman Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 11 1 708 712 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1882 Isolation and Identification of Molecular Markers for Fingerprinting of Chilli Hybrids & its Parental Lines <p>Chilli (<em>Capsicum annum</em>)<em> is </em>the predominant sp., which is cultivated in both hot and sweet papers. The maintenance of the genetic purity of chilli plant is a matter of great concern for the breeders. For genetic purity analysis, between true hybrids and off-types, breeders find out morphological differences between them, but this technique is cannot be recognized easily and also costly, tedious to score, and environmentally sensitive. Alternatively, &nbsp;molecular markers based genetic purity analysis can be employed. The molecular marker-based technique was thus used to overcome the conventional method drawbacks. The main objective of the study is to identify informative molecular markers (ISSR and RAPD) capable of distinguishing Chilli hybrids and their parental lines and their utilization in seed purity assessment. Five parental lines of Chilli (<em>i.e</em>CH10, CH12, CH530, CH709, CH734) were used for the production of 3 hybrids. Total 30 ISSR and 8 RAPD primers were selected for the study of 5 parental lines, among them 2ISSR and 1 RAPD primers produced unique fingerprinting across the hybrids. The ISSR marker UBC815 amplified alleles specific to different parental lines(CH10 &amp; CH12) for hybrids (ACH112), The ISSR marker UBC 827, amplified alleles specific to different parental lines(CH709 &amp; CH12) for hybrids (ACH179). Likewise, RAPD primer B20 for hybrid ACH 753 and their parental lines(CH734 &amp; CH530). Thus, the above study showed that the aid of molecular markers is more reliable, highly efficient, and reproducible for assessing fingerprinting of Chilli commercial hybrid seeds with more accuracy.</p> Shishir Tiwari Shweta Sao Antu Kurrey Pulak Das Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 11 1 713 716 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1883 Synthesize and Characterization of New Polydimethylsiloxane Derivatives with Evaluation of Biological Activities <p>New polymers of silicone derivatives were prepared. The polymers were characterized by IR, NMR spectrophotometry. The biological activity against Streptococcus, E-Coli, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella were studied. The new polymers have shown more activity against Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella. The wound dressing studied on New Zealand White Rabbits (5 groups) each group contained 6 rabbits (3 male and 3 female), each animal had made 2 wounds ,one for control(povidone-iodine, silicone gel) and other for our compounds, all products showed good activity on open wounds more than drugs in market. Benzaldehyde is consists of benzene&nbsp;bearing a single formyl substituent; the simplest aromatic aldehyde and parent of the class of benzaldehydes. It has a role as a flavoring agent, a fragrance, an odorant receptor agonist. Polyvinylpyrrolidone has disinfectant properties, so we used it in our compound to become more potent.</p> Reem Mohsen Khalaf Al-Uobody Raheem Jameel Mheesn Hatam Ahmed Jassim Eiman A. Saeed Alaa A. Ibrahim Al Dirawi Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 11 1 717 724 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1884 Evaluation of the Phytochemical and Antibacterial characteristics of leaf extracts of Xanthium strumarium L. against Bacteria <p>Plants are one of the large sources of herbal medicines. Many plants have the capability to produce some bioactive constituents which give defense against microorganisms like bacteria and fungi and also from insects. <em>Xanthium strumarium L. </em>is a wild plant that grows like a weed. Leaves of&nbsp; <em>Xanthium strumarium L.</em> were subjected for extraction in 4 different solvents <em>viz.</em> methanol, chloroform, aqueous, and ethanol. The aim of this study was to investigate the phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of methanol, chloroform, aqueous, and ethanol extracts prepared from leaves of&nbsp; <em>Xanthium strumarium L.</em> The antibacterial activity was assessed by using the agar well diffusion assay against tested bacterial strain, <em>Escherichia coli </em>(CGSC 4312) and <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> (ATCC 9634). Phytochemical analysis has revealed that&nbsp; <em>Xanthium strumarium L.</em> has most of the significant phytoconstituents like Saponins, Terpenoids, Flavanoids, Phenol, steroids, Anthraquinones, Tannins,&nbsp; Alkaloids, &nbsp;Glycosides, and Carbohydrate. The zone of inhibition was measured and compared by standard antibiotic streptomycin. The outcome of the present work showed that chloroform extract (400µg/ml) showed maximum inhibition against <em>E. Coli </em>(23mm), and Ethanol extract(400µg/ml) showed maximum inhibition against <em>Bacillus subtilis </em>(24mm). The result divulged the presence of antibacterial activity of different extracts of <em>Xanthium strumarium</em> L.against human pathogenic bacteria. Thus, this plant has many active compounds that can be used for the development of various potent drugs.</p> Antu Kurrey Lata Sharma Shishir Tiwari Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 11 1 725 729 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1885 Formulation and evaluation of different topical dosage forms for wound healing properties <p>The aim of the present work was to compare the wound healing efficacy of different topical dosage forms such as β cyclodextrin complex gel, liposomal gel, and ointment on the rat model. Simvastatin was used as a drug, β cyclodextrin was used as a complexing agent to enhance solubility, L α Phosphatidylcholine as a phospholipid, and cholesterol as a stabilizing agent. Liposomes were prepared by thin-film hydration method, β cyclodextrin complexes of simvastatin were prepared by spray drying technique, and the ointment was prepared in simple method. Beta cyclodextrin gels and liposomal gels were prepared by direct incorporation of spray-dried products and lyophilized liposomes into Carbopol gel. The gel was evaluated for drug content, particle size, viscosity, spreadability, surface morphology, <em>in-vitro </em>drug release studies, skin irritation study, and wound healing activity studies. FTIR and DSC studies showed no chemical interaction between the drug and excipients. The particle size of β cyclodextrin complexes was in the range of 0.5 μm to 2.5 μm and for liposomes 163 nm to 725 nm. The <em>in-vitro </em>drug release was 96.7 % at the end of the sixth hour for β cyclodextrin gel, 29.7 % at the end of the sixth hour for liposomal gel, and 96.2 % at the end of 3 hours for ointment. Wound healing activity studies were carried out for 21 days on albino wrister rats, a period of epithelization, and rate of wound contraction was measured on 4, 8, 14, 16, and 21 days. Simvastatin ointment showed a significant effect on wound healing in the rat model compared to β-cyclodextrin gel and liposomal gel. Hence, Simvastatin ointment could be a potential dosage form for clinical utility on wound healing.</p> Dandasi Jayachandra Dev Jayaprakash J S Kulkarni P K Akhila A R Namratha S Saraf Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 11 1 730 746 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1886 Preparation, characterization and analysis of zinc oxide nano-particles using a sol-gel technique as an inhibitor for bacteria <p>In this work, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO - NPs) were prepared using a sol-gel methodology and tested for their antibacterial activity against each of the following pathogenic species: <em>Escherichia coli</em>,<em> Klebsiella pneumonia, </em>and<em> Staphylococcus aureus</em> by well diffusion assay. The sample prepared was characterized by different techniques: Atomic Force Microscope AFM; Fourier Transform Infrared FT-IR; Scanning Electron Microscope SEM and X-Ray Diffraction Spectroscopy XRD. The XRD result showed that ZnO - NPs presence in wurtzite the structure of ZnO. The AFM and SEM of the surface analysis indicate that the most ZnO – NPs appear approximately in a spherical shape with some agglomeration. The average particle size for&nbsp; ZnO - NPs is nearly 37 nm. Volumes 25µl, 50µl, 75µl, 100µl, 125µl, and 150µl of 10 mg\ ml concentration of &nbsp;ZnO - NPs were used, the antimicrobial activity results showed that ability for &nbsp;ZnO - NPs to inhibit the growth of S.aureus increased as the solution volume increased, while the growing of (<em>K. pneumonia</em>) and (<em>E. coli</em>) was inhibited only with the volume 75µl where the inhibition zones diameters were 15mm and 10mm respectively.</p> Saja S. Al-Taweel Rana S. Al-Taweel Hasan M. Luaibi Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 11 1 747 754 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1887 Isolation of Staphylococcus xylosus from Urinary Tract Infection in Al-Diwaniya City, Iraq <p>One hundred diuresis samples were collected from patients with urinary tract infection from Al-Diwaniyah General Teaching Hospital in Al-Diwaniyah city for the period from January 1, 2019, to August 1, 2019, as 35 isolates belonging to the sex of streptococcus were isolated and with an isolation rate of 35% of the total 100 diuresis samples, The yield of 20 isolates to the negative staphylococcus aureus was tested for cocaine, and 5 isolates were of type S. xylosus, with an isolation rate of 25% of the total negative staphylococci for testing cocaine, and by 5% of the total of the reagent samples. These biochemical bacteria were diagnosed using the API Staph system. The clinical stages of the infection are in the subacute or chronic phase without clear symptoms. Streptococcus unproductive streptococcus resistant and anti-life antibody novobiocin, especially S. saprophyticus, are most common in urinary tract infections in immunocompetent patients, and mild infection in women is accompanied by dysuria. Young women between the ages of 16-16 years old to 42%. It affects the ureter in men. It can cause cystitis, pyelonephritis and glomerulonephritis. This group possesses a high affinity to epithelial cells, and this comes from the participation of different proteins such as a 160-Kd protein with Hemagglutinin and Fibriller protein, and it is symbolized by 95-Kd, which is found in 98% of clinical isolates.