International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences 2019-10-14T13:26:44+00:00 The Editor Open Journal Systems <p>International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJRPS) is quarterly publishing online peer reviewed scientific journal sponsored by Pharmascope Publications. The journal publishes research articles, review articles, short communications, case studies and reports in&nbsp;Pharmaceutical Sciences.</p> An investigation of bioactive and free radical scavenging potential of moringa Oliefera leaf extracts 2019-07-06T12:41:31+00:00 Uzma Sayyed Pratibha Pandey Rohit K. Tiwari Rafia Shekh Preeti Bajpai <p><em>Moringa oleifera</em> Lam, commonly known as Sehjan belongs to the Moringaceae family. It is widely used for the treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. This study was an attempt to evaluate the morphological characteristics, percent yield, the bioactive and antioxidant potential of <em>M. oleifera</em> leaves that would help in elucidating a promising therapeutic and curative agent for the treatment of different ailments. The maximum percentage yield was obtained in methanolic extract (29.55%) of <em>M. oliefera</em> leaves. Qualitative analysis also revealed the maximum presence of all the metabolites in methanolic extract. Quantitative analysis revealed an appreciable presence of phenol (53.1 mg/g) flavonoids (47.7mg/g) and carotenoids (16.46 mg/g) in <em>M.</em> <em>oleifera</em> leaves. The methanolic extract had shown the maximum antioxidant potency in a dose-dependent manner during the evaluation of enzymatic (SOD and CAT) and nonenzymatic (DPPH and FRAP) antioxidants with minimum IC<sub>50 </sub>value. Thus, it could be concluded from the present study that methanolic leaf extract of <em>M. oliefera</em> could be amongst the principle extract for the antioxidant activity of <em>M. oliefera</em>, which could be used for the treatment of several ailments.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Correlation of pupil to limbus diameter ratio (PLD ratio) with blood pres-sure and pulse rate in hypertensive males 2019-07-06T12:41:07+00:00 Harini Krishnan Archana R Kannan Rajendran <p>Hypertension is known to be a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, vision loss which remains asymptomatic until late in its course and even severely elevated pressures can be clinically silent for years. &nbsp;Measurement of diameter of the pupil is indicative of autonomic function, and recording of the pupil to limbus diameter (PLD) ratio correlates with alterations in blood pressure. &nbsp;As hypertension is more prevalent in males and the incidence is increasing year by year, measurement of PLD ratio can be used as a simple screening tool in the general population to measure the autonomic alterations associated with changes in blood pressure. &nbsp;This study aims at finding the correlation of pupil to limbus diameter (PLD) ratio with blood pressure and pulse rate in Hypertensive Males. &nbsp;45 male patients attending O/P of Saveetha Medical College and Hospital in the age group of 30 to 65 years, fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. &nbsp;It's a case-control study with non-probability convenient sampling. &nbsp;Blood pressure, using a sphygmomanometer and pulse rate were measured by the physician according to AHA criteria, and PLD ratio was assessed by the two-box method. &nbsp;There was a significant decrease observed in PLD ratio when normal and hypertensive groups. &nbsp;Mean pulse rate of hypertensive males was significantly higher compared to the control group. &nbsp;The systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were significantly high in hypertensive male patients. &nbsp;A significant difference in PLD ratio exists between the control and hypertensive males though no positive correlation was observed. &nbsp;</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Efficacy of navaka guggulu in the management of obesity: A case study 2019-07-06T12:40:44+00:00 Sherly Deborah G Archana R Suprava Das Myat Thu Thu Win Usha Kumari <p>Obesity is a global public health problem because of its increased prevalence and health effects. It is the most common disorder encountered in clinical practice, which has serious social and psychological dimensions that affect all age groups. A 28-year old married obese male whose body weight and height were 97 kilograms and 5.9 feet respectively showed a body mass index (BMI) of 30. All the examinations and tests were normal before the study. There were 3 weight reduction regimes that included only walking in the morning during the first month, followed by walking with dieting in the second month and in addition to dieting and walking, two tablets of Navaka Guggulu was prescribed to be taken daily. The vital signs, bowel habits, micturition habits and appetite were assessed daily. After the interventions, the weight reduction was observed at 0.5, 0.8 and 4.7 kgs at the end of the first, second and fourth month, respectively. The results of routine blood parameters, autonomic function tests and respiratory function tests were normal with an increase in the haemoglobin level, high-density lipids and a decrease in the total cholesterol level, triglycerides, low-density lipids and very low-density lipids. The present study showed that Navaka Guggulu was not only beneficial but also safe and efficacious in the treatment of obesity.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Effect of endurance exercise on attention and depression in Parkinson’s disease patients - A new approach 2019-07-06T12:39:55+00:00 Sujatha B Sarumathi S Tinu Priya R <p>Aim of the study is to determine the effects of endurance exercise on depression and attention deficiency in people with Parkinson’s disease patients. The methodology of the study is,15 participants with Parkinson's disease were selected both male and female from the neurological rehabilitation centre, Chennai. The purpose and procedure of the study were completely explained to the participants, and informed consent was obtained from all the participants. Depression scale and the digit-symbol task was evaluated before starting the exercise program and participants were randomized into two groups (Group A and Group B). This study compared the effect of endurance exercise to stretch-balance training. The exercise program was given for a duration of 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, Hospital anxiety &amp; depression scale and digit-symbol task were used to check for the progress. The result we determine from the statistical analysis, it has been revealed that depression symptoms decreased with endurance exercise and stretch-balance training but didn't show any significant improvement on attention with endurance exercise while with stretch-balance training it shows minimal improvement. Hence, we conclude that endurance exercise is a viable intervention in PD that can be used as a protective technique against depression symptoms and can also be used for improving attention in people with Parkinson’s.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Molecular detection of Candida species by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PCR from HIV infected persons 2019-07-08T11:14:01+00:00 SandhyaRani T Srikumar R Prabhakar Reddy E Latha S <p>Oral Candidiasis an important opportunistic fungal infection in HIV patients. This is the first sign of HIV infection. It can spread from the mouth through the pharynx to the oesophagus. Oral Candidiasis is most regularly complicated with<em> oesophagal Candidiasis, </em>which may restrain nourishment and result in weight reduction, alarming the overall health of the HIV tainted persons. In present study, we have a tendency to&nbsp;determine in Candida species by blend of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) examination of PCR from HIV tainted people and furthermore we demonstrated that phenotypic and genotypic identification&nbsp;method&nbsp;was&nbsp;vital&nbsp;to work out&nbsp;the species. We recognized seventy two Candida confines acquired from a hundred and fifty patients contaminated with HIV by utilizing PCR-RFLP assay. All inclusive primers for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) area (ITS1– ITS4) of the fungal DNA qualities were utilized for this measure. We distinguished the diverse Candida spp. By utilizing the limitation enzyme MspI. Here most of the isolates were obtained from male patients 40(51%). <em>Candida albicans </em>was the recurrent species segregated (46.8%) pursued by <em>C. tropicalis </em>(30.3%),<em> C. glabrata </em>(7.59%), <em>C. parapsilosis </em>(6.3%)<em> C.dubulinesis </em>(6.3%) along with<em> C. krusei </em>(2.5%) detected successfully. PCR- RFLP is a high definite, sensitive, quick, reliable technique and also applicable method for fungal detection in clinical laboratory for identification of medically important&nbsp;<em>Candida</em>&nbsp;spp. It is used for detection of mycological examinations in HIV-positive along with other immunocompromised patients for epidemiological studies.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Formulation and evaluation of bilayer tablets: Glimepiride in floating drug delivery and Metformin in sustained release 2019-07-06T12:39:30+00:00 Harish Choodappa Subramanian Somaskandan <p>In this study, we aimed to prepare bilayer tablets of Glimepiride in floating drug delivery and Metformin in sustained release formulation. Glimepiride is chosen in floating drug delivery to overcome the gastric irritation and gastric emptying time. Glimepiride was prepared by different polymers such as guar gum, xanthan gum, carbopol and sodium bicarbonate act as effervescent agent, and other excipients were mixed and compressed by direct compression as the first layer.&nbsp; Metformin was chosen in sustained release to reduce dose frequency using different polymer HPMC K100M, methylcellulose, PVP K30 in different ratio and other excipients were mixed and compressed as the second layer. The first layer and second layer are combined as a bilayer tablet. Tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, thickness, weight variation; the <em>In vitro</em> studies were done for all formulation. Among all formulation, F2 was selected as best formulation and release kinetics studies were evaluated for formulation F2.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Enantiomeric separation of Midodrine hydrochloride in bulk and pharma-ceutical dosage form by chiral HPLC 2019-07-06T12:39:05+00:00 Jenifer Ashwini S Narenderan ST Meyyanathan SN Babu B Gowramma B <p>A simple, sensitive chiral liquid chromatographic method was developed for the separation and quantification of enantiomers Midodrine. A chiral PAK IG-3 (150 x 4.6 mm) 3µm column was used for the separation of the enantiomers. The mobile phase consists of 10 mM ammonium bicarbonate in water and acetonitrile in the ratio of 95:5, v/v with a flow rate of 0.7 ml/min. The detection was done at 290 nm with column temperature maintained at 40°C. The method linear ranged between 10 – 110 μg/ml and 5 – 100 μg/ml for (+) and (-) Midodrine enantiomers.&nbsp; The recovery of the method was found to be in the range of 99.1 to 101.2 %. The detection limit for the (+) and (-) enantiomers was found to be 4 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml, respectively. A simple validated chiral HPLC method with reverse elusion is described for the separation and quantification of the enantiomers of Midodrine in bulk and formulation.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Phytochemical, Antioxidant, Anti-stress and Cerebro-protective activity of ethyl acetate extract of bark of Entada rheedi 2019-07-06T12:38:41+00:00 Marasani Anil Swarna Latha D Eswar Kumar K <p><em>Entada rheedi </em>is claimed to have antistress activity by folklore which is available abundantly in several places of India<em>. </em>The present study was planned to evaluate the phytochemical, anti-oxidant, anti-stress and cerebroprotective activities of ethyl acetate extract of bark of <em>Entada rheedi </em>(EAER)<em>. </em>The bark of <em>Entada rheedi</em> was collected and extracted with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate extract was subjected to phytochemical screening (chemical and HPTLC), antioxidant (<em>in-vitro</em>), anti-stress (mice model) and cerebroprotective activities (cerebral ischemia model). EAER showed the presence of flavonoids as primary phytoconstituents. EAER significantly reduced the immobility time in swimming endurance and tail suspension test. EAER significantly reduced the TBARS levels and augmented tissue antioxidants in restraint stress model and cerebral ischemia model. The levels of MOA-A were reduced in the EAER treated animals and cortisol levels also reduced in EAER treated animals. Histopathology also supported the biochemical parameters. The EAER effect was compared with reference standard diazepam and Ashwagandha. EAER showed significant antioxidant, anti-stress and cerebroprotective activities and the protective effect could be due to the presence of flavonoids as phytoconstituents.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Development of Graphical User Interface to Classify Cardiac Abnormalities using ECG Signal 2019-07-08T11:16:41+00:00 Sharanya S Sridhar PA Suresh MP Poorana Mary Monisha W Tharadevi R <p>Analysis of Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal can lead to better detection of cardiac arrhythmia. The important steps involved in the ECG signal analysis include acquisition of data, pre-processing of signal to remove artefacts, feature extraction of attributes and finally identifying abnormalities. This work proposes an efficient implementation of the R-R interval-based ECG classification technique for detecting abnormalities in heart functioning. ECG signals from an online database ( was analysed after noise removal for R-R interval, as R peak has the maximum prominent amplitude in ECG wave. Deviation in the R-R interval values obtained from unhealthy was observed and compared with healthy subjects. This observation of cardiac activity can be visualised in our developed Graphical User Interface (GUI). The GUI platform requires only the input of the ECG signal that is to be analysed for abnormalities, which can provide the clinician with the result of cardiac abnormality classification and can help in diagnosis.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Convolution Neural Network Based Ecg Classifier 2019-07-08T11:18:15+00:00 Sharanya S Sridhar PA Poornakala J Muppala Vasishta Tharani U <p>Classification of Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals plays a significant role in the identification of the functioning of the heart. This work pertains with the ECG signals, where the classifier is developed for identification of normal or abnormal conditions of the heart. The raw ECG signals are collected from an online database (<a href=""></a>) for classification. The raw ECG signal is pre-processed for noise removal, and the frequency spectrum is analysed to compare raw and denoised ECG signal. Attributes (P, Q, R, S, T time intervals) from denoised ECG signal is analysed and classified using Convolution Neural Network (CNN). The paper reports a classification technique to differentiate ECG signals from the MIT-BIH database (arrhythmia database, arrhythmia p-wave annotations, atrial fibrillation). The CNN analyses the deviation between nominal ranges of attributes (amplitude and time interval) and classifies between the abnormality and normal ECG wave. This work provides a simple method for interpreting ECG related condition for the clinician and helps medical practitioners to make diagnostic decisions.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Simultaneous estimation of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir in bulk and its dosage forms by stability indicating RP-HPLC method 2019-07-06T12:37:28+00:00 Ismail Y Vijaya Vara Prasad M <p>The fixed-dose ledipasvir-sofosbuvir combination offers an effective and well-tolerated pill for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection. Only a few analytical works were carried out to estimate the Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir drug combination in the various dosage forms. This work aimed to simplify the estimation process using RP-HPLC methodology. The method was developed on a reversed phase Agilent C<sub>18</sub> (4.6 x 150 mm, 5 µm) column. The isocratic elution process was performed using a mobile phase ratio of Methanol (70% v/v): Water (30 % v/v) with 0.6 ml/min flow rate. Elute was scanned using the PDA detector at the wavelength of 235 nm. The results of the elution process showed that the Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir elute the peak at a concentration of 9 μg/ml and 40 μg/ml with retention times of 7.745 min and 2.345 min respectively. The percentage purity of Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir was found to be 99.40 % w/v and 98.20 % w/v. The proposed method was found to be a high degree of precision and reproducibility. The percentage recovery was found to be 99.92 % for Ledipasvir and 99.82 % for Sofosbuvir. The LOD and LOQ were measured, and the results were within limits. The developed validation method can be applied for degradation evaluation of Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir for the various dosage forms.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Sequencing and structure analysis of UBC gene for breast and ‎lung cancer 2019-07-08T11:20:24+00:00 Saleen Salam Abdulhadi Abbas Abdullah Mohammed‎ <p>In the present study, sequencing approach has been adopted for exploring the ‎genetic alteration of sequences for the ubiquitin gene (UBC) in patients of breast and ‎lung cancer and comparing the results with a normal sequence that obtained from NCBI. ‎The aim of this study was to detect for genetic alterations of UBC gene in the breast and ‎lung cancer patients then compare with healthy control subjects, to investigate the ‎association between the mutations at the intron region of the UBC gene and cancer disease, ‎‎40 blood samples were examined from patients with breast and lung cancer aged ranged from (17-65) years, were collected at Al-Amal Hospital of cancer in Baghdad ‎province/Iraq, the period of collecting samples were from October/2018 to January/2019. ‎While twenty-two blood samples from healthy control subjects were collected at ages ‎ranged from(19-59). After DNA extraction, the PCR primer was designed to amplify the ‎region in the UBC gene (part of exon 1 and the whole intron). Here we report the polymorphism of the intron sequence of the UBC gene in Iraqi population as the results of sequencing the PCR amplified products showed three different transition mutation G→A, ‎C→T, T→C in patients with breast cancer were also appeared in healthy control subjects. While nine transition mutations appeared in lung cancer patients, at different locations ‎of the sequence were detected by BLAST tool. ‎</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Assessment and prevalence of depression among cardiovascular disease patients in Nilgiris District observational cross-sectional study 2019-07-08T11:22:03+00:00 Anand Vijayakumar PR Asem Veeves Singh Asish Kumar Saha Kavuri Srikar <p>Depression deter mental catabolic effect over the time, symptomatically affects quality of life which leads to worse health outcomes that linked to higher mortality and morbidity rates with huge impact on public health. Chronic conditions like Cardio Vascular Diseases (CVDs) deteriorates patient health with cognitive impairment that progresses to somatic dysfunction, which can exacerbate to the occurrence and development of depression with the increased risk of inducing Chronic Diseases. Depression are often neglected, overlooked and remains unrecognized and undertreated in the patient, especially in CVDs patient are considered as normal that instances to poor prognosis.&nbsp; The association of depression and CVDs are not incidental, but the lack of diagnosis for the coexistence of these co-morbid condition and poor treatment hindrance the disease outcome. Depression emerges an alarming cardio vascular risk factor which is associated with higher cost of care for the patient as well as burden to the healthcare system. Prior detection and identification with rational intervention of depression at CVDs will help to change the scenario by improving the standard of health and overall quality of life of patient. Here, in this study we assess the prevalence of depression at cardio vascular disease patient in Nilgiris population.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Optimization of extraction process for extract yields, total flavonoid content, radical scavenging activity and cytotoxicity of Curcuma aeruginosa RoxB. rhizome 2019-07-08T11:25:11+00:00 Eka Nurul Qomaliyah I Made Artika Waras Nurcholis <p>The rhizome of <em>Curcuma aeruginosa</em> RoxB. (RCA) is used traditionally for several diseases. The flavonoid compounds contained in the RCA that responsible for biological activities. In this study, ethanol, water, and acetone had been used as solvent extraction of RCA and applied the simplex-centroid design to optimize the extraction process. The radical scavenging activity and total flavonoid content were investigated using in vitro assays, while cytotoxicity was evaluated by brine shrimp lethality test. ANOVA suggested a linear model for all responses. The ethanol: acetone extract had the highest extract yield with a value of 25.15%, and this result showed no significant with acetone extract at <em>p </em>&lt; 0.05 (22.86%). The ethanol extracts confirmed the higher degree of total flavonoid content and cytotoxicity with a value of 17.97 mg QE/g and 140 μg/ml, respectively. The ethanol: water extract, ethanol extract, and water extract (IC<sub>50</sub>, 100-500 μg/ml) showed moderate radical scavenging activity compared with ascorbic acid (IC<sub>50</sub>, 7.19 μg/ml). Regarding the correlation analysis, the negative correlation was weakly observed between flavonoid content and IC<sub>50</sub> of free radical scavenging activity, which indicates that the flavonoid in RCA contributes not significantly to the antioxidant activity. Introductory studies on the extraction process of the advanced flavonoid extracts exhibited a scavenging and cytotoxic effect of the ethanol extract on <em>C. aeruginosa </em>rhizome.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Hepatoprotective effect of vitamin A and E on diclofenac induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar albino rats 2019-07-15T06:01:46+00:00 Siva T Girija Sivakumar Sankaran PK Yuvaraj Maria Francis Gayathri T Lakshmi Thangavelu Karunakarn Balaji <p>This study was done to show the changes in the liver following diclofenac treatment and to study the hepatoprotective effects of Vitamin E and A in diclofenac treated rats. Rats were divided into four groups of six rats each. Group-1: Control rats (n= 6), Group-2: Rats (n= 6) treated with diclofenac at dose of 50 mg/kg IM for 7 days, Group-3: Rats (n= 6) treated with Vitamin A at dose of 400 IU/kg orally followed by diclofenac at 50 mg/kg IM 2 h later for 7 days, and Group 4: Rats (n= 6) treated with Vitamin E at dose of 200 IU/kg orally followed by diclofenac at 50 mg/kg IM 2 h later for 7 days. Later it was analysed with standard biomarkers, and it was histologically interpreted. The results showed that there was an rapid increase in the levels of liver function test in diclofenac treated group, which was significantly decreased after pre-treatment with vitamin E than vitamin A. The liver acinus showed centriacinar necrosis of hepatocytes after 7 days of diclofenac treatment, which was prevented by administration of Vitamin E and A. Drug-induced liver injury possesses a major clinical problem and has become a leading cause of acute liver failure and transplantation. Overstressed liver compromises its detoxification role which may expose it to a variety of diseases and disorders. Diclofenac sodium is a phenylacetic acid derivative, a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for the treatment of inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, dental pain and spondyloarthritis. Although the exact mechanism by which diclofenac injuries in liver is not understood, some studies explain the toxicity by affecting cytochrome P 450 leading to the production of active metabolites. Hepatoprotective effects of Vitamin E were better compared to Vitamin A following treatment with NSAIDS. Hence, it may be necessary to administer Vitamin E in patients treated with diclofenac.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Antioxidant effects of vitamin E on diclofenac induced hepatotoxicity in male rats 2019-07-08T11:28:03+00:00 T. Siva Girija Sivakumar Sankaran PK Yuvaraj Maria Francis Gayathri T Kumaresan M Karunakarn Balaji <p>Drug induced liver injury possesses a major clinical problem and has become leading cause of acute liver failure and transplantation. Overstressed liver compromises its detoxification role which may expose it to a variety of diseases and disorders. The present study was to determine whether pre- administration of various doses of vitamin E would have protective effect against diclofenac induced hepatotoxicity in wistar male rats. Twenty-four albino male rats weighing 180-200g were divided equally into four groups. In control group rats were administrated with physiological saline 2ml/kg b.wt /intramuscularly. Another group with 50mg/kg b.wt/ intramuscularly/seven days diclofenac was used for inducing toxicity. In experimental groups rats were administrated with different doses of vitamin E along with diclofenac sodium [200 and 400 IU orally and 50mg/kg b.wt/ intramuscularly/seven days]. Showed that there was a rapid increase in the levels of liver function test in diclofenac treated group, which was significantly decreased after pre-treatment with high dose than low dose of vitamin E. The liver acinus showed Centro acinar necrosis of hepatocytes after 7 days of diclofenac treatment, which was prevented by administration of Vitamin E. Drug-induced liver injury possesses a major clinical problem and has become a leading cause of acute liver failure and transplantation. Overstressed liver compromises its detoxification role which may expose it to a variety of diseases and disorders. Diclofenac sodium is a phenylacetic acid derivative, a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for the treatment of inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, dental pain, spondyloarthritis, acute migraine, gout attacks and pain management in gall and renal stones. Although the exact mechanism by with diclofenac injuries liver is not understood, some studies explain the toxicity by affecting cytochrome P 450 leading to the production of active metabolites. Administration of different dose of diclofenac sodium induces severe adverse effects in liver and kidney.