</p> Ahmed Ali Obaid Akhlaas Shaker Lateef Lina Abdulkadhim Oudah Qusay Jabbar Harjan Zinah Abdulkadhim Oudah Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-23 2020-01-23 11 1 760 764 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1890 Nigella Sativa : A Potential Inhibitor for Insulin Fibril Formation <p>The high order structure from proteins which are self-assembled are known as fibrils. They are collectively called as amyloid fibrils, which generally lead to neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, Type II diabetes. Insulin fibril aggregation is identified to be the major cause of neurodegenerative diseases. The effect of Nigella sativa extract is analyzed based on the fibril inhibition process. The formed fibrils is reduced with the concentration increase of Nigella sativa extract. Insulin fibril is found in Type II diabetes patients after repeated insulin injections subcutaneously. Insulin fibrils are formed in organisms or humans irrespective of their places like hips, shoulder, hands and abdomen. These are evident from the anti-aggregation assay. Thioflavin T (ThT) fluroscence and congo red (CR) assay confirms the inhibition of insulin fibril in the presence of Nigella sativa (NS) extract. Further, inhibition of fibril was confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), where no insulin fibrils was detected whose secondary conformational changes are studied using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). It is confirmed that insulin fibril inhibition depends on the various concentration of Nigella sativa. Based on the results obtained, it is demonstrated that Nigella sativa extract inhibits the fibril formation and it also provides a therapeutic strategy to prevent insulin fibril formation.</p> Sandhya A Gomathi Kanayiram Kiruthika L Aafreen Afroz S Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-23 2020-01-23 11 1 765 774 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1891 A HPLC tool for process monitoring: rare sugar D- psicose and D- fructose contents during the production through an enzymatic path <p>D-Psicose/allulose, a rare sugar, is an essential raw material in the pharmaceutical and food industries. It is scantly found in nature and to meet its demand in industries, D-Psicose is generated enzymatically using D-fructose as a substrate.&nbsp; In these conversations, it is important to monitor D-Psicose,&nbsp; in order to control the process, impurities, optimize the reaction time and reduce the process cost The available analytical methods have their limitations in quantifying D-psicose and D-fructose mixtures. Hence there is a need for the development of a routine, sensitive, quick and precise analytical method for D-psicose production on-line monitoring of reaction mixer. In the present work, a simplified reverse phase HPLC technique is developed and validated for the quick reaction monitoring of D-psicose from D-fructose, during enzymatic conversation procedures. The analysis is conducted at different concentrations ranging from 0.05 % to 0.5 % of the standard solutions of the D-psicose and D-fructose, by using water and Acetonitrile (at a ratio of 20:80) as eluent with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min on isocratic HPLC-RID system with an aminopropyl silane stationary phase [ZORBAX SIL 4.6 x 150 mm, 5 µm particle size column (USP-L8)]. The applicability of this method is illustrated in reaction monitoring, where D-fructose (substrate) is converted to D-psicose (product) in the presence of the enzyme:&nbsp; D-Tagotose 3- epimerase. Separation of D-psicose and D-fructose is achieved within 8 minutes with a resolution ≥ 4 which is the key advantage for reaction monitoring and linearity is established with regression of ≥ 0.99.&nbsp; Additionally, the current method uses a simple mobile phase, without any buffers. It can be used routinely for reaction monitoring.</p> Sri Rama Krishna Surapureddi Kunta Ravindhranath Saritha Anthireddy Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-25 2020-01-25 11 1 775 780 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1894 LC-MS characterization of acid degradation products of metoclopramide: Development and validation of a stability-indicating RP-HPLC method <p>The present study aims to develop a simple, accurate and specific stability-indicating RP-HPLC technique for the analysis of metoclopramide in the presence of its stress degradation products and characterization of degradation compounds by LC-MS/MS analysis. As per ICH Q1A-R2 guidelines, the drug was exposed to acid hydrolytic stress condition. Three degradation products were formed for MCP in acid hydrolysis. The liquid chromatography was processed on a Luna C<sub>18</sub>-(2) 100A,250×4.6mm 5micron column using an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water-acetonitrile (20:80, v/v) by adjusting the mobile phase at 1 ml/min flow rate with wavelength detection at 273 nm. The developed procedure was applied to LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) for the characterization of all the degradant components. Total new three degradation compounds were recognized and identified by LC-MS/MS. The developed RP-HPLC technique was validated as per the ICH Q2-R1 guidelines. Limit of detection and limit of quantification values of MCP were evaluated from the linearity graph and were found to be 5.23 µg/ml and 17.44 µg/ml. Accuracy study was established at 80.0, 100.0 and 120.0 µg/ml concentration levels and the findings were found in the range of 98.4% - 101.8%. The linearity of the technique was assessed over the drug concentration range of 50.0 µg/ml to 250.0 µg/ml and the regression equation, slope and correlation coefficient values were found to be y = 10618x + 1623.2, 10618 and 0.9996 respectively. The developed technique was uninterruptedly applied for the quantification of metoclopramide inactive pharmaceuticals.</p> Sriram Valavala Nareshvarma Seelam Subbaiah Tondepu Suresh Kandagatla Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-25 2020-01-25 11 1 781 789 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1895 Determination of the Dissociation Constants of Metformin from a Second Derivative UV Spectrum <p>An environmentally begnin second derivative spectrometric approach was developed for the estimation of the dissociation constants pKa(s) of metformin, a common anti-diabetic drug. &nbsp;The ultraviolet spectra of the aqueous solution of metformin were measured at different acidities, then the second derivative of each spectrum was graphed. The overlaid second derivative graphs exhibited two isobestic points at 225.5 nm and 244 nm pointing out to the presence of two dissociation constants for metformin pKa1 and pKa2, respectively. The method was validated by evaluating the reproducibility of the acquired results by comparing the estimated values of the dissociation constants of two different strategies that show excellent matching. As well as, the whole procedure was repeated with a new set of standard solutions and buffers for further verification. The average calculated values of pKa1 and pKa2 were found to be 2.72±0.01 and 11.61±0.08, with correlation coefficients ( R<sup>2</sup>) of 0.9916 and 0.9614, respectively. The established method was fast, affordable, reproducible, and the mean pKa values obtained were accurate and can be applied for the estimation of the dissociation constants of other active pharmaceutical compounds</p> Khalid Waleed S. Al-Janabi Ali Khalil Mahmood Hasan M. Luaibi Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-25 2020-01-25 11 1 790 796 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1896 Isolation and Characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the hepatopancreas of cultured white pacific shrimp - Litopenaeus vannamei <p>Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most common species among crustaceans, often causing various diseases and significant losses in aquaculture. Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a newly emerging shrimp disease that has severely damaged the global shrimp industry. This species of bacteria is associated with gastrointestinal illness in humans and has been implicated in foodborne disease. The present study carried out, isolation and characterization of pathogenic bacterial flora isolated from the infected hepatopancreas of vannamei, obtained from various aquafarms in Andhra Pradesh, India, on 11<sup>th</sup> June 2018. The collected samples were plated on TCBS- (Thiosulfate-Citrate-Bile salt-Sucrose) agar medium and Hi -Chrome vibrio, as described in Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. Isolated colonies were subjected to the following tests- microscopic examination, growth at different temperatures, growth at different NaCl concentrations, and biochemical tests. Further purity, maintenance, and propagation of purified cultures were done. The microbial culture was identified using 16s rRNA molecular technique. Phylogenetic Evolutionary analyses and distance matrix were conducted in MEGA7.In the present study, different samples were screened, a total of three green colonies (V44, V45, V46) were isolated, identified by biochemical tests and genetic identification as Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A systematic methodology has been developed to isolate and characterize Vibrio sp. from diseased shrimp and identify them by genetic analysis</p> Kolli Guna Ranjan Girija Sankar G Satyanarayana Raju DVV Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-25 2020-01-25 11 1 797 805 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1897 In vitro antioxidant activity of Bougainvillea glabra and Mucuna pruriens <p>The purpose of the contemporary&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>&nbsp;work implemented was to examine the antioxidant effect of&nbsp;<em>Bougainvillea glabra&nbsp;</em>and<em>&nbsp;Mucuna pruriens&nbsp;</em>methanol extracts<em>.&nbsp;</em>Methanol extracts of&nbsp;<em>Bougainvillea glabra</em>&nbsp;and<em>&nbsp;Mucuna pruriens</em>&nbsp;were screened individually for different&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>&nbsp;antioxidant activity. Commercial antioxidants such as vitamin E, Ascorbic acid were used as reference standard. For ABTS<sup>+</sup>&nbsp;assay IC<sub>50</sub>&nbsp;value of&nbsp;<em>Bougainvillea glabra &amp; Mucuna pruriens</em>&nbsp;metha­nol extract&nbsp;were found to be 17.1μg/ml and 23.2μg/ml&nbsp;correspondingly. Likewise, the IC<sub>50</sub>&nbsp;values for xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity for&nbsp;<em>Bougainvillea glabra&nbsp;</em>and&nbsp;<em>Mucuna pruriens</em>&nbsp;was found to be 46.7μg/ml and 95.1μg/ml, respectively. For scavenging of various assay models like nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide anion scavenging activity, the IC<sub>50&nbsp;</sub>values&nbsp;for&nbsp;<em>Bougainvillea glabra</em>&nbsp;were found to be 45.3μg/ml, 70.1μg/ml and 38.1μg/ml respectively. The IC<sub>50&nbsp;</sub>values&nbsp;for&nbsp;<em>Mucuna pruriens</em>&nbsp;for nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide anion scavenging activity, were found to be 92.1μg/ml, 43.4μg/ml and 50.3μg/ml respectively.