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Impact of plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocaline level on early outcome of a patient with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction 2019-07-09T12:03:47+00:00 Sadiq J. Al-Muhana Zahraa Abdulaali Al-Mudhafar Rawaa Bahlool Safaa Imran Musa Najah R Hadi <p>In patients with the atherosclerotic arteries, Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocaline (NGAL) may play a part in vascular remodeling and the instability of atherosclerotic plaques. Patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease have significantly higher levels of serum NGAL compared with persons with normal coronary arteries.This study aims to determine the short term prognostic value of NGAL serum levels in a patient with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. This is study enrolled twenty patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and twenty healthy subjects as control. Serum NGAL level was compared between the patients and control and then correlated with early outcome of the patients.There was a significant elevation of serum NGAL in STEMI patients COMARED&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; with control, and significant relationship was observed between admission serum NGAL early complications and mortality.High NGAL level associated with poor outcome in STEMI patients and can be use as initial indicator for close monitoring of high-risk patients.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Development and validation of chemometric assisted analytical methods for simultaneous estimation of Atorvastatin calcium and Aspirin in capsule dosage form 2019-07-08T11:37:52+00:00 Keerthisikha Palur BharathiKoganti Sreenivasa Charan Archakam <p>To develop two Chemometric-assisted analytical methods like UV spectrophotometry and RP-HPLC methods for the quantification of Atorvastatin calcium (ASC) and Aspirin (APN) in the capsule dosage form. Chemometric models used in UV spectrophotometry were Principal component regression model (PCRM) and Partial least-square regression (PLSR). Both the models were applied for the drugs in the calibration ranges of 4-20 and 30-150 μg/mL for ASC and APN respectively. Total of nineteen laboratory prepared mixtures were used for calibration and prediction set of the models. In addition, RP-HPLC method by using chemometric approach for was developed using C18 column at room temperature with a mobile phase of acetonitrile: methanol: triethylamine (53.1:11.9:35 v/v/v), pH- 3.0, with detection at 275 nm. PCRM and PLSR models were evaluated by statistical parameters and RP-HPLC method was optimized by using Response surface methodology. The developed methods like UV and RP-HPLC by using chemometrics showed almost similar results and both the methods can be used for their analysis.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Optimization of linseed cultivation, a promising way to enhance its secoisolariciresinol diglucoside lignan content 2019-07-06T12:33:22+00:00 Amira S. El Senousy Sabah H. El Gayed Saber H.A. Mostafa Saeed Z.A. Zidan Mohamad Louai M. Hariri Nebal D. El Tanbouly Essam Abdel-Sattar <p>There is strong evidence on the anticancer properties of secolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the predominant flaxseed lignan, especially for mammary and prostatic carcinomas. Although the effect of cultivar and location on flaxseed SDG level has been reported, much less is traced regarding the influence of agronomical treatments. The purpose of this study is to determine if agricultural management practices could enhance SDG accumulation in flaxseed. We studied the effect of irrigation frequencies (I), added nutrients (N, zinc and humic acid) and fertilization treatments (F) and their interactions on SDG level and seed yield of the Egyptian flax cultivar Giza 9. Samples were extracted and analyzed for SDG, after alkaline hydrolysis, using HPLC-UV method. The concentration of SDG and its yield varied between 415.55-845.95 mg/100 g whole seeds and 1.77-4.05 Kg/feddan on a dry weight basis, respectively according to different agricultural treatments. I, N and F factors and their interactions had a significant effect on SDG. I × N × F interaction contributed to the majority of SDG variation (31.81 %), followed by I factor (27.96 %), whereas seed yield was more affected by F factor (72.7 %). The I × F interaction was the only significant interaction on the seed yield contributing only for 0.43% of the variance. Moderate irrigation frequency with the humic acid foliar application and mineral nitrogen fertilizer was the best combination for achieving the highest SDG levels. Using optimum agronomic practice would benefit the nutraceutical industry by optimizing flaxseed lignan content and hence enhancing its anticancer, health-promoting effect.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Development of nano structured lipid carrier based hydrogel for the treatment of psoriasis 2019-07-08T11:40:29+00:00 Vishal Gupta N Kowshik K Nikita Sehgal <p>The present work aimed to develop Nanostructured Lipid Carrier Based Hydrogel for the treatment of psoriasis, delivered as a topical application on to the skin. Nanostructured Lipid carrier based Hydrogel loaded with methotrexate is a new technique for topical administration for psoriasis. Methotrexate loaded NLC's were prepared by a hot homogenization method using high-pressure homogenizer. Stearic acid and oleic acid were selected as the solid lipid and liquid lipid, respectively. Tween 80 used as a surfactant. The developed lipid formulations were incorporated in 1% Carbopol 934 gel medium to maintain the topical application consistency. Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy was employed to identify their functional groups. Differential Scanning Calorimetry was employed to determine its melting point. The particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index for the MTX-NLC were found to be 239.12±3.65nm, -24.61mV and 0.245 to 0.517. Scanning electronic microscopy studies will reveal the surface morphology of the nanoparticles. The pH of the drug-loaded formulation was in the range of 4.93 to 5.83. Spreadability was in the range of 3.01±0.59cm to 8.13±0.34cm. Viscosity at 25±2oC was 67325 cps.&nbsp; In vitro studies suggest that initial release rate was observed within first 4 hrs and amount of drug release was 35 to 47± 3.61%, fast and sustained release rate reached by 24th hr and release rate of the drug was 72%.&nbsp; The stability studies reported that the formulation was stable for 30 days after the incorporation of the drug, and there was no drug degradation or decomposition and no change in physical appearance. Hence, results indicate the sustain release activity of MTX-NLC Hydrogels, which could help in preventing the cell division and proliferation of cell acting as a major barrier in the topical application of psoriasis.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Nephroprotective potential of Neermulli/Nerunjil Kudineer on Cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar albino rats 2019-07-08T11:42:09+00:00 Noorul Alam Gopal V Vasanthi C Prabal Kumar Manna <p>Nerunjil kudineer/Neermulli Kudinner is an official Siddha polyherbal formulation used for the various ailments related to the kidney. Cisplatin is an alkylating agent used in chemotherapy for the treatment of various cancers. Its use is limited due to their nephrotoxicity. In this study nephroprotective effect of Nerunjil kudineer (NK) on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar albino Rats was studied. Male Wistar albino rats were used for this study. Animals were divided into 5 groups (n=6) as control, Cisplatin control (Single dose 7 mg/Kg i.p on the 7<sup>th</sup> day), Cisplatin with Cystone (p.o), NK200 and NK400 mg/Kg (p.o) for 10 days. At the end of the study, animals were weighed and sacrificed to estimate the relative kidney weight, serum creatinine and Urea. Kidney tissue was estimated for oxidant-antioxidant parameters (MDA, GSH &amp; SOD) and histology study was carried out. Cisplatin reduced body weight and increased kidney weight significantly (P&lt;0.0001). It deprived the renal function by elevating serum creatinine &amp; urea, MDA and reduction in endogenous antioxidants GSH and SOD significantly (P&lt;0.0001). Cisplatin group exhibited focal tubular necrosis and congested blood vessels in histology study. The standard drug Cystone and NK400 significantly increased the body weight, reduced the kidney weight, normalized the kidney function parameters (Serum Cr and Urea), bolstered antioxidant status and showed a trend towards the recovery of histological alterations. NK showed a dose-dependent activity and higher dose, NK400mg /Kg possessed strong nephroprotective activity, which may be due to the efficient antioxidant potential, which reduces lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress induced by cisplatin. The results strongly suggest that Nerunjil kudineer is an effective nephroprotective drug against Cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Uranium concentration variation dependency on gender correlated with age of bladder cancer patient 2019-07-08T11:43:45+00:00 Aseel S. Mahmood Omar Sh. Shafeq Mohamed S. Shafiq <p>Human health was and still the most important problem and objective of all most researches. Finding out what causes in the decadence of healthiness of Iraqi population is our tendency in the present work, Uranium causing cancer that is affected by a correlation between age and gender of bladder cancer patients is studied in the present work. Mean of Uranium concentration (Uc) decreased with increasing age for all age group without dependency on gender. While, there is a wide dispersion in Mean Uc excretion between males and females, due to the effect of correlated gender with age, where female Mean Uc is maximum at age 50-69 year (2.355 µg/L), and it's higher than male Mean Uc (2.022 µg/L) in this age stage because of menopause, also average period of illness and the percentage of patients are affected by correlated gender with age. So that factor of gender correlation with age affects in the calculation of background levels and radiation exposure and causing bladder cancer incidence.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Vacuum-assisted closure dressing in split-thickness skin grafting 2019-07-08T11:45:30+00:00 Ali A Ali Yasir N Qassim Ali N Areef <p>Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) has been applied to a variety of acute and chronic wounds that are difficult to manage, and is associated with improved wound healing outcomes. It involves the application of sub-atmospheric pressure in a controlled way to secure a split-thickness skin graft on the wound that has been sealed with an occlusive dressing.A study was conducted on the patients with a variety of indications for skin grafting, admitted to Azadi Teaching Hospital between March 2010 and August 2017. After the application of split-thickness skin graft, a closed, controlled suction was applied on the wound. The graft was then continuously observed, and the dressing was changed as needed.A total of 39 split-thickness skin grafting procedures were performed on 37 patients (20 male, 17 female), the age of the patients ranging between 7 and 68 years. The average grafted area was 12±70 cm<sup>2</sup>, and the percent graft take ranged from 90 - 100%.Vacuum-assisted closure opposes the graft firmly on the wound bed, sucks out the seroma and/or hematoma, prevents shearing of the graft and aids in immobilization of the grafted part; thus improving the quantity and quality of the graft take. This study also established that VAC was particularly useful when the wound site is difficult to access, the wound is highly contoured and the conditions are less-than-ideal for complete graft take.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Absent vagina a description of cases with varied ages, presentations and reconstructions 2019-07-08T11:47:28+00:00 Ali Adwal Ali Khalida M. Amin Emil N. AZZO Ayla K. Kahya <p>The aim is to describe cases of vaginal agenesis of varied ages presentations and managements and report the outcome of interventions regarding restoration of continuity of reproductive tract and normal sexual activity. A prospective descriptive case series study. &nbsp;Five female patients with vaginal agenesis were recruited from November 2005 to November 2016. Three were adolescents and had a functioning uterus. Three patients underwent vaginoplasty using McIndoe method, one had vagino-vaginal anastomosis, and the other had hysterectomy to remove source of menstruation. Age ranged from 12 to 24 years. The outcome of vaginoplasties to the 2 young females and to one of the adolescent girls was adequate vagina, whereas the other 2 adolescent girls had failed redo vaginoplasty and ended with a patent narrowed vagina in one and a closed vagina in the other which required a hysterectomy. On Follow up (range 5 - 42 months) 2 of the adolescent’s girls had regular menstruation with no pain and pelvic collection, while the third one had amenorrhoea following a hysterectomy. The 3 patients who had successful vaginoplasty got married and enjoyed satisfactory intercourse. Patients with absent vagina presents at variable ages depending on whether a functioning uterus is present or not. The success of vaginoplasty is less when it has to be done in adolescence than when it is done in adulthood when patient is grown-up. Best outcomes require accumulative experience, ideally with the aid of doctors of other specialties.