&nbsp;<em>Bougainvillea glabra&nbsp;</em>and<em>&nbsp;Mucuna pruriens&nbsp;</em>methanol extracts showed 50 % inhibition effect at concentrations 118 μg/ml and 121 μg/ml respectively for lipid peroxidation assay. The IC<sub>50</sub>&nbsp;values for DPPH scavenging assay for&nbsp;<em>Bougainvillea glabra&nbsp;</em>and&nbsp;<em>Mucuna pruriens</em>&nbsp;was found to be 13.24μg/ml and 14.4μg/ml correspondingly<em>.&nbsp;</em>For DMPD<em>&nbsp;</em>assay<em>&nbsp;Bougainvillea glabra&nbsp;</em>and&nbsp;<em>Mucuna pruriens</em>&nbsp;possess the IC<sub>50</sub>&nbsp;value 16.34 μg/ml and 17.4 μg/ml correspondingly.<em>&nbsp;</em>Methanol extracts of&nbsp;<em>Bougainvillea glabra&nbsp;</em>and<em>&nbsp;Mucuna pruriens</em>&nbsp;exhibited potent&nbsp;<em>in vitro&nbsp;</em>antioxidant activity.</p> GopiKrishna Rakam Raja Sundararajan Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-25 2020-01-25 11 1 806 812 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1898 A study on new experimental induction of wound using metal surface contact in a rat model <p>Burns injury is a global issue; when burns left unmonitored, it may lead to sepsis &amp; hypovolemia. It majorly contributing to the country's morbidity and mortality. Accidental burns are quite common throughout the world. The degree of burns differs variably, and to identify a possible therapeutic option, it is of great importance for the researchers and scientists. Achieving a uniform burn wound model is thus required to study the burns injury at different levels involving epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis. The goal of this study is to create a simple third-degree contact burn in Wistar albino rats. Third-degree contact burn wound was monitored on 7th, 14th, and 21st day for natural wound healing under gross and histopathological observation. Gross observation reported damaged skin to appear dry, leathery, and charred. Wound closure was observed to be delayed and incomplete on day 21. Histopathology revealed a wound healing process by hematoxylin and eosin method. This metal surface contact method revealed a simplified and cost-effective method for inducing a third degree of a wound in Wistar rats. The study is thus a milestone that could enable research progress in the area of wound healing.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Balaji K Perumal Saraswathi Prabhu K Shila Samuel Siva T Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-27 2020-01-27 11 1 813 817 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1899 Isolation and Characterization of Commercial Probiotics <p>Commercial probiotics have bacteria which offer scope for specific treatment as a probiotic against diarrhoea, boosting immune response and relieving stress. Research in probiotics and aquaculture has been done to promote sustainable aquaculture. Studies on microbial ecology in aquaculture and their benefits on human systems are to be assessed. Hence, the present study was aimed at the isolation and characterization of these bacteria obtained from various commercial probiotics. The commercial probiotic samples were collected for isolation using MRS agar. The colonies were selected on the basis of colonial morphology. &nbsp;Isolates were put through cell morphology, physiology and different biochemical tests. Probiotic sample confirmation was done using 16srRNA molecular technique. MEGA7 was used to conduct phylogenetic evolutionary analysis and tabulate a distance matrix. In results, the isolates manifested non-identical growth patterns at dissimilar conc. of NaCl (2.0,4.0 and 6.5) oxygen and at different temperatures (15<sup>0</sup>C, 30<sup>0</sup>C and 45<sup>0</sup>C). On the basis of sugar utilization, physiological testing, biochemical characterization and genetic identification tests, all isolates were established to different species of <em>Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pediococcus acidilactici</em> and <em>Lactobacillus Plantarum</em>. A systematic protocol was done to identify, characterize probiotic samples and identify them by genetic analysis. Probiotic use is carefully assessed by regulations</p> Kolli Guna Ranjan Girija Sankar G Satyanarayana Raju D V V Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-27 2020-01-27 11 1 818 825 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1900 Discovery of a new tetramethylpyrazine based chalcone with α, β-Unsaturated ketone moiety as a potential anticancer agent <p>In this study, a new ligustrazine-based chalcone molecule has been synthesized that contains an extra α, β-Unsaturated ketone moiety along with α, the β-Unsaturated carbonyl group of chalone. A new tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) based aldehyde was synthesized to make the TMP (ligustrazine) as part of chalcone and then it was reacted with newly synthesized ketone containing additional α, β-Unsaturated ketone moiety. After characterization, this new compound was evaluated for its effect on different types of cancer cell lines and very promising results were obtained. The growth of these cancer cells was inhibited by newly designed and synthesized compounds, especially for colon and pancreatic cancer cells with IC<sub>50 </sub>0.04 - 0.05 µM</p> Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-27 2020-01-27 11 1 826 829 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1901 Inhibitory activity and degradation of curcumin as Anti-Biofilm Polymicrobial on Catheters <p>Related biofilms in urinary tract infections and cause deaths per 7500 people. Biofilms are a serious problem and are resolved with antibiotic therapy. Curcumin is a pure composition of the turmeric plant (Curcuma longa Linn.) Which has antimicrobial activity, but the activity of polymicrobial antibiofilm on the catheter has never been launched. The discovery of new antibiofilm candidates for polymicrobial biofilms on catheters is a challenge that must be overcome in preventing infections related to biofilms. &nbsp;This study aims to determine the effectiveness of curcumin in inhibiting and degrading polymicrobial catheters. Biofilm inhibition testing and biofilm degradation testing were determined using the microtiter broth method. The effectiveness of curcumin on biofilms was analyzed by calculating the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC<sub>50</sub>) and the minimum value of biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC<sub>50</sub>). The mechanism of action of curcumin against polymicrobial biofilms on the catheter was tested using <em>scanning electron microscopy</em> (SEM). Curcumin 1% gives 60% inhibitory activity to the formation of polymicrobial biofilms on the catheter in the middle phase by 65.05 ± 0.01 and the maturation phase by 61.23 ± 0.01, and this is better than the control of the drug nystatin in the middle phase and maturation by 57.58 ± 0.01 and 56.31 ± 0.01 and are almost equivalent to the control drug chloramphenicol. The results also provide evidence of the activity of curcumin can degrade 50%. Polymicrobial biofilm on the catheter was 51.49 ± 0.01 and damaged the extracellular polymeric matrix (EPS) polymicrobial biofilm on the catheter. Therefore, curcumin is very potential to be developed as a candidate for new antibiofilm drugs against polymicrobial catheters</p> Hasyrul Hamzah Triana Hertiani Sylvia Utami Tunjung Pratiwi Titik Nuryastuti Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-27 2020-01-27 11 1 830 835 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1902 Phytopharmacological and Antioxidant Analysis of Hydroethanolic Extract of Boerhavia diffusa <p><em>Boerhavia diffusa</em>, a well-known ethno-medicinal plant and were found in tropics and sub-tropics. <em>Boerhavia diffusa</em> is a traditional medicinal plant and they can cure many human ailments<em>.</em> It has most promising pharmacological activities include antifibrinolytic, immunosuppressive, diuretic, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antilympho proliferative, analgesic properties and also for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Due to their adverse side effects, the naturally occurring antioxidants has increased and replaced by the synthetic antioxidants. This study is focussed on the phytochemical evaluation and <em>in vitro</em> antioxidant activity of Hydroethanolic extract of <em>Boerhavia diffusa</em>. The qualitative chemical test exhibited the presence of phytocompounds like flavonoids, polyphenols, anthocyanins, coumarin, steroids, terpenoids, triterpenoids, glycosides, emodins and saponins. Quantitative analysis of total phenol, total flavonoid and total tannin was found to be 205.25mg/g, 121.65 mg/g and 61.41mg/g. DPPH, Total antioxidant activity, Superoxide anion radical, Nitric oxide and Hydroxy radical scavenging assay showed that <em>B.diffusa</em> was an excellent scavenger of these radicals. These results are an indication of the potent antioxidant property of the extract and may be responsible for some of the therapeutic uses of&nbsp;<em>Boerhavia diffusa.</em></p> Murugan K Kalaivani P Vanitha V Bothiraj K.V. Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-27 2020-01-27 11 1 840 846 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1904 Neuropharmacology of nicotine dependence <p>The occurrence of withdrawal symptoms is regarded as the key to mediating smoking relapse amongst smokers. The present study acknowledged the high relapse rates emerging from the inability to address the causes of powerful addiction effects besides identifying chronic disorders caused by nicotine. The present study explored nicotine addiction and its effects on different smoking patterns to provide an informative platform to design interventions that would deliver effective ways of quitting smoking. The study utilized systemic reviews on publications of previous studies obtained from scholarly journal databases, including PubMed, Medline, EBSCO Host, Google Scholar, and Cochrane. Moreover, the study used secondary information obtained from health organizations using filters and keywords to retrieve relevant information. The use of search keywords and filters limited the study to relevant peer-reviewed journals. The study utilized information retrieved from 35 studies obtained from peer-reviewed journals on “nicotine dependence,” “smoking cessation,” and “pharmacology of nicotine dependence and addiction.” The drug tolerance arising in nicotine dependence involved minimized tolerance often occurring during recurrent administration of drugs translated to neuroadaptation. The brain tends to develop challenges in the absence of nicotine, particularly when individuals quit smoking, thus compelling them to backslide from their abstinence. Higher nicotine dependence demotivates individuals from quitting smoking, making the cessation interventions unfruitful, worsened by the inability to understand the causative factors. The solution to overcome nicotine dependence alongside tobacco usage involves a complex treatment technique that would aim to reduce the probability of relapse. Nicotine dependence, Nicotine addiction, Tobacco addiction cycle, Neural survival, Pharmacology of nicotine</p> Hamdan S. Al-malky Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-27 2020-01-27 11 1 847 857 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1905 Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Novel Coumarin Derivatives <p>The&nbsp;current&nbsp;work&nbsp;focuses&nbsp;on&nbsp;new&nbsp;architecture, synthesis of coumarin-oxadiazole hybrid derivative products as both these (coumarin ring and oxadiazole) have a wide variety of biological behavior, Compounds containing the nucleus of coumarin (2H-1-benzopyran-2-one) are an interesting class of hetero cycles which hold an important role in the field of natural ingredients and synthetic organic chemistry.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; It has been exciting medicinal chemists to study native coumarins or synthetic analogs for their application for decades. And they can be further modified to synthesize more effective and potent drugs. Compounds have been characterized by spectrophotometry of physicochemical properties and their structures verified by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) Such new derivatives of coumarinyl-oxadiazole was qualified to estimate the lethal dose, anticancer, anticoagulant and antioxidant activity. Their pharmacological properties depend on their pattern of substitution, compound S4F proved significant anticoagulant activity in concentration (50, 100, 200 mg/ml) similar for heparin, and monitor the coagulation effect on plasma, while compound S<sub>4</sub>CO give significant anticancer activity against MCF-7 a breast cancer cell. Specific&nbsp;compounds&nbsp;have&nbsp;strong&nbsp;antioxidants&nbsp;with&nbsp;the&nbsp;effective&nbsp;action&nbsp;of&nbsp;radical&nbsp;scavengers; the S4Cl compound with IC50 1.49 is the most potent antioxidant activity note. Basically, all the formulations tested reported satisfactory behavior. The review shows that varieties of coumarin derivatives have synthesized and shown anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-coagulant potentials. These derivatives synthesis and its biological assay can be further modified in the future to improve the anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anticoagulant potentials of the versatile coumarin nucleus.</p> Sanaryh Mohammed Al-awad Leaqaa Abdalredha raheem Ausama Ayob Jaccob Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-27 2020-01-27 11 1 865 874 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1908 A Review on Halodule uninervis – A Potent Seagrass <p><em>Halodule uninervis</em>is a flowering plant commonly known as needle seagrass. <em>Halodule uninervis</em> is widely distributed in the Indo-pacific region. In the Indian Ocean, it is found from Geographe Bay in Western Australia. It is a euryhaline species that can tolerate high salinity, grows, reproduce and complete their entire life cycle undersea at the submerged condition. <em>Halodule uninervis</em>was found to be rich in phenol and phenylpropanoid derivatives such as p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acids. As the seagrasses are known to produce unique secondary metabolites as a defense mechanism, many research was targeted towards them in order to search novel potent antioxidants or antibiotics. p-hydroxybenzoic acid acts as an intermediate for several bioproducts that are commercially valuable in food, cosmetics, pharmacy, fungicides, etc. Caffeic acid acts as a free radical scavenger. It has been found that caffeic acid phenyl ester inhibits DNA, RNA and protein synthesis in HL-60 cells; thus, it arrests the growth of human leukaemia cells. The western Pacific and Indian oceans are the indigenous origins of <em>Halodule uninervis</em>. Interesting the fact that <em>Halodule uninervis</em>is an important food for the green sea turtle and dugong and as well as it was used traditionally for wound ailments. These make the seagrass <em>Halodule uninervis</em> a potent plant that needs to be exposed. This review elaborates on the features and recent approaches of the seagrass <em>Halodule uninervis</em>.</p> Leelarani Ravilla Navaith Ahmed S Kalaivani P Vanitha V Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-27 2020-01-27 11 1 875 879 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1909 Solubility enhancement of BCS classified IV drug - Apixaban by preparation and evaluation of Mesoporous Nanomatrix <p>Biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class IV compounds, exhibits low solubility, intestinal permeability and oral bioavailability among all the pharmaceutical class of drugs. Therefore, these drugs need a more compatible and efficient delivery system. Since, their solubility in various mediums will remains a limitation. Hence, the mesoporous Nanomatrix approach may prove to be a suitable solution ahead. Therefore, in the present study, the polymer-coated mesoporous material like Sylysia 350, Carbon, Tin Oxide are opted for the BCS class IV drug like Apixaban to attain higher solubility and dissolution. &nbsp;The prepared Nanomatrix was evaluated for its particle size, DSC, Solubility and dissolution studies. For this study, Apixaban was opted for formulating Sylysia 350, Carbon, Tin Oxide based Mesoporous Nanomatrix system. Nanomatrix was prepared by the Amorphous solid dispersion method using probe sonication. The mesoporous Nanomatrix of Apixaban showed improvement in the solubility in water by approx.7 folds when Apixaban used in combination with Sylysia 350 and Polymer HPMC K15M. &nbsp;From the present study, we can conclude that the optimized Apixaban mesoporous Nanomatrix may prove to be a suitable potential option for solubility enhancement, increase <em>in-vitro</em> drug release and effective delivery of BCS class IV drugs.</p> Asati Amit V Salunkhe Kishor S Chavan Machindra J Chintamani Ravindra B Rajput Singh Rudra Pratap Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-28 2020-01-28 11 1 880 890 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1910 Formulation and Evaluation of Floating and Mucoadhesive tablets containing Glipizide <p>In the present study, Glipizide, a drug mainly preferred for type-II diabetes, is formulated in the form of floating mucoadhesive tablets to improve its bioavailability. Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose K200M, Sodium Carboxy Methyl Cellulose, Carbopol 974P, Karaya gum, Chitosan, and Xanthan gum were used as mucoadhesive polymers in designing of the floating mucoadhesive tablets. Different proportions of glipizide and polymer were used to prepare tablets. Pre-compression evaluation studies evaluated the powder blend of Glipizide mucoadhesive tablets (Pre-compression blend). It concluded that the blend had good flow property and better compressibility by interpreting the data obtained from the test. Hence the floating mucoadhesive tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. The results of floating lag time, and buoyancy studies suggested that formulations had a satisfactory floating ability. The release profile of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (glipizide) from the prepared dosage form indicated a controlled and enhanced drug release for a period of 12hrs. <em>An in-vivo</em> study done for selected formulation. By the interpretation of data obtained from all the evaluation studies (Pre-compression test, floating property, drug release profile, &amp; <em>in-vivo</em> study) concluded that formulation GF8 containing drug: Carbopol 974P (1:2) was optimized. The drug release kinetics of the formulation GF8 followed the Higuchi model with a regression value of 0.993.</p> Jagdish K Arun Dharmajit Pattanayak Shrivastava B Ramesh Adepu Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-28 2020-01-28 11 1 899 907 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1912 Study of the effect of different levels of arginine in feed on broiler chickens <p>Amino acids are the basic structural units of protein molecules in the body. Currently, about 300 amino acids are known, of which 26 are studied best. Amino acids or their derivatives (for example, immune bodies) are part of enzymes, hormones, pigments, and other specific substances that play a crucial role in digestive and metabolic processes. In the process of metabolism, many amino acids are synthesized in the body from other amino acids or compounds, and therefore they are called interchangeable. Amino acids that are not synthesized in the body or are formed in insufficient quantities are called indispensable. According to the content and ratio of essential amino acids, feed proteins are subdivided into full and inferior. Deficiency, absence, or imbalance of essential amino acids in animal diets is accompanied by a deterioration in protein use, metabolic disorders, and decreased productivity. The following amino acids are indispensable; arginine, viburnum, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, phenylalanine. Among the essential amino acids, especially important ones, are those called critical. These are lysine, methionine + cystia, threonine, and tryptophan. A deficiency, absence, or imbalance of essential amino acids in animal diets is accompanied by a deterioration in protein use, metabolic disorders, and decreased productivity. Research and production experiment was conducted within Olenka Poultry Factory LLC and the problematic research laboratory of feed additives of the Department of Animal Feeding and Feed Technology named after P. D. Pshenichny at the National University of Life and Environmental Sciences. The effective level of arginine in compound feed for broilers of the Cobb-500 cross was experimentally determined. The use of compound feed with arginine levels in the first rearing period (1 to 10 days) - 1.28%, in the second (11 to 22 days) - 1.15% and in the third (23 to 42 days) - 1.11% gives the opportunity to get broiler chickens at the age of 42 days, weighing 2.654 kg, at a feed expenditure of 1.78 kg per 1 kg of gain.</p> Olga A. Gracheva Alizade S. Gasanov Damir R. Amirov Bulat F. Tamimdarov Dina M. Mukhutdinova Sergey Yu. Smolentsev Irina I. Strelnikova Tatyana V. Izekeeva Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-28 2020-01-28 11 1 908 912 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1913 A comparative study of novel biomarkers on preeclampsia in relation to body mass index <p>Objective of the study was to compare serum level of nitric oxide (NO), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), arginine, placental growth factor (PIGF), soluble Fms like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), soluble endoglin (sEng), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, in normotensive and preeclamptic pregnancies in relation to body mass index (BMI). The study was done on 100 healthy normotensive and 100 preeclamptic pregnant women. Based on BMI, they were categorized into three groups. Group 1 (&lt;25 kg/m<sup>2</sup>), group 2 (25 – 30 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) and group 3 (&gt;30 kg/m<sup>2</sup>). &nbsp;ADMA, eNOS, arginine, PlGF, sFlt-1, sEng were estimated by ELISA method, and MDA, NO, GPx, SOD, and catalase by spectrophotometric method. Statistically, a significant difference was not observed within normotensive and preeclampsia in relation to BMI. But when respective normotensive was compared with preeclampsia, there was a high increase of ADMA, sFlt-1, sEng, and MDA. A significant decrease was observed in arginine, eNOS, NO, GPx, SOD, and catalase in preeclampsia. This study shows that though preeclampsia is associated with overweight and obesity, but during pregnancy, higher BMI has no additional deleterious effect in preeclampsia.</p> Sabir Ali Shaikh Rajagopalan Vijayaraghavan Das Subir Kumar Pal Manidip Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-28 2020-01-28 11 1 913 920 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1914 Formulation and evaluation of third-generation Cefpodoxime proxetil as an Oro-dispersible tablets for treating infections <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;">The main problems to humans include the infection caused in the respiratory tract and urinary tract, namely respiratory tract infection (RTI) and urinary tract infection (UTI). Cefpodoxime Proxetil drug is available in the market that has a problem with drug release profile and flows property. To overcome this problem, the compacted powder form made into a micro-ionized form for its better flow property and drug release by using a direct compression technique. The study was based on the aim to evaluate and formulate oro-dispersible tablets as an effective approach via orally for the treatment of RTI &amp; UTI prepared by direct compression technique. FTIR and DSC showed no incompatibility between drugs and excipients. The pure drug Cefpodoxime Proxetil and the excipients were blended using an octagonal blender. The Pre-formulation study was performed for this blend and pure drug. Further, the blend was made compressed into a tablet by direct compression technique. Two factorial design was implemented. Prepared tablets were evaluated for drug content, hardness, thickness, uniformity in the weight, friability, disintegration test, dispersion time, <em>in-vitro</em> studies, release kinetics, and also stability studies. The optimized formulation A6 found to have good flow property. The evaluation results of optimized formula A6 showed 99.60% drug content, 390mg average weight, 0.91% weight uniformity, 3.80 kg/cm2 hardness, 0.67%, friability, 23.70sec, disintegration time, 16 sec dispersion time and 95.5% drug release than the other formulation batch. The current study showed that the optimized formula A6 exhibited good disintegration time, drug release, and friability than marketed product X and other batches.</p> Akshay Kumar S Gowda D V Sharadha M Famna Roohi N K Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-29 2020-01-29 11 1 921 932 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1916 Spirulina, The Boon of Nature <p>Dr.Darwin, who was an algae scientist from Germany, Discovered the spiral-shaped algae presence and designated it Spirulina. Spirulina, a seaweed which is a blue-green algae biomass, belongs to the class of cyanobacteria discovered by non-referenced Mexicans in the 16<sup>th</sup> century and has been used as a daily food source. The first large-scale spirulina plant was created in 1970 and is now being grown in many areas of the globe. Many species of spirulina have been identified in recent decades, but among them are spirulina platensis and spirulina maxima. It is enriched with lots of vitamins, nutrients, antioxidants, proteins, pigments, minerals, …etc…, and is considered a wonder of nature. It is a powerful dietary supplement wealthy in nutrients and vitamins used by National Aeronautics and Space Administration and European Space Agency as a food supplement during space missions and capable of fighting against multiple microbial illnesses by enhancing immunity. Spirulina exhibits anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and many other activities and also found useful in the production of feedstocks.</p> Vidya Banakar Qumre Alam Rajendra SV Aman Pandit Acquline Cladious Gnanaprakash K Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 11 1 57 62 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1782 Molecular activities in Moringa oleifera Linn - Review <p>The terrific increase by the word "modernization" in various fields in the world without boundaries affects the total environmental system, which leads to the emergence of various new diseases in various forms. In that case, cancer is considered as one of such a dreadful disease which is also measured as a leading cause for the death of the people. Even with the advanced treatment of modern medicine in treating cancer and reduce the rate of cancer recurrence using advanced technologies such as immunotherapy, targeted therapy, robotic radiosurgery are still very subjective to the individual, and it causes tremendous side effects to the patient. Alternative medicine plays a vital role in the treatment and management of diseases event before centuries. Many pharmaceutical companies involved in the research development of anticancer properties as a holistic approach in the treatment and management of cancer. <em>Moringa oleifera</em>, traditionally used as food sources, has attracted many researches to evaluate the biochemical properties of medicinal and antioxidant as an antiulcer, antimicrobial, antitumour and anticancer. Each part of the tree is nutritive and personalized selective on phytochemicals as an anticancer drug are essential in treating the cancer cells. Limited knowledge on the cytotoxic activity and therapeutic index of <em>M.</em> <em>oleifera</em> in treating specific types of cancers are still under study by many researchers. However, the molecular analysis of anticancer properties in&nbsp;<em>Moringa oleifera</em> as sustainable preventive and management of cancer therapy still lacking in Malaysia</p> Sridevi Subramonie Nagaraja Suryadevara Balavinayagamani Ganapathy Gokila Devi T Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-07 2020-01-07 11 1 140 147 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1798 Drug-induced renal disorder-A Mini Review <p>Drug-induced kidney disorder/disease (DKID) is an origin of kidney disease followed by acute renal failure. Drug-induced renal toxicity is more common in infants and young children in certain clinical circumstances where underlying renal dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases. Sometimes, administered drugs may cause acute renal injury, intra-renal obstruction, interstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and acid-base and fluid electrolytes disorders in patients. Certain drugs may cause alterations in intra-glomerular hemodynamics, inflammatory changes in renal tubular cells, leading to acute kidney injury (AKI), interstitial tubule disease, and renal scarring. Common risk factors include; pre-existing renal dysfunction, volume-depleted state, old age, and use of nephrotoxic drugs. Therefore, the prevention from the disease includes the knowledge about the nephrotoxicity, assessing considering the patient-related, kidney-related, and drug-related factors while prescribing medicines, using of alternative drugs, which are non-nephrotoxic, assessing the baseline of renal function before starting the treatment, monitor the renal function during the treatment and avoid the nephrotoxic drug combinations and withdrawing the offending drugs due to toxicity. The ADRs of the prescribed/ administered are identified at the earliest to prevent the development of the last-stage renal disorder. This review discusses the risk factors associated with drug-induced renal disease, estimation of renal function, mechanism of drug-induced nephrotoxicity, and certain drugs that cause nephrotoxicity.</p> Divya M Nivetha S. R. Lekshmi Mohan Arul B* Kothai R Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-07 2020-01-07 11 1 166 172 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1802 Recent developments in nano micelles as drug delivery system <p>Targeting of the drug directly to the cells, tissues, or organs with no impact on healthy cells is a challenge. In the current era, it's been made possible by therapeutic interventions. The novel drug delivery systems such as nano particulates, liposomes, aquasomes, phytosomes, dendrimers, nano sponges, nano micelles are developed. Nano micelles are developed for efficient targeting and are currently in trend as therapeutic carriers of water-insoluble drugs. Micelles are self-assembling Nano-sized colloidal particles with a hydrophobic core and hydrophilic shell. Among the micelle-forming compounds, amphiphilic copolymers, i.e., polymers consisting of hydrophobic block and hydrophilic block, are gaining increasing attention. Polymeric micelles possess high stability both <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> with good biocompatibility. Nano micelles are used widely because of the smaller size range of 10 to 100nm, with greater drug loading capacity. Advantages over other dosage forms include solubilization of poorly soluble drugs, sustained release, protection of drugs from degradation and metabolism. The property discussed includes CMC, size, and aggregation number, and stability. CMC is the minimum polymer concentration required for micelle formation. Aggregation number (Nₐ) is the number of polymeric chains required to form micelles, and it ranges between tens to hundreds. Thermodynamic stability is based on size, the optical clarity of solution, viscosity, and surface tension. Kinetic stability accounts for micellar integrity. This review will discuss some recent trends in using micelles as pharmaceutical carriers such as to deliver drugs in conditions such as TB, cancer, ocular complications, etc.