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Serological markers of autoimmunity ‎in women with polycystic ovary ‎syndrome 2019-07-08T11:49:08+00:00 Wasan Wajdi Ibrahim Ekhlas Jabbar Kadhim Nada Saeed Abbas Saba Ryadh ‎Younis Hayder Adnan Fawzi <p>In the present study, we evaluate the serum level of common autoimmunologic markers in ‎women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and study their relationship with ‎hormonal ‎parameters. The study was ‎an observational case-control study, done in a Tertiary referral hospital, the study ‎included ‎50 women with polycystic ovary syndrome and 50 matched control.‎ Serum levels of Antinuclear Antibody (ANA) and anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) were significantly higher in polycystic ovary ‎syndrome women compared to control. Also, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and LH/FSH ratio were ‎significantly higher in polycystic ovary syndrome women compared to control. ‎dsDNA had excellent ability to differentiate PCOS from control (AUC=0.901) while ANA had good discrimination ability ‎‎(AUC=0.809). There was a significant direct relationship between ANA, dsDNA, and TSH ‎with FSH in PCOS women, ‏also a ‎significant direct relationship between ANA and TSH with LH, while ‎DsDNA did not correlate with LH. In conclusion, there is a clear relationship between immunological markers (ANA, dsDNA) with ‎‎polycystic ovary syndrome in various components of the disease, dsDNA offer better ability than ANA as a predictor of PCOS, indicating that dsDNA can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for PCOS.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Study of the correlation between CA15-3 and each of prolactin hormone and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme in women with breast cancer in THI – QAR governorate – Iraq 2019-07-08T11:50:56+00:00 Hadeel Rashid Faraj <p>The most malicious tumor in women is breast cancer. Its treatment at the early stage of its recognition in a woman provides her multiple options for diagnosis. Physical inspection and mammography are helpful screening processes for the primary recognition of breast cancer, they are also labor dependent and need health specialists who are exceptionally prepared and skilled. This experiment was designed to estimate and compare the CA15-3 level, hormone, and Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme in Breast Cancer patients and in apparently healthier individuals. Blood CA15-3, hormone, and Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme levels were determined in 65 Women with Breast Cancer and 55 apparently healthy subjects. The levels of serum CA15-3, hormone, and Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme were showing a significant increase in women with Breast Cancer in comparison to the control group (P ≤ 0.05). The study also investigates the correlation between the concentrations of the CA15-3 and each of hormone, and Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme, However, we compared all measurement parameters according to the type of disease. In Breast cancer patients, we increase CA15-3, hormone, and Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme can clearly occur, and we positive correlation relationship between CA15-3 and each of PRL and LDH through coefficient correlation (r).</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 The significance of uteroplacental ratio in the prediction of perinatal outcome in pregnancy-induced hypertension 2019-07-08T11:52:42+00:00 Iman Allami M <p>Doppler investigations of placental and maternal flow have picked up a wide prominence as it could give significant data with respect to fetal prosperity and could be utilized to distinguish embryos in danger of bleakness and mortality, in this manner giving a chance to improve fetal results. In such manner, the accessible typical reference estimations of proportion () for example uterine corridor Doppler waveform parameters to those of umbilical course and impact of hypertension on Doppler waveform of the obstetric populace of various countries, were not unequivocally illustrated. The examination incorporates 60 pregnant ladies (in two periods 33-36 weeks and 37-40 weeks of incubation, 40 of them with pregnancy instigated hypertension and 20 as a control. The uterine courses and umbilical corridor files were determined just as proportions () for the RI and S/D, subsequent to gating the normal estimations of both uterine conduits files, the proportion between the uterine supply route and umbilical vein records was taken(normal uterine supply route/umbilical vein proportion, ). The mean ± SD of parameters expressed in the following manner:For PIH group At 33-36 weeks: RI =0.89 ± 0.26, PI = 0.94 ± 0.41and S/D =0.86 ± 0.31. The 95% confidence interval of the mean for four weeks were 0.77-1.0, 0.78-1.11, 0.74-0.99, respectively. At 37-40 weeks: RI= 1.00 ± 0.26, PI =1.05 ± 0.43 and S/D =1.03 ± 0.36. The 95% confidence interval of the mean for four weeks were 0..61, 0..31 and 0.81-1.25 respectively. For control group:At 33-36 weeks : RI =0.69 ± 0.08,PI= 0.73 ±0.13, and S/D=0.67 ± 0.09. The 95% confidence interval of the mean for four weeks were 0..80, 0..90 and0..78 respectively. At 37-40 weeks : RI= 0.99 ± 0.31, PI=0.95 ± 0.33, and S/D=0.92 ± 0.25. The 95% confidence interval of the mean for four weeks were 0..80, 0.76-1.13 and0.78-1.06respectively. A starter foundation of proportion ( of RI, PI and S/D) of Iraqi obstetric populace in and PIH at third trimester is most likely settled. The present investigation gave reference ranges in regards to uterine and umbilical supply routes , and S/ at 33-36 and 37-40 weeks of incubation in both.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Synthesis, characterization and pharmacological activity of new 2- imino –thiazolidine-4-one derivatives 2019-07-12T06:01:22+00:00 Raghdah M. Alwiswasy Raheem Jameel M Basim Jasim Hameed <p>A new 2-iminothiazolidin-4-ones compound and its derivatives were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, CHN, and <sup data-id="superscript-1">1</sup>HNMR techniques. The target compounds were assessed for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, and the study was performed using Swiss albino mice (25-30 g) for investigation. A hind edema model caused by , while the analgesic activity was assessed using an acetic acid-induced writhing and a hot plate test evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Anticancer potential of the extract of Melothoria maderaspatana on DMH induced colon cancer in albino rats 2019-07-15T11:11:51+00:00 Ramachandran K Venketnarayanan R <p>Cancers of the large and small intestine are major contributors to worldwide cancer morbidity and mortality. Out of all the cancers, colon cancer is one of the most common diseases in the world. Every year 1.2 million patients are diagnosed for colon cancer. The rate of colon cancer incidence was low in India but is presently increasing; out of 3.5 million cancer cases, 35,000 have colon cancer. As a part of chemotherapy, lots of anticancer drugs are in the market, but the main problem associated with these drugs is their side effects. Because of chemotherapy treatment side effects, the patient needs secondary palliative care treatment. Plant medicines are well known for their non-toxic side effects, so the objective of the study is to develop a drug from medicinal plant against colon cancer with non-toxic side effects. It plays an important role in the discovery of lead compound for the development of conventional drugs. About 60% of currently used anticancer agents are derived from a natural source. In the present study, <em>Melothoria maderaspatana</em> was used to study the anticancer potential of the extract and to synthesize new anticancer moiety. With the findings of the study, it can be concluded that the plant <em>Melothoria maderaspatana</em> and possess anti-colorectal cancer activity. Before the clinical usage of extract, thorough toxicological profile has to be determined on the crude extracts as well as on isolated compounds to confirm the safety of the drug.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Effect of passive, active and combined warm up on the lower limb of healthy individuals 2019-07-12T07:29:45+00:00 Priyanga Seemathan SujathaBaskaran Sangeetha Sadhasivam <p>Aim of the study is to determine the effect of passive, active and combined warmup on lower limb of healthy individuals. The methodology of the study is 30 individuals based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Detailed procedure will be explained in patient words, and informed consent will be obtained from all participants. Effect of active, passive and combined warm-up will be evaluated in the subjects. The post-test value will be taken after four weeks. The results we determined from the static analysis has been revealed that there is a significant improvement in physical fitness of combined warm-up group than the active and passive warm-up separately. In the vertical jump test for passive warm-up group, the pre-test mean is 37.71, with the standard deviation being 6.53 and the post-test mean being 38.24 with a standard deviation of 6.60. And for the active warm-up group, the pre-test mean is 38.69, with the standard deviation being 6.606 and the post-test mean being 39.4 with a standard deviation 6.65. And for the combined warm-up group, the pre-test mean is 38.94, with the standard deviation being 7.12 and the post-test mean being 40.57 with a standard deviation of 6.88. Hence, we conclude that it has been proved statistically that although improvements have been observed in three groups, the improvement is much more significant in the combined warm-up group.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 A comparative study on the effectiveness of PNF stretching versus static stretching on Pain and Hamstring flexibility in osteoarthritis knee patients 2019-07-06T12:41:55+00:00 Arul Pragassame S Mohandas Kurup VK Soundarya N <p>Osteoarthritis (OA) knee is a long-term chronic disease characterized by the destruction of articular cartilage and underlying bone. Pain, limitation of motion and functional impairment are common clinical features. Poor hamstring flexibility is a major problem for patients with OA knee. The stretching of the hamstring is a necessary intervention in the management of the OA knee. This study is therefore intended to compare the effectiveness of static stretching vs PNF stretching for pain, hamstring flexibility and functional mobility in OA Knee patients. 30 patients were randomly divided into two groups. Group A (N=15) received PNF stretching, wax therapy and isometric quadriceps exercises, and group B (N=15) received static stretching, wax therapy and isometric quadriceps exercises. The intensity of the pain was measured using the NPRS (Numerical Pain Rating Scale), hamstring flexibility by AKET (Active Knee Extension Test) and functional mobility by TUG (Timed up and Go) test. The results showed that significant differences in NPRS (Z=4.64, P=0.001), AKET (t=9.61, P=0.001) and TUG (t=8.19, P=0.001) were observed in group A patients when compared to group B. In conclusion, the PNF stretching treatment program is effective in reducing pain, improving hamstring flexibility and functional mobility in patients with OA knee compared to static stretching.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 A study about Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) regarding worm infestation among the caregivers of children aged between 5 – 12 years in a tertiary care hospital 2019-07-12T12:34:12+00:00 Jagadeesan M Mariraj I Prasanna Karthik S Kannan R Nivaas M Lohitya J Raghul U Farah Kamaludeen <p>Worm infection is a public health problem, especially in developing and underdeveloped countries as it has a negative impact on the child’s development. Proper sanitation and personnel hygiene have to be emphasized and monitored to overcome the nutritional deprivement in children. The study is done to evaluate the knowledge and attitude about worm infestation and to assess the deworming practices employed among the caregivers of children aged between 5 – 12 years attending a tertiary care hospital. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 206 caregivers of pediatric age group after obtaining proper informed consent. The KAP parameters were assessed using a pretested structured questionnaire, and the results were analyzed. Out of 206 caregivers, 61% were mothers, 37% were fathers. Their mean age was 30 years. 41% belong to class III socioeconomic status. 23% were reported to play in the mud, 17% nail-biting and 6% keeping objects in mouth.12% Had open-air defecation practice, which is quite alarming in a developing country.67% were found to have the knowledge and 33% lacked the knowledge about worm infestation. Knowledge was directly proportional to the socioeconomic class. 88% were aware that worm infestation would cause clinical manifestations. 85% preferred allopathy medicines, while 15% preferred homemade remedy. 