</p> Pooja Mallya Gowda D V Mahendran B Bhavya M V Vikas Jain Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-07 2020-01-07 11 1 176 184 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1804 A Review on Phytochemical and Pharmacological activities of Syringodium isoetifolium <p>Seagrass are marine plants, grown in saline environments and fully submerged in the sea. They are widely distributed along the tropical and subtropical regions. A seagrass called, <em>Syringodium isoetifolium</em> comes under the family Cymodoceaceae, this grass is otherwise called as noodle grass. Phytochemical compounds such as flavonoids, terpenoids coumarins, xanthoproteins, sugars, carboxylic acids can be extracted by the solvents such as methanol, hexane, and acetone. <em>Syringodium isoetifolium </em>has pharmacological activit<em>i</em>es such as antioxidant, antihemolytic, antibacterial cytotoxicity, and antifungal activity. During photosynthesis, lacunal gas is discharged from lacunae, and it is composed of oxygen and nitrogen. Pheophytin a compound was isolated from the crude extract of <em>Syringodium isoetifolium </em>by treating it with human pathogens. Binding sites of the pathogen can be found by the Molecular docking study. In this article, we discuss about the phytochemical constituents, pharmacological activities, and morphological characteristics of <em>Syringodium isoetifolium.</em></p> Kalaivani P Kavitha D Vanitha V Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-07 2020-01-07 11 1 207 214 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1808 Green coffee bean seed and their role in antioxidant–A review <p>All around the world, Coffee place an important position in the beverages. It contains phenolic acid as well as polyphenols. It has the property of antioxidant; mood enhances mood, and also increases alertness, reduces weight, efficiency against hypertension, and antitumor property because of its polyphenols and phenolic constituents. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are the main components found in the fraction of phenols from green coffee beans. CGA has several therapeutic properties, which include antioxidant activities and also has hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, and antiviral properties. &nbsp;Several essential compounds found in CGA in green coffee beans are caffeoylquinic acids, caffeoylquinic acids, feruloyl quinic acids, p-coumaroylquinic acids, and quinic acid. Therefore, this review highlighted the health benefits and anticancer activities of Green coffee bean.</p> Bothiraj K V Murugan Vanitha V Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-07 2020-01-07 11 1 233 240 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1812 The insights on Oro-dispersible tablet <p>Orodispersible tablets (ODTs) were the conventional product that disintegrates or dissolves into the buccal mucosa in less than 1mins in the absence of water and without chewing. They were first acquainted with the market during the 1980s, and end up one of the quickest developing subdivisions of the oral medication conveyance industry and their items are creating at an extraordinary rate. New orodispersible tablet innovations address numerous pharmaceutical and need of patients, extending from upgraded life-cycle the executives for reasonable medicating for pediatric, aged, and mental patients with trouble in swallowing. These supposedly affect about 35% of the all-inclusive community and related to various ailments like Parkinsonism, mental incapacity, motion sickness, obviousness, water inaccessibility, and so on. Other individuals possibly will face difficulties by utilizing control release solid oral product comprise the psychologically ill, partially developed patients, and rare patients those are unco-operative, on taking place diminished fluid consumption and are nauseated. To defeat such troubles, orodispersible tablets have been formulated. In this dosage form, the property of ODTs can be reached by the expansion of various additives such are super- the disintegrating agent is the main excipient. This has been motivated by both industry and academia to develop advanced orally dispersible products and advanced methodologies in the market. The ODTs are the most extensively implemented marketable products than others. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide the complete information of ODTs formulation</p> Akshay Kumar S Gowda D V Sharadha M Akhila A R Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-08 2020-01-08 11 1 260 273 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1815 Exploration of Ayurveda blueprint on clinical physiology of Meda (adipose tissue) and Majja Dhatu (bone marrow) in context to obesity <p>The state of health depends on the functional state of <em>Dosha</em>, <em>Dhatu</em>, <em>Mala</em>, <em>Srotas</em>, and <em>Agni</em>. The concept of functional and nutritional interdependence of <em>Dhatu</em> as well as a physiological and pathological aspect of all the seven <em>Dhatu</em> has been described by Ayurveda scholars. The metabolic effect of <em>Meda</em> and <em>Majja Dhatu</em> on other tissues like a muscle (<em>Mamsa Dhatu</em>), bone (<em>Asthi Dhatu</em>), and reproductive tissue (<em>Shukra Dhatu</em>) show their functional interdependence. The Ayurveda compendia, as well as recent research data, shows that obesity is the disorder of nutrition, which depends on lifestyle and diet. The obesity has been discussed in relation to <em>Medovaha Srotodushti </em>and <em>Meda Dhatu Vriddhi</em>. Although the physiology of <em>Vasa</em>, <em>Meda</em>, and <em>Majja</em> tissue has not been elaborated much, their clinical physiology has been described. This article aims to comprehend the pathophysiology of obesity as well as manifestations on the disturbed functional state of <em>Meda</em> and <em>Majja Dhatu, </em>as depicted by Ayurveda scholars in light of contemporary science. This article will be helpful in developing a vision regarding the clinical physiology of <em>Meda</em> and <em>Majja</em>, which will be further helpful in the exploration of pathophysiology and the management of obesity and associated disorders manifested by them. On exhaustive study, it was observed that the clinical physiology of <em>Meda</em> and <em>Majja Dhatu </em>shares quite a resemblance with the outcomes of contemporary researches on adipocytes, but still, some of these are still under the research.</p> Vandana Verma Sonam Agrawal Sangeeta Gehlot Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-09 2020-01-09 11 1 358 367 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1830 An overview on topical drug delivery system – Updated review <p>The paper reviews an overview of a conventional and novel approach in the topical drug delivery system. Drug delivery via the skin is becoming progressively popular due to its convenience and affordability. The skin is the most important mechanical barrier to the penetration of many drug substances and acts as an ideal site to deliver the drug both locally and systemically. The topical route has been a favored route of drug administration over the last decades. Despite conventional topical drug delivery systems limits in poor retention and low bioavailability. This drawback overcomes by extensive research to develop a novel topical drug delivery systems targeting to improve the safety, efficacy and to minimize side effects. The conventional review focuses on dusting powders, poultices, plasters, lotion, liniments, solution, emulsion, suspension, colloidions, tinctures, creams, gels, ointments, pastes, suppositories, transdermal delivery systems, tapes, and gauzes and rubbing alcohol while the novel review focuses on novel gels, aerosol foams, microsponges, muco-adhesive bio-adhesives, novel vesicular carriers, nano-emulsion &amp; nano-emulgel, protein and peptide delivery, polymers, emulsifier-free formulations and fullerenes etc. The key purpose of a topical delivery system is to enhance the skin permeability and to retain in the dermis. This review addresses a basis for further advancement and up-gradation of current techniques and technologies.</p> Sharadha M Gowda D V Vishal Gupta N Akhila A R Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-09 2020-01-09 11 1 368 385 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1831 Glucosamine effects on lipids and blood pressure <p>Glucosamine has in the past, been recommended for various functions, including the synthesis of synovial fluid, inhibiting degradation, and enhancing the healing of articular cartilage. However, there is no outstanding research that has been done to support these uses. The aim of the study is to examine the effects of glucosamine on lipids and blood pressure. Articles were obtained from reputable databases and used to discuss the glucosamine efficacy in osteoarthritis and glucosamine safety profile on lipids and blood pressure. The proposed study hypothesizes that glucosamine causes an increase in cholesterol and blood pressure levels. The authors analyzed past research studies on glucosamine, its efficacy in osteoarthritis, and the safety profile of the compound on lipids and blood pressure. The findings were inconclusive, even though they tended to suggest that glucosamine sulfate does not increase cholesterol levels; neither does it increase blood pressure in humans. Experimental research tended to show that glucosamine sulfate increases the levels of insulin, which might result in an increase in blood pressure. Even so, more recent studies have shown that glucosamine does not increase cholesterol levels; neither does the compound affect the blood pressure levels in human beings. Further studies are needed to ascertain the actual impact of glucosamine on lipids and blood pressure.