68% didn’t practice any prophylactic measures, where in 21% of the caregivers dewormed their kid once in 6 months and 11% once a year. The study provides information that most of the caregivers had a good knowledge regarding deworming but failed in practicing necessary measures to control and prevent it. Health education, frequent monitoring, and conducting interventional programs among parents and caregivers would be vital so that the prevalence of the disease can be minimized.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Identification of Diabetics Mellitus using Iridology 2019-07-12T12:34:37+00:00 Asuntha A Sree Charan Y Siddartha M Udhaykumar K Andy Srinivasan <p>Diabetes is a general illness regularly contaminated in people. Numerous approaches to recognize diabetes, one of them is checking circulatory strain, however, along these lines isn't compelling, in light of the fact that it takes blood first and takes a ton of time. Iridology is a one-way investigation wellbeing dependent on the iris. In this manner, we need an apparatus used to recognize pancreatic harm as a sign of diabetes through iridology. TheBurden picture is the initial step to distinguish pancreatic organs dependent on the iris. The eye picture that we utilized as the info framework originates from the eye facility database. The subsequent stage is a versatile middle sifting utilized in the process preprocessing to lessen the commotion on the picture. After that, the subsequent stage is a division process utilizing Hough circle change technique. The consequences of division will be standardized and take the Region of intrigue. Return for money invested will be done element extraction by utilizing GLCM (Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix). To know the state of a pancreas organ utilizing back propagation strategy.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Optimization extracellular secretion of Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor (hEGF) in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pD881-OmpA-hEGF by using Response Surface Method (RSM) 2019-08-01T04:22:51+00:00 Annisa Indriyani Nenden Indriyani Anggraeni Sriwidodo Iman Permana Maksum <p>Human Epidermal Growth Factor is techno-economically protein that has the function for stimulates a process of proliferation and cell differentiation. Because of that function, it can be a candidate for wound healing in ulcer diabetic. In the previous study, hEGF can extracellular secreted by OmpA signal peptide using recombinant DNA. The production method of recombinant hEGF will be extracellular secreted by <em>Escherichia coli</em>. However, the optimum secretion of OmpA has not been studied. Therefore the purpose of this study is to determine the optimum conditions using the RSM method. This research begins with a rejuvenation of culture, extracellular secretion, and optimization with the RSM method, followed by protein production at optimum condition. Secreted recombinant protein measured by Sandwich ELISA method and LOWRY. The result showed that the optimum condition was found in the medium concentration of 1.5x and induction time at 2 hours 10 minutes and the total protein yield of expression was 21.247 mg/mL with optimization percentage 2.96% and efficiency 50.56 % and recombinant protein hEGF concentration in fermentation media 416 μg/mL</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 A study on knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) towards contraceptive use among married women attending a tertiary care centre 2019-07-19T11:01:20+00:00 Nithyananthan P Jagadeesan M Prasanna Karthik S Kannan R Bavithra K Pavithra P S Kaviya T Shilpa R <p>In the Indian society, various factors other than mere knowledge have shown to have a more significant impact over contraceptive usage and choice such as educational levels of women, marital duration, cultural and social factors, and exposure to mass media. This study focuses on assessing the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of contraceptive use among married women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among married women aged between 18 to 49 years attending a tertiary care hospital in the city of Chennai from June to September 2018. A total of 146 women were interviewed, and the KAP parameters were assessed using a pretested structured questionnaire. Though 97.9% (n=143) of the women in this study had knowledge about some form of contraception, only 24.7% (n=36) practiced them. Among the users (n=36), the decision to adopt contraception was made by the husband in 69.4% (n=25).Among the non-users (n=110), the major reasons for not practicing contraception were lack of interest in 37.2%(n=41) and fear of side effects in 35.5% (n=39).This study demonstrates a significant gap between the knowledge and practice of contraceptives in our population. Improving doctor-patient relationship and encouraging a positive attitude of the husband towards contraception are the key factors in promoting adoption of the contraceptive practices.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 A hybrid feature extraction approach for the detection of melanoma using neural network 2019-07-19T10:51:40+00:00 Asuntha A Faizy Rahul S Akshay Menon Pranjal Andy Srinivasan <p>In spite of the gargantuan number of patients affected by melanoma every year, its detection at an early stage is still a challenging task. This paper illustrates a method which involves the combination of the existing ABCD (Involving symmetry, border, color, and diameter detection) rule and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) along with Local Binary Pattern (LBP) for identification of malignant melanoma skin lesion with greater accuracy. Several steps, such as image acquisition technique, pre-processing (RGB to HSV) techniques and segmentation processes are undertaken for the skin feature selection criteria to successfully determine the skin lesion's characteristic properties for classification. Texture features such as contrast, entropy, energy and homogeneity of the affected region is obtained using LBP and GLCM for discriminatory purposes of the two cases (melanoma and non-melanoma). Finally, the back propagation neural network (BPN) is used as the classifier to determine whether the dermoscopic image is benign or malignant.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Stability indicating RP-HPLC method development and validation for the simultaneous estimation of pibrentasvir and glecaprevir in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form 2019-07-19T12:26:47+00:00 Narayanaswamy Harikrishnan Vijaya vara Prasad M Gejalakshmi Subramanian Babu S <p>A plain sailing, unambiguous, speedy and error-free methodology was progressed for the quantifiable concurrent estimation of Pibrentasvir and Glecaprevir in conglomerated pharmaceutical dosage form. The contrivance was based on Chromatographic separation&nbsp; of both the drugs in reverse phase mode using C<sub>18</sub> (250 X 4.6 mm), 5μ by utilizing phosphate buffer (pH 4.0) and Methyl alcohol in the ratio of 30:70 v/v was allowed to flow through column at a rate of 1.0 ml/min, and the detection wavelength was set at 251 nm. The time of retention was found to be 2.205 min for Glecaprevir and 4.996 min for Pibrentasvir. The dimensionality of Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir was in linear range with a parametric statistic of 0.999 and 0.999. The acceptance criteria of precision was RSD should be not more than 2.0%, and the method showed precision 0.6 and 0.5 for Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir, which shows that the method was precise. % Assay was found as 100.83 and 100.23, which show that the method was useful for routine analysis. The total recovery was founded to be100.40% and 100.25% for Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir. LOD and LOQ for Glecaprevirwas found as 2.98 and 10.00 and LOD and LOQ for Pibrentasvir was found as 3.00 and 9.98. The methodology was assessed by various validation parameters in accordance with ICH Guidelines which indicates the method can be employed for routine quality control analysis.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 synthesis and characterization of new imidazole azo ligand with some of transition metal ions, and their biological effect on two pathogenic bacteria of burn patients. 2019-08-14T05:54:27+00:00 Israa N. Witwit Husham M. Mubark Hutham Mahmood Yousif Al-Labban Ahmed abduljabbar jaloob aljanaby <p>New imidazole&nbsp; azo ligand (DPIDA) was prepared by coupling reaction between 4,5-di phenyl imidazole and N1,N1-dimethylbenzene1,4-diamine di hydrochloride&nbsp; and studied the complexation of this ligand with Mn(II) , Co(II) , Ni(II) , Cu(II) , Zn(II) , Cd(II) , and Hg(II)&nbsp; ions , The free ligand and it’s complexes&nbsp; characterized by Mass, <sup>1</sup>HNMR, IR, UV-Vis. ,&nbsp; and molar conductivity that indicated the octahedral geometry of them with a bidentate ligand which coordinated from (N3) atom of imidazole ring and one nitrogen atom of azo group.Biological activity of ligand (DPIDA) and it's complexes tested against two multi-drug resistant aerobic pathogenic bacteria isolated from patients with a burn. Three concentrations were selected (50, 100, 150) mg/ml for each crud synthesized derivative compounds. The derivative compound (4,5-diphenyl imidazole) with concentration 150mg/ml had an excellent antibacterial effect against <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>and<em> Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> with inhibition zone 21.83 ± 0.1764 mm and 24.30 ± 0.4163 mm respectively.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Lung cancer detection using Adaptive Bilateral Filter (ABF) techniques 2019-07-20T06:23:16+00:00 Asuntha A Andy Srinivasan <p>Lung cancer plays a major role among the people who are affected with cancer.&nbsp; The major reason is the presence of nodule in a lung region. Early diagnosis of this nodule may decrease the severity also increase the life span of a patient. In this paper, a methodology is proposed to detect the lung nodule and nodule region using texture features. Various image processing techniques are used in this paper. CT images are taken as input over MRI because of its advantages over less exposure of radiation[4]. The given input image is denoised by using adaptive bilateral filter and image contrast is improved by the histogram equalization technique. Superpixel segmentation is used for the segmentation process. A Simulation process has been done using MATLAB software.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Oxidative injure occur of Citalopram and Floxtein in Rat with embryos in Different Organs 2019-07-22T04:34:05+00:00 Rasha Noori Abid AL.Shammary <p>The reason of this study was investigate effects Citalopram and Floxtein for histological embryos in different organs with anatomical effects in male reproductive organs of adults rats for 90 days. The 45 rats were divided into three equal groups (control and two treated groups), and animals were treated as follow: 1- Control group (n=15) 2-Treatment group (n=15) treated each day with citalopram tablets 20mg in distal water for 80 days.3-Treatment Group (n=15) treated daily Fluoxetine capsules 20mg in distal water for 80 days. At 84 days animals sacrificed then male reproductive organs, with embryos weighted and take organs for histopathological study. The present study shows that treatment with Citalopram and Floxtein cause a significant reduce in body weight of embryos and effects on organs.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Evaluation of novel and superior formulation CaroTexTM developed by Biofusion Technology 2019-07-22T05:06:14+00:00 Sneha Bagle Suraj Muke Sagar Saha Shankarnarayanan Jayakodi Arunkanth Krishnakumar Sadhana Sathaye <p>Per WHO, vitamin A deficiency is a systemic disease affecting cells, organs throughout the body. The gradual depletion of vitamin A stores results in xerophthalmia, night blindness, xerosis etc., reversed by vitamin A therapy. Beta-Carotene, a carotenoid, is the precursor of vitamin A, which cannot be synthesized by the human body. Hence beta carotene formulation has gathered considerable attention in the healthcare industry.&nbsp; Hydrophobicity of Beta carotene being a major challenge in the formulation, Zeushygia Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd (Telangana India) developed a novel beta carotene formulation, CaroTex, with enhanced bioavailability.&nbsp; The present study assesses the bioavailability of CaroTex in a rodent model. The animals were divided into 5 groups, Normal Control, Vehicle Control, Standard beta Carotene, Comparator and CaroTex. As rats efficiently convert beta carotene into vitamin A, high dose of beta-carotene (50mg/kg) was given orally for 7 consecutive days. Beta carotene, its metabolic product retinal were measured in rat liver. It was observed that beta carotene concentration in rats fed with CaroTex was about 1.70, 2.55 times higher than Comparator and control respectively whereas the concentration of retinal was the same in all groups. It is evident from this study that novel formulation technology (BioFusion Technology) of CaroTex reflects in relatively higher concentration levels of beta carotene.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Development of novel bioadhesive niosomal formulation for the transcorneal delivery of moxifloxacin hydrochloride in the treatment of corneal ulcer 2019-07-24T04:46:43+00:00 Manoj K Suhail K <p>A corneal ulcer is an open sore or epithelial defect with an inflammation of the cornea of the eye. Most of the corneal ulcers are caused by bacterial infections and are common in people who wear contact lenses. Moxifloxacin eye drops are frequently used for the treatment of infectious ulcers. However such formulations have a major drawback, that is the short duration of action and usually, require 4-6 times installation daily. A bioadhesive polymer coated niosomal formulation of moxifloxacin was purposed to show a longer retention time on eyes and subsequent reduction in dosing frequency. Niosomes were prepared by solvent injection method using cholesterol and span 60. The coating of the niosomes was done using Carbopol 934or HPMC as a bioadhesive polymer. The mean particle size of bioadhesive niosomes found to be below 200nm. Optimization of the coating was based on <em>in vitro</em> diffusion studies, <em>ex vivo</em> transcorneal permeation studies and bioadhesion studies. The retention time of the formulation was determined by <em>in vitro</em> and <em>ex vivo</em> bioadhesion testing. The antimicrobial assay confirmed the potency of the formulation against the gram-negative organism. The current study revealed that bioadhesive niosomal formulations have longer corneal retention time and have sustained drug release for a period of 24 hours.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Interleukin 15 and granulocytes colony stimulating factor levels in relation to ICSI outcome in subfertile PCOS women 2019-07-29T10:32:10+00:00 Zainab Obaid Jaddoa Ahmed Abdul- Hassan Abbas Najah Shakir Al Khalil <p>Polycystic Ovary Syndrome constitutes a complex heterogeneous disorder, considered one of the leading cause of delayed conception in women. Serum and follicular fluid cytokines are subject of extensive studies to identify their role in subfertility with controversial results. This study was aimed to evaluate the relation of Granulocytes Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) and Interleukin 15 (IL 15) levels to ovarian response and ICSI outcome in PCOS women undergoing ICSI. This cross-sectional study conducted at High Institute of Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technique and Baghdad IVF Private Centre. Which include 80 women divided into two groups: 40 PCOS women without other causes of subfertility and 40 non PCOS women with other causes of subfertility. Ovarian hormonal stimulation conducted according to GnRH antagonist protocol, then serum &amp; follicular fluid obtained at the day of oocyte retrieval for measurement of G-CSF &amp; IL 15 concentration measured by ELISA method, then statistical analysis is used to correlate the concentration of the cytokine with follicle number, retrieved oocyte number, oocyte maturity, number of 2PN oocytes, number of grade1 embryones, biochemical pregnancies and clinical pregnancy rates. The results of currents study revealed that Serum estradiol (E2) on hCG day was (2238.70 ±468.95 vs. 1997.40 ±291.95 pg/ml), endometrial thickness (10.80 ±1.49 vs. 10.24 ±0.98 mm), total follicle number (15.53 ±3.86 versus 12.43 ±2.25), oocyte number (13.03 ±3.10 vs. 9.83 ±1.52), mature oocyte (MII) number (9.48 ±2.45 vs. 7.75 ±1.48) mean number of fertilized oocytes (2PN) was (6.25 ±1.41 vs. 5.35 ±1.08), being higher in PCOS women compared to the control group. On day of oocytes retrieval, both median level of serum G-CSF (54.30) (35.35) and follicular G-CSF (59.00) (38.72) levels were significantly higher in PCOS than control groups, while there was no significant difference in median level of serum IL15 (59.10) (17.75) and median level of follicular IL-15(61.40) (16.00) between PCOS and control groups.&nbsp; The study concluded that in spite of higher levels of G-CSF and IL15 in serum and follicular fluid of PCOS women, a relation between G-CSF and IL15 with ovarian response could not be established in comparison to control group, however, both (G-CSF and IL15) may be a predictor of pregnancy among the same group of women both PCOS and controls.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Impact of pharmacist directed counseling on knowledge, attitude, practices and medication adherence among hypothyroidism patients: a quasi-experimental design 2019-07-30T06:03:03+00:00 Narayana Goruntla Vijayajyothi Mallela Devanna Nayakanti <p>The pharmacist plays an important role in providing counseling services to patients suffering with various chronic disorders and to improve health outcomes. The study aims to evaluate the effect of pharmacist mediated counseling on Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) and medication adherence (MA) among hypothyroidism patients attending outpatient department of a secondary care referral hospital. This is a Quasi-Experimental design without control. A total of 403 patients were enrolled and subjected for KAP assessment by pre-validated questionnaire, and medication adherence levels by pill count and visual analogue scale methods. All patients were counselled by the pharmacist regarding hypothyroidism and its management. After three months, post-KAP and medication adherence levels were measured. Chi-square test was used to compare the adequacy of KAP levels. The paired t-test was used to compare mean medication adherence and mean KAP percentage levels. The mean KAP percentage levels were significantly improved after counselling (80.5±16.4; 86.2±15.7; 67.5±13.8) compared to before (34.1±21.7; 33.8±22.9; 24.5±20.9) with a <em>P</em> value less than &lt;0.0001. There was a significant improvement in mean medication adherence levels measured by visual analogue scale method and pill count method after counselling (92.4±4.8, 97.4±3.2) compared to before counselling (76.8±6.8, 80.3±6.4). The study illustrates how pharmacist plays an integral part in improving medication adherence and KAP towards hypothyroidism management. Improving KAP and medication adherence levels will promote positive clinical outcomes and prevents complications associated with hypothyroidism.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Evaluation of rituximab infusion therapy in patients with recalcitrant pemphigus vulgaris 2019-07-30T06:07:17+00:00 Akeel Hamed Jabur Farah Saleh Abdul-reda Suhad Jassim abdlkadhim <p>The usual approach is to treat pemphigus vulgaris by corticosteroids and in some cases, immune suppressive agents may be indicated. The response is often satisfactory to the patient and acceptable clinically; however, the use of such agents is not free of side effects. Adverse effects associating the use of corticosteroids and immune-suppressing agents are numerous, but the principal side effects are those of fatal infections and neoplastic disorders. Therefore, the search for other forms of treatment modalities has been proven necessary, especially in resistant and recalcitrant types of the disorder. A number of studies have shown role Rituximab in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris; however, results were conflicting. Therefore we planned and conducted the current study to assess the efficacy of this drug in the treatment of recalcitrant cases of pemphigus vulgaris in a sample of Iraqi patients in the Mid-Euphrates region.</p> <p>to assess the efficacy of Rituximab in the treatment of recalcitrant cases of pemphigus vulgaris in a sample of Iraqi patients in the Mid-Euphrates region. The current cohort study included 10 patients with pemphigus vulgaris. Those patients were selected from the pool of patients visiting the dermatology consultation unit at Al-Diwaniyah teaching hospital, Al-Diwaniyah Province, Iraq during the period from January 2017 through June 2019. Age, gender, duration of disease, previous treatment, and maintenance treatment were the main variables included in the study; the outcome was a response to treatment classified as satisfactory, partially satisfactory and unsatisfactory. All patients were given an intravenous infusion of Rituximab in a dose of a 375 mg/m<sup>2</sup> in a weekly basis. The patients were followed for a minimum of 6 months. All patients were treated by intravenous rituximab and followed for a period of 6 up to 18 months, mean of 11.30 ±3.83 months. Four (40.0 %) patients developed a satisfactory response, 5 (50.0 %) had partial satisfaction, and a single patient had an unsatisfactory response. Response to treatment was no significantly correlated to patients' age, gender or duration of disease; however, there was a significant positive correlation between duration of treatment and response to it. Good rate of satisfaction can be obtained following the use of weekly based intravenous retuximab in patients with recalcitrant pemphigus vulgaris.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Maternal risk factors for low birth weight of neonates in al- diwaniyah province, iraq 2019-07-30T06:10:49+00:00 Adel J. Hussein <p>The LBW infants as weighting less than 2.5kg at birth. Infants with low birth weight are probable to suffer medical <a href="">trouble</a>s and delay development from the time of delivery to adult life. This study was planned to discover the prevalence of LBW infants in Ad-Diwaniyah city (Iraq) and the maternal risk factors, which contribute to the occurrence of low birth weight, and it is rated and what the suitable recommendations can be made to prevent this problem.&nbsp; Unfortunately, in Iraq, several studies reveal an increase in the delivery of LBW infants in the last years. The present study was aimed to identify the prevalence of LBW and possible maternal factors in children, teaching hospital in Al-Diwaniyah city during the period of the beginning of February 2017 to February 2018. This is a cross-sectional survey held out in Pediatric, teaching hospital through 1012 pregnant mothers giving a live LBW. Whole children weight on a weighing machine. Data was collected through the interview of mothers. Maternal age and education level, socioeconomic condition, number of prenatal visits, interpregnancy interval and maternal diseases, and infant gender were registered in questionnaire format. The result of the current study detects that the rate of LBW was 20.2%. The highest percentage of them (LBW) was preterm 67.4% and full, term (IUGR) 32.5%. 61.5% of the children in the LBW group were male, and 38.4% were female.&nbsp; Besides the outcome indicates that there are many important risk factors contributed to the incidence of LBW, these are; multiple pregnancies were found to be 66.8% of LBW infants,&nbsp; maternal age 21 – 35 years (39.7%),&nbsp; lack of Prenatal Care (60.3%),&nbsp; delivery by cesarean section (70.6%),&nbsp; mothers who illiterate (64.8%),&nbsp; a large number of mothers from the rural area (68.6%),&nbsp; the presence of maternal diseases (63.5%),&nbsp; all these are considered a risk factor. The current study demonstrates the essential elements give rise to low birth weight in neonates are gestational age (preterm delivery), maternal education and age, multiple births, regular prenatal care, cesarean section, and bad obstetric history.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Effect of vitex agnus castus fruits methanol extract against murine mammary adenocarcinoma cell line (amn3) and rat embryonic fibroblast normal cell line (ref) 2019-08-08T12:05:30+00:00 Zeinat. W. Ribat Hayder B Sahib Ahmed M. Al-Shammari <p><em>Vitex agnus castus</em> showed antiproliferative activity in several previous studies. Angiogenesis is one of the targets in the remediation of cancer. This study aimed to demonstrate the effect of methanol fruits extract of <em>vitex agnus castus</em> on mouse mammary gland adenocarcinoma cell line and rat embryonic fibroblast cell line. &nbsp;The cell lines used in this study were obtained from tissue culture unit/ Iraqi Center for Cancer and Medical Genetic Researches, Al-Mustansiriyah University was maintained in RPMI- 1640 tissue media after preparing from 10% fetal calf serum, antibiotics solution and other materials to make complete growth medium. Serial solutions of <em>vitex agnus castus</em>, methanol crude extract have been tested on 10*4 of AMN3 and REF in each well of 96 well plates. The results of the current study showed that the concentration that inhibits fifty percent of cell line after 72 hours of the experiment (IC50) was 129 ug/ml for AMN3 and 1324ug/ml for REF cell line. The antioxidant activity of <em>Vitex agnus castus</em> may indicate the proliferation inhibition activity of <em>Vitex agnus castus</em> methanol extract. The study concluded that this extract might be of benefit if used in combination with other anti-cancer drugs as adjuvant therapy.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Mets and oscillating energy manual therapy in chronic lateral epicondylosis: a comparative study. 