</p> Elham Alshammari Ahlam Alshammari Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-09 2020-01-09 11 1 431 436 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1838 Ayurveda Explorations on Consequences of Excessive physical activity (Ativayayama) and Dose of Physical activity <p>Despite the well-established evidence of health benefits of moderate dose physical activity, there are evolving evidences which suggest that a high dose of long duration excessive physical activity may be associated with adverse health effects like dehydration, hyponatremia, exertional heat illness, musculoskeletal trauma, immune and hormonal deregulation, metabolic derangements, CV stress disorders, etc. &nbsp;However, ancient scholars of Ayurveda have well documented the harmful biological effects of excessive exercise (Ativyayama) and considered it under the category of etiological factors of several disorders. Various clinical conditions have been mentioned in which exercise is contraindicated or should be avoided. The harmful effect of excessive physical activity (Ativyayama) described by Ayurveda scholars are thirst (Trishna), altered taste perception, nausea (Aruchi), vomiting (Charddi), dizziness, exercise-related syncope (Bhrma), exertion (Shrma), cough (Kasa), dysponea (Svasha), injury in the chest (Ksata), weight loss (Kshaya), bleeding disorders (Raktapitta), cachexia (Sosha), exercise-induced heat injury, fever (Jvara), exertional dysponea in asthamatics (Pratamak svasha). Ayurveda scholars have described Physical activity (Vyayama ) in Daily routine (Dincharya), and advocated to performed daily in moderate-intensity only, to get the beneficial effects while the severe grade of exercise is contraindicated. It should be performed after considering the age, diet, season, psychosomatic constitution, psychological state, physiological state of females, disease state, treatment procedures, etc. There are very few recent scientific studies on type and dose of exercise in view of the above-mentioned factors by Ayurveda scholars as per the health state or particular type of disorders and its stage. So it is highly needed to appreciate the perspective of Ayurveda scholars in research, which will be helpful in exploration of a dose of physical activity in the form of mild, moderate and severe grade and its overall effect on health to ascertain that how much activity is needed to get the optimal health benefits.</p> Vandana Verma Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-10 2020-01-10 11 1 445 451 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1840 Review of Topiramate Effect on Weight Loss <p>The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of topiramate in promoting weight loss among obese patients. The study was inspired by the fact that men and women, in addition to the stereotyped teenager, are affected by eating disorders. The general scope of this paper will comprise of the evaluation of the effectiveness of topiramate in weight loss amongst obese patients. The research achieves this through a review of past literature. In sum, the reviewed study found that the use of topiramate was associated with an increase in positive outcomes. Most of the positive outcomes were linked with weight reduction among overweight and obese patients. The review also revealed that the administration of the drug reduced the adverse effects of psychotic drugs minimized food cravings, alcohol, and smoking. Moreover, the combination of the drug with other antiepilepsy medications had more positive outcomes than when used as a monotherapy.</p> Elham Alshammari Ahlam Alshammari Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 11 1 507 510 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1851 Overview of Gastric Cancer Treatment and Recent Developments – An Updated Review <p>Gastric Cancer (GC) is one among the serious diseases prevailing globally. GC has immense global life-threatening health issues by taking 4<sup>th</sup> place among all the widespread cancers and 2<sup>nd</sup> foremost reason for fatality around the globe. Numerous patients have an inoperable disease at diagnosis or have recurrent disease after resection with curative intent. Surgery remains the principle therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiation can improve the outcome of GC therapy. Targeted therapies such as Trastuzumab, an antibody against HER2 and the VEGFR-2 antibody ramucirumab highly preferred in GC. Since the last few years, immunotherapy became a significant approach for the cure of various cancers like GC. &nbsp;In the present review, we have put forward the various stages of GC and all the possible advanced treatments for GC. Surgery is still the first choice analysed in GC followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. New frontiers in treatment suggest the growing consideration for intraperitoneal administration of chemotherapeutics and a combination of traditional drugs with the newer generation. A note is added to relevant studies dealing with neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment concepts and gives an overview of latest trends and developments in GC treatment</p> Arun Kumar Vadikari Akkihebbal R Akhila Vishakante Gowda D Mahendran Bhaskaran Parthasarathi K Kulkarni Vikas Jain Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 11 1 519 531 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1854 Cephalosporins : An imperative antibiotic over the generations <p>Cephalosporins are the most commonly prescribed class of antibiotics, and its structure and pharmacology are similar to that of penicillin. It's a bactericidal, and its structure contains beta-lactam ring, as like of penicillin, which intervenes in bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cephalosporins are derived from the mold <em>Acremonium</em> (previously called as <em>Cephalosporium</em>). It was first discovered in 1945; scientists have been improving the structure of cephalosporins to make it more effective against a wider range of bacteria. Whenever the structure of cephalosporins modified, a new "generation" of cephalosporins are made. So far, there are five generations of cephalosporins available. They are prescribed against various organisms and infections. The cephalosporin antibiotics interfere with cell-wall synthesis of bacteria, leading to the breakdown of the infectious organism. To achieve this effect, the antibiotic must cross the bacterial cell wall and bind to the penicillin-binding proteins. Various generations of cephalosporins, mechanisms of resistance, pharmacokinetics, adverse reactions, and their clinical use were reviewed in this article. Most of the cephalosporins are available as parenteral, but the oral formulations are also available for certain drugs. Rather than learn all cephalosporins, it is reasonable for the clinician to be familiar with selected cephalosporins among the parenteral and oral formulations.</p> Aiswarya P. Nath Arul Balasubramanian Kothai Ramalingam Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-20 2020-01-20 11 1 623 629 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1866 A General Overview on Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria and its pathogenicity <p>The first case of bacterial infection was recorded in 1862, while it was first isolated in 1882 from the scientist Gessard, who was called Bacillus pyocyaneus. The most common infections caused by bacteria are the first bacteremia in patients with serious burns, chronic lung injuries in patients with cystic fibrosis, and acute ulcerative keratitis in people who use contact lenses. The gastrointestinal tract is an important gateway for entry into the blood infection caused by bacteria, and the bacteria cause endocarditis, where the bacteria infects the heart valves from the direct invasion of the bloodstream, as it causes meningitis and brain abscesses, and it can invade the central organ The inner and nasal sinuses can also be accessed from a site far from the injury, such as the urinary tract. Other pathogenic infections caused by bacteria are pulmonary injuries, as bacteria are the most common disease associated with lung injuries. They are caused by bacteria Hospitalized lung with a mortality rate greater than 70%. Bacteria are a common cause and acquired by hospitals for urinary tract infections due to their ability to adhere to urinary epithelial cells in the bladder, as they cause cystitis and urinary tract infections. The percentage of deaths caused by bacteria can reach 50% due to many factors, including weak body defenses and bacteria resistance to anti-life as well as the production of bacteria, enzymes and external toxins.</p> Ahmed Sabah Al-Jasimee Abbas Mayar Hezam Wurood Jasim Mohammed Mohammed M Alkhuzaie Zinah Abdulkadhim Oudah Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 11 1 702 707 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1880 A Review on Staphylococcus sp. and its pathogens <p>The genus Staphylococcus is an important microorganism because of its direct and dangerous impact on the lives of other organisms, and Alexander Ogaston was the first to release this designation in 1880 to denote spherical bacteria usually associated with pus in wound infections. The members of this species are found in various environments such as dust, water, air, feces, on the skin, and the mucous membranes of warm-blooded vertebrates, on clothing, and other places. Most species of this species live as natural flora on human skin and mucous membranes, but some are opportunistic pathologies. The species of staphylococcus is characterized by having several virulence factors that increase the efficacy and pathogenicity of its species on the occurrence of infection due to its possession of tequic acid and the adhesion factor and other factors that enable it to get rid of the host defenses as an enzyme (Staphylokinase) or enable it to invade and spread as an enzyme (Hyaluronidase). Its possession of cellular wall proteins, its formation of the capsule and the exogenous polysaccharides and its production of various types of extracellular enzymes and various toxins such as intestinal toxins fixed in the heat, secretion of immune system inhibitors and their containment of antibiotic resistance genes. It shows the total resistance to the degradation of lysozyme. Staphylococcus aureus is resistant to many antimicrobial agents and thus produces treatment problems. The sex of staphylococcus includes 36 species and 80 subtypes, where more is clarified From 20 types of <em>staphylococcus aureus.