2019-07-30T06:17:18+00:00 Rayees Unnisa N. Sivajyothi G.Yatheendra kumar M.A Wajid Ur Rahman Imaduddin Ahmed <p>Lateral Epicondylitis (LT) term was used previously thinking that it as an inflammatory condition, but it is tendinosis of Common extensor tendons of the forearm due to overuse. The incidence of the condition is about 4000 - 7000 per year in the general population in the United States. Conventional treatments practiced on the concept of inflammation have shown forty to eighty percent of unsuccessful results. Individuals with lateral epicondylosis may have symptoms like pain during activity, weakness, swelling and functional disability. The primary objective of the study is to find out the effectiveness of oscillating energy manual therapy (OEMT) compared with muscle energy technique (MET) on functional outcome in subjects with lateral epicondylosis. Total of 30 subjects with unilateral lateral epicondylosis was selected and was divided into two groups of 15 each in a group. Group A (received oscillating energy manual therapy) and Group B (received muscle energy technique). NRS (Numerical Rating Scale), Grip Strength and PRTEE (Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation) scale were measured pre and post-treatment for both the groups and also at follow up of the sixth week. Muscle energy technique group showed improvement in pain levels, muscle strength and functional activities. The statistical analysis demonstrated that results were more significant in group B at 4<sup>th</sup> week and also at follow up with a mean difference of (2.3) for NRS, (57.4) for PRTEE and (5.9) for grip strength than group A.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Factors affecting the decision to purchase innovative pharmaceutical products by the thai pharmaceutical industry 2019-07-30T06:12:54+00:00 Sorranut chetsurakul Achara chandrachai Narueporn sutanthavibul <p>The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between factors affecting the decision to purchase and the need for innovative pharmaceutical products by the Thai pharmaceutical industry. An orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) is an example of an incremental pharmaceutical innovative product which is still a new concept in Thailand. The results show that financial factors, as well as government policy and drug regulations, have a positive effect on the purchasing decision of pharmaceutical excipients for ODT from the Thai pharmaceutical industry.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Elevated anticardiolipin titer as a stroke factor in young patients in kirkuk city 2019-07-30T06:10:06+00:00 Raad Hassan Najim Bilal Jamal kamal <p><strong>Background:</strong> Stroke is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and it is the third leading cause of medical death in developed countries. Stroke can be classified into ischemic disease (80%) and hemorrhagic disease (20).</p> <p><strong>Subject and methods: </strong>A case-control study done in the period extending from November 2013 to April 2014 in neuro medicine department in Azadi teaching hospital in Kirkuk city in Iraq. This study involving 2 study groups, each one of them, including 50 patients. The first group (cases) included 50 patients diagnosed as having an ischemic stroke by neurologist their ages were less than 45 years .in&nbsp; another group (control), 50 patients involved admitted to the same hospital with no history of prior ischemic stroke<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Fifty patients with stroke of ischemic orgin and 50 controls included in the study. Table 1 summarize demographic and clinical characteristics of patients and control groups, control was older than ischemic stroke patient with no significant correlation (P-value=0.33). Gender distribution showing a significant correlation in regarding female sex in both groups (P-value=0.001). Ischemic stroke according to our findings is more prevalent in those patients with Hypertension with 66% of patients in comparison to 42% of control patients with P-value of 0.0001, diabetic patients with double percentage (72%) to those in control group (36%) with P-value of 0.0001,coronary arterial disease ,valvular heart disease and rhythm disease such as atrial fibrillation seen to be more popular&nbsp; in those patients with ischemic stroke with no significant value in regarding to patients having coronary and valvular heart disease (P-value=0.11,0.21) and strongly associated with those patient presented with atrial fibrillation (P-value=0.0001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Elevated anticardiolipin antibodies are seen to be as an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Synthesis and characterization of new diacid monomers and poly (ester-imide) s: a study of thermal property relationship and solubility 2019-07-30T06:07:46+00:00 Ruaa Jameel Kamel Mohammed Ali Mutar Farah Safi Khlewee <p>Two dicarboxylic acids [2,2'-(((4-hydroxyphenyl) methylene) bis (3-Bromo-4,1- phenylene)) bis (1,3 dioxoisoindoline 5 carboxylic acid)) and 2,2 '(((2,4dichlorophenyl) methylene) bis (4,1-phenylene)) bis (1,3-dioxoisoindoline-5-carboxylic acid)] were made by the reaction of pyromellitic anhydride (PMDA) with diamine in a solvent of g pyridine/glacial acetic acid at refluxing temperature. The organization of the diacid monomers is defined by FTIR and <sup>1</sup>H-NMR spectroscopy. The sequence of new poly (ester-imide) s are arranged of two di acids and aromatic diols: [Bis (4hydroxyphenyl) 2 furelmethaneand 4,4'((1,4phenylene (methanylyidene)) bis (azanylylidene)) diphenol] by employing the polycondensation in the company of the dibutyltine dilaurate as a catalyst. The PEIs were defined by FTIR, <sup>1</sup>HNMR, and TGA. Poly (ester-imide) s showed excellent solubility in polar aprotic solutions because of the existence of flexible groups in the polymer backbone. Furthermore, they displayed better thermal constancy, and the heat at that 10% loss of weight happened about700 to 800°C.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Self nano emulsifying solid of clopidogrel - developement, characterization, evaluation and effect on bioavailability 2019-07-30T06:03:05+00:00 Satheesh Manoharan Subramanian Somaskandan <p>The aim of the present study is the development and characterization of self-nano emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDSs) to improve the rate of dissolution of poorly water-soluble anti-platelet agent clopidogrel bisulfate. The solubility was estimated in various vehicles to select proper components and compositions. Cinnamon oil (as oil), Tween 80 (as a surfactant), polyethylene glycol 400 (as co-surfactant) and Water is used to construct pseudo-ternary phase diagrams.&nbsp; Stability, dispersibility and robustness to dilution were performed to optimize formulations by using the phase diagram. Formulations were prepared with different composed of cinnamon oil, Tween 80 and PEG 400 (S<sub>mix</sub>) ratios. The globule size of the optimized system was less than 200 nm, which could be an accepted nanoemulsion size range. The selected formulation F 7 SNEEDS of z-average size was 140.8 nm, and zeta potential was -28.6. <em>In vitro</em>, drug release studies showed a significantly enhanced rate of dissolution of F 7 SNEDDS when compared to the marketed formulation.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism (-174 G/C) association with seropositive Toxoplasma gondii infection patients in Al-Diwaniyah hospital 2019-07-30T05:51:27+00:00 Fatima Ibrahim Mohammad Mustafa Ali Abdul Ameer <p>The present study aims to detection Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism (-174 G/C) from seropositive <em>Toxoplasma gondii</em> pregnant women patients and healthy control from individuals reviewers to AL-Diwaniyah hospital. 80 samples were collected for the period from October 2018- April 2019, including two groups of 30 samples healthy control and 50 samples from pregnant women infected with <em>Toxoplasma gondii. </em>The results of the present study indicated the presence of IL-6 (-174 G/C) polymorphism in pregnant women infected with <em>Toxoplasma gondii</em> and healthy control. Where was observed that CG genotype more frequent in patients indicating the association of this genotype with the disease compared to the control group where CG genotype appears less. Also, the results of the current study indicate the appearance of allele C more frequently in pregnant women patients compared to healthy control. We can conclude from the present study there association of appearance allele C with <em>Toxoplasma gondii</em> infection.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Conventional and molecular detection of vibrio cholerae isolated from environmental water with the prevalence of antibiotic resistance mechanisms. 2019-07-30T05:48:21+00:00 Suad A Al-Hilu Ali M Al-Mohana Zainab Jaber <p>Environmental water is an important source for <em>Vibrio cholerae</em>, which is autochthonous to the aquatic environment, monitoring this bacterium in water is important for control of cholera. <em>Vibrio cholerae</em> represents an enormous public health problem around the world, especially in developing countries. One hundred samples were collected and selected. The samples were filtered and transferred to slants containing 2ml of alkaline peptone water, then subcultured on selective medium Thiosulphate Citrate Bile Salt Sucrose agar. All presumptive isolates were confirmed by using a series of biochemical tests including Oxidase test, Simmon Citrate test, DNase test, Indole test, Klingler Iron Agar (KIA) test, MacConkey agar test and motility. Confirmed <em>Vibrio cholera </em>strains were then screening for slide agglutination test by using commercially antisera polyvalent and monovalent O1 and O139 for determining strain serotype. The DNA extracted from pure culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction assay was used for molecular detection of Vibrio cholerae, a specific primer which designed according to <em>ctx</em>A gene sequences. This primer was detection and amplifying 241 base pairs of the <em>ctx</em>A gene. The resistance to antibiotics by Vibrio cholerae was determining by using thirteen standardized disc diffusion including Amikacin, Ceftriaxone, Ceftazidime, Gentamycin, Tetracycline, Streptomycin, Tobramycin, Cephotaxime, Nalidixic Acid, Norfloxacin, Cephalothin, Rifampicin, Cefixime. From one hundred water samples were detected, fifty-six samples were motile and positive for biochemical tests. Fifteen isolates confirmed as <em>Vibrio cholera</em> by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay with primers de­signed for<em> ctx</em>A and 241bp band was observed. These fifteen isolates showed agglutination with polyvalent and monovalent O1 antisera, and two strains represented Ogawa from other strains that showed Inaba. The fifteen isolates exhibited an identical response to each antibiotic examined. They showed sensitive to all antibiotics except Amikacin, Streptomycin, Cefixime, Norfloxacin, Cephalothin. the aim of this study was determined the accurate method for detection of <em>Vibrio cholerae</em> in environmental water. In the current study, we found that the molecular method using Polymerase Chain Reaction performance using the <em>ctx</em>A gene-specific primers for detection of <em>Vibrio</em> <em>cholerae</em> was faster and accurate and specific.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Protein supplements between consumer's opinion and quality control: an applied study in jordan 2019-07-30T07:00:03+00:00 Talal Aburjai Rudaina Othman Yousif Mahmood Jasim AlSamydai Ali Al-Samydai Farah Al-Mamoori Hanan Azzam <p>The consumption of dietary supplements has nowadays become popular, especially in Jordanian sports clubs and gyms. In fact, there is a widespread idea, among consumers, that these proteins contain hormones in order to increase their efficiency. The objective of this study is to develop a better understanding of customer opinion in an era that increased growth in Jordan and improves a chromatographic method to detect the testosterone in protein supplements. The method of this study, six popular types of proteins in the Jordan market have been chosen after conducting a primary study of the proteins' users by questionnaires to identify their opinions about these proteins. These proteins have been analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography by developing an easy and fast method to detect testosterone signal between 8-9 minutes of the chromatogram. The results of the study showed that 61% of the users believe that sport proteins contain hormones and other substances that are not mentioned in the list of ingredients. While 39% believe otherwise. On the other side, HPLC results of six proteins showed no signs for testosterone hormone. The main reason that drives them to take sport proteins is for building muscles in spite of they believe it could be harmful due to containing hormones and other substances. So in future investigations, it might be possible to use different brands and investigate them by using the same method.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Molecular analysis of multi –drug resistant acintobacter baumannii isolated in baghdad hospital 2019-08-02T10:27:13+00:00 Dunya Jawad Ridha Munim Radwan Ali kifah Ahmed jassim <p>Qurum sense is regulatory systems that enable bacteria to expretion for a specific set of genes by making collective decisions and regulation of virulence factors of pathogenic <em>Acintobacter baumannii</em>, the prevalence of carbapenem resistance among (8) different antibiotic groups pattern. In the MDR index, all isolates showed high MDR, ranged from (6-21) antibiotics. MDR index is between (0.29-1.0).Quantitative biofilm production assay showed that 118/124(95.1%)of isolates were biofilm-formers. Detection of QS genes showed that (97.6%)121/124<em>,</em>(98.3%)122\124 and (4.8%)of isolates carried <em>luxR, rhlI</em> and <em>rhIR</em> genes, respectivelly. All isolates possess <em>rhIR</em> gene are isolated from child meningococcal patients and characterized by the strong biofilm formation. Identification of <em>abaI</em> gene in&nbsp;<em>A.baumannii</em> producing the QS signal molecules detected in124\124(100%). The current study revealed a strong relationship between Q.S genes <em>luxR,rhII,rhIR</em> and oxacillinases presence <em>OXA23, OXA69.