</em></p> Nuha A. Al-Talib Maryam H. Abduljala Zahraa Mohammed Ali Hamodat Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-23 2020-01-23 11 1 755 759 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1888 Antibiotics and its altered pharmacokinetics in the pediatric population : An evidence-based review <p>A better understanding of altered pharmacokinetic variables in the pediatric population is important to improve both the safety and efficacy of drug therapy. Even though pediatric patients are now considered as a special population for drug therapy, it should not give us the wrong idea of considering them like mini-adults. The difference in their pharmacokinetics may be attributed to the radical anatomical and physiological changes that happen with age. Antimicrobials are one of the most prescribed therapeutic agents, and they are used in the treatment of numerous infections. Children are always susceptible to various infections, which often results in their exposure to a wide variety of antibiotics at such an early age. Recent studies showed higher rates of antibiotic prescribing in the pediatric population. The pediatric population requires more attention when prescribing antibiotics due to the increased probability of serious adverse effects, the time required for the complete development of the organs, and augmented drug resistance.</p> Keerthana Chandrasekar Diya C Arun KP Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-27 2020-01-27 11 1 858 864 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1907 Recent Development in Sustained Release Beads <p>The sustained release system is formulated to release a drug slowly over a period of time in the body. The sustained release system is having more therapeutic activity of a drug when compared to immediate release. Beads is one of the most commonly used technique in a sustained release dosage form. These are the spherical particle with size ranging from 50nm to 2mm, which contains core substances. The molecular size of the drug particle must be lesser than 1000 Dalton to formulate as SRDF. This article also contains the method of preparation by the emulsion cross-linking method. The ionic gelation process used calcium chloride as a crosslinking agent to successfully produce alginate beads. It is concluded that the release of spores and metaloxyl from the beads was controllable and sustainable, which is essential to the environment and ecosystem in the biocontrol of aflatoxin and pesticide management. The drug-like acetazolamide is prepared by using calcium alginate, and glipizide beads is coating is explained. Information about iron cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose gelatin coacervate beads is mentioned, a brief explanation about the oyster hydrolysate containing in liposome in alginate beads is given. Then ofloxacin interpenetrating polymer beads to taste masking for sustained release information is added. The present sustained-release beads in the market is included.</p> Pradeep Kumar S Gowda D V Vikas Jain Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-28 2020-01-28 11 1 891 898 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1911 Creative communication in networking services as the social skill of geriatric pharmacist <p>The geriatric pharmacist is one of the professions that play an important role in providing drug services to the elderly. As specialist pharmacists, they are expected to be not only rich in clinical skills but also have good social skills to understand and meet the therapeutic needs of patients. On the other hand, the community views that pharmacists are very accessible, and caregivers trust them as a link with the health care network. This study aims to describe the forms of creative communication of geriatric pharmacists in networking services. Four electronic databases (PUBMED, Science Direct, Scopus and Google Scholar) have been used to explore relevant research. The research articles reviewed were original articles that stated creative communication in networking as an idea of the pharmacist and the application in service by the pharmacist. The articles were selected with several inclusion criteria, namely published between 2000-2019, designed with Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) and/or qualitative studies, in English, and containing ideas or communication activities by pharmacists in networking services for patients or collaborating with another stakeholder. Exclusion criteria were articles which are research protocols, do not mention communication activities and efforts in creating a service network clearly and articles that only examine and assess economic aspects. Search results on 421 articles produced 13 articles that met the criteria for review, 9 articles from RCT&nbsp; and 4 articles from qualitative studies. Pharmacists can make oral, written and direct home visits when they provide advice. Pharmacists inform drugs through sign language, visual media and communication technology. Creative communication as a social skill plays an important role in networking services for doctors, nurses, patient families, caregivers and institutions related to services for the elderly.</p> Yuhansyah Nurfauzi Djoko Wahyono Fita Rahmawati Nanang Munif Yasin Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-29 2020-01-29 11 1 933 941 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1917 Burn-out and stress percipience benefits of a stress management program by autogenic relaxation training for teachers: A pilot study <p>Stress in the present world is an indivisible piece of life, regardless of social position and status. It is definitely experienced by all in different magnitude in daily life. Burnout is characterized as a negative mental encounter that is responses to work-related pressure. It relates to emotions experienced that require repeated exposure to emotionally charged social situations. In this manner, it is a work-related risk to which all individuals are uncovered, including teachers. The teaching profession is under large occupational pressure and prone to job burnout. The study aims to (i) assess the level of occupational burnout and stress among teachers of private and fully aided schools in the post-test for the experimental and control groups. (ii) to determine the effectiveness of autogenic relaxation on occupational burnout and stress among teachers of private and fully aided schools. A quantitative research approach with a True experimental design with experimental and control group, pre-test - post-test control group design was adopted for this study. The study focused on the selected schools in Vellore district. Totally, 28 participants selected by consecutive sampling techniques with the age of 25-60 years. Based on the inclusion criteria and availability of teachers, they were allocated into the control group (n=14) and experimental group (n=14).Demographic variables, occupational burnout, stress were assessed by using (Maslach burnout inventory and teacher stress inventory) it was analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Stress management program by autogenic training once a week for 6 weeks was given. This program was prepared based on existing research and studies. We found that the median value in the pre-test is significantly different from the median value in the post-test for Maslach Burnout Inventory; the median value is significantly different for the emotional exhaustion sub-scale (t=216 and P=0.02). No significant difference was observed for depersonalization and personal accomplishment sub-scale. In the Teacher stress inventory the median value is significantly different for cardiovascular manifestations (t=201 and p=0.945); Fatigue manifestations (t=229 and p=0.229). No significant difference was observed for time management, work-related stressors, professional distress, discipline and motivation, professional investment, fatigue manifestations, emotional manifestations, gastronomical manifestations, and behavioral manifestations. This research suggests that autogenic relaxation training interventions with teachers are effective in reducing burn-out and stress.</p> Thephilah Cathrine R Aruna S Vijayaragahavan Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 11 1 480 490 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1847 Common upper respiratory tract infection leading to uncommon retropharyngeal abscess - A case series on paediatrics <p>Retropharyngeal abscess is the formation of pus in retropharyngeal space, which occurs as a frequent complication of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URI). It is commonly seen in children less than 5 years old. The clinical manifestations includes neck mass, fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, neck stiffness, agitation, cough, drooling, torticollis, respiratory distress, stridor, and with signs of tonsillitis, pharyngitis, and otitis media. The first-line treatment includes drugs such as ampicillin-sulbactam and clindamycin. This case series highlights the complications of untreated upper respiratory tract infection leading to retropharyngeal abscess. Oral hygiene should be maintained to prevent future complications. Two patients were admitted in the paediatric inpatient unit and were diagnosed as a case of retropharyngeal abscess, following for which their management was done. After assessing, the clinical presentations and management scenario of the patients, age, and poor hygienic conditions are associated with the patients' risk factors for acquiring Retropharyngeal Abscess. In paediatrics, maintaining hygiene, especially oral hygiene and early diagnosis can prevent future complications of retropharyngeal abscess.</p> Lalduhawmi T C Diya C Keerthana Arjunan Jerlin Anusha R Keerthana Chandrasekar Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-27 2020-01-27 11 1 836 839 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1903 Phenytoin induced Steven Johnson syndrome <p>Phenytoin is an anticonvulsant and Hydantoin, it is mainly used in the management o Seizures, and it stabilizes the neuronal membranes and decreases seizure activity by increasing efflux or reducing the influx of sodium ions across cell membranes in the motor cortex during the generation of nerve impulses. It is available in the market in the form of oral and intravenous forms, a loading dose of Phenytoin for the management of seizures is 10-20 mg, divided into 2-3 doses. Stevens-Johnson syndrome is a rare and serious adverse effect of the skin along with the membranes of the mucous. It is caused by specific Drugs or Viral Infections. We have performed causality assessment by using the WHO and NARANJO'S ADR rating scale. It will seem, it is a Probable ADR, and severity assessed it confers a Type-A ADR, and it should be in Probably Preventable. So being a Reliable Clinical Pharmacist, we recommend to all health care professionals be aware of adverse drug reactions, and Desirable vigilance is necessitated toward safe and effective management for specific patients, strictly observe the patients in sequence anticipate Dangerous Adverse events.</p> Naga Subrahmanyam S Nagaraju G V Tagoore Vijaya Lakshmi D Copyright (c) 2020 2020-01-07 2020-01-07 11 1 173 175 10.26452/ijrps.v11i1.1803