</em> While a strong negative correlation between <em>OXA48 and OXA69 with the rhIR </em>gene. All isolates carried Integron I(n=124)(100%) with a significant presence of (<em>luxR, rhII</em>) genes, while INT2,3 had a highly significant level with <em>rhIR</em>. Noteworthy, (n=105) 84.7% of OXA51 positive isolates have carried ISAbal-blaOXA-51, whereas all isolates which have OXA23 carried ISAbal-blaOXA-23(n=65)52.4% most of them revealed IMP&amp;MEM resistance phenotype. Insertion sequence(ISAbal-blaOXA-51) showed significant correlation with <em>luxR</em>, <em>rhII</em> genes, while there was no correlation among ISAbal25, ISAbal, ISAbal25-blaADC and <em>luxR, rhII</em>. Positive correlation recorded with all IS with <em>rhIR</em>, except ISAbal-blaADC.<em>ads-a </em>gene was observed in 77/124(62.1%) of isolates, which associated with aminoglycoside resistance, and included within the 93 XDR isolates. Studied isolates showed the same prevelance rate for <em>ompA</em>, <em>smpA</em> which was122\124(98.4%) of isolates.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Recognistion of glaucoma using otsu segmentation method 2019-08-02T11:31:33+00:00 Naga Kiran D Kanchana V <p>Glaucoma is an eye disease once it occurs, it cannot be cured. Be that as it may, in the event that it is starting stage doesn't take the therapeutic treatment its prompts the lasting visual impairment.&nbsp; Most of the literature surveys&nbsp;explain&nbsp;various techniques which&nbsp;are used&nbsp;with the help of&nbsp;the optic cup&nbsp;and optic disc to detect glaucoma. It tends to be successfully identified through the best possible segmentation of optic cup and optic disc. In this paper, we proposed about, NRR [neuro retinal rim] OTSU segmentation based technique. The disease will be confirmed by calculating the CDR [cup to disk ratio], RDR [rim to disk ratio],&nbsp;ISNT ratio [inferior,&nbsp;superior,&nbsp;nasal,&nbsp;temporal] and in analysis of glaucoma detection CDR and SVM [support vector machine] play the major role in identifying the glaucoma present or not. Our experimental technique&nbsp;has got&nbsp;the outcome of 94% accuracy.</p> 2019-07-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 A death calls from unsafe heights. a study of factors influencing the outcome of surgically treated pediatric head trauma patients in baghdad 2019-08-02T11:40:00+00:00 Ghazwan Alwan Lafta Ali Adnan Dolachee Alyaa Khalid Al-Zubaidi Samer S. Hoz <p>Pediatric head injury accounts for a large number of admissions in emergency rooms, it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children over 1 year of age. The aim of this study is to assess the outcome of surgically treated pediatric patients with head trauma in Baghdad. Patients and methods : This prospective cross sectional study was conducted in neurosurgery hospital in Baghdad including fifty two patients of pediatric age group from 1 year to 14 years old with surgically operated head trauma, in the period from 1/10/2014 till 1/10/2015. All the patients were received; examined and managed properly and followed up till 6 months after surgery. The outcome was truly affected by the mechanism of injury (p=0.001), falls from heights was the most common mechanism and it was significantly related to mortality, it also increased the rate of disability, while it had no significance regarding a good functional recovery. There were associated orthopedic injuries which also affected the outcome significantly (p=0.01) increasing the mortality and disability. The outcome was truly affected by pediatric coma scale (p=0.001), functional recovery was increased with higher score and mortality increased with lower score, and disability increased in both severe and moderate scores. Pediatric trauma score had a significant effect on the outcome (p=0.001), in score (less than 0) it increased the mortality, in score(0-5) morbidity was increased. Falls from heights are the most common mechanism of pediatric head trauma and greatly affect the outcome. Concomitant orthopedic injuries are associated with poor outcome. pediatric coma scale, pediatric trauma score are significant tools in predicting outcome.</p> 2019-07-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Evaluation the mechanical properties of PMMA / ZrO2 nanoparticles for dental application 2019-08-02T12:15:17+00:00 Logean Qadri Al-Karam Sadeer M.Majeed <p>Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) mechanical strength still has a couple of disadvantages form long term denture. This work aims to evaluate the influence of Zirconium nanoparticle (ZrO<sub>2</sub>) with various concentrations (0.15, 0.35, 0.6, 0.9) on tensile, compression, fatigue strength, and hardness test. The rise of the ZrO<sub>2 </sub>nanoparticles ratio yielded to a proportional increase in the material composite strength of tensile. In addition, the compression test showed that the ZrO<sub>2</sub> ratio rise increased the compressive strength of the compound material. As for the hardness test, it has been noted that the article has a high hardness ratio and is almost perfect. Moreover, the rate of fatigue test, which is a measure of the susceptibility of corrosion-resistant material, yielded good result in which the content has shown the ability to resist erosion for a long time. All over, the results mentioned above showed reliable capacity for denture base material with improved strength, fatigue, hardness and compression with the of addition ZrO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles to PMMA.</p> 2019-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Antibiotics resistance - a stumbling block to antibiotics research 2019-08-03T03:59:53+00:00 Sivasankari Marimuthu Arul Jayanthi Antonisamy Sankar Malayandi Karthikeyan Rajendran <p>Antibiotics are natural or synthetic substances that inhibit the growth of infectious microorganisms and prevent from them, causing serious infections. Though the discovery of penicillin was claimed to be accidental, later on, systematic procedures for antibiotic discovery was introduced by Waksman through his streptomycin discovery. Adopting Waksman's platform, many researchers are exploring natural sources in search of antibiotics. On the other hand, the development of resistance to antibiotics is growing at a rate faster than the discovery of new antibiotics. While a number of semi synthetic and synthetic compounds with antimicrobial properties are emerging to combat the above problem, the microorganisms are in no way working inferior to resist the actions of such substances. In fact, the development of resistance by microorganisms to above said alternatives are observed at an even faster rate than the natural antimicrobial compounds obtained from microbes. The reason behind such a faster resistance development is due to the similar structural features of semi-synthetic and synthetic compounds to natural antibiotics from microbes. The treatment of infectious diseases becomes a big task and requires a greater concern nowadays to avoid increased rates of mortality. This is an alarming condition demanding for the discovery and development of new antimicrobial compounds that would end up as a better solution for the existing problem and avoid the development of resistance. This review presents the background of antibiotics discovery and resistance development and also provides an insight into the available strategies to combat the problem.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 A case of scrub typhus presenting as ARDS 2019-08-03T09:01:05+00:00 Ahmed Siddique A Jagadeesan M Mariraj I Ramkumar M Prasanna Karthik S1 Kannan R Damodharan J Mageshkumar S <p>Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a disease, mainly occurring in critically ill patients. The systemic spread of infections mainly causes ARDS due to the seepage of fluid in the spaces of the lung . Scrub typhus is a infection caused by . The bite of mite transmits it. Scrub typhus is frequently due to its non-specific clinical presentation and relatively low level of suspicion in treating physicians. The clinical presentation of scrub typhus is varied from fever, , rashes, headache, to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, central nervous system involvement. The disease is usually indistinguishable from other febrile illness like enteric fever, disease, malaria and certain viral hemorrhagic fevers. Identification of an points to the diagnosis without which the diagnosis is based on a high index of clinical suspicion. We report an interesting case of scrub typhus presenting as acute respiratory distress syndrome.</p> 2019-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Kidney tumor detection and classification using image processing 2019-08-05T04:16:00+00:00 Rohith V Simmi Ramya N <p>Kidney cancer is a disorder where the cells of the kidney become abnormal and develop into a tumor. It is also referred to as renal cell carcinoma. The detection of kidney tumor in the early stages is very important; it is said that different imaging techniques can help doctors to decide the cancer stage and determine the appropriate treatment method. The detection and diagnosis of kidney tumors are performed by scanning images of computed tomography. Most existing works in renal kidney cancer is detection and diagnosis of the existence or absence of tumor in the kidney and classify the tumor as harmless or malevolent. The fundamental goal of this paper is to propose a strategy that will characterize the type of cells present in the kidney tumor. This can be accomplished through methods like segmentation, feature extraction using GLCM and classification using multiSVM.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 A typical drug design approach for AIDS in HIV genomics using various MD methods 2019-08-07T04:09:33+00:00 Bipin Nair B J Akshay Raj V P Chithranand V Nair <p>In our work, we are working with HIV genomes and AIDS proteins. In our method, we are performing sequence alignment using Needle man wunch algorithm of development and application the approach to calculate free energy and entropy by using the non-physical, chemical path through a thermodynamic series while the drug will interact with the protein. Here we are working on the principle-based on protein-protein, protein-peptide, protein-ligand, virtual screening and compulsory free energy estimation for HIV genomics and AIDS proteins. For sequence comparison, we are using the Needleman Wunsch algorithm. Proposed In our proposed work, we have taken the decision parameter is as binding energy to check the efficiency of the drug.</p> 2019-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Synthesis of novel 4-oxo-N-(4-oxo-3-substituted-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-yl amino)-2-phenylquinazoline-3(4H)-carboxamidines as AntiHIV, antitubercular and antibacterial agents 2019-08-28T04:18:25+00:00 Sulthana M.T Chitra K Alagarsamy V <p>A series of novel 4-oxo-N-(4-oxo-3-substituted-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-yl amino)-2-phenylquinazoline-3(4<em>H</em>)-carboxamidines are prepared from methyl 4-oxo-2-phenylquinazoline-3(4<em>H</em>)-carbthioimidate &amp; 3-(substituted)-2-hydrazino-quinazoline-4(3<em>H</em>)-ones. The starting material 4-oxo-2-phenylquinazoline-3(4<em>H</em>)-carbthioimidates were prepared from anthranilic acid while the 3-(substituted)-2-hydrazino-quinazolin-4(3<em>H</em>)-one was prepared from a range of 1° amines using multistep preparation. Entire synthesized analogues were screened for their antitubercular, anti-HIV and antibacterial activity. Among the series, N-(3-(4-nitrophenyl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-yl amino)-4-oxo-2-phenylquinazoline-3(4<em>H</em>)-carboxamidine <strong>(BQC7)</strong> and N-(3-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-yl amino)-4-oxo-2-phenylquinazoline-3(4<em>H</em>)-carboxamidine <strong>(BQC9)</strong> showed most potent activity against <em>S. epidermidis</em>, <em>S. aureus</em> &amp; <em>B. subtilis</em> with the MIC of 3 µg/mL. The compound <strong>BQC7 </strong>displayed the antitubercular potency at 12.5 µg/mL and anti-HIV activity at 8.53 µg/mL against HIV1 and HIV2. Thus, these derivatives are useful in the development of novel antitubercular &amp; antiHIV agents. The results obtained from this study confirm that the synthesized and biologically evaluated quinazolines showed promising antimicrobial, antitubercular and anti-HIV activities and are new scaffolds for antimicrobial activity.</p> 2019-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 A Comparative approach to cluster maternal data using k-means and k-medoid 2019-08-07T04:02:13+00:00 Bipin Nair B J Adarsh C K Nishin S Nihar K P Shivaranjith P <p>In our work, we cluster the data collected on pregnancy women through hospitals, into three different categories such as elective LSCS, emergency LSCS and normal delivery. We aim to identify outliers so that we can predict the complications that can occur during pregnancy. These complications can even lead to maternal death. Clustering is performed by the aid of k-means, and k-medoid procedures which are implemented in windows form application to run in Microsoft Visual Studio, a comparison is provided on its performance and efficiency between both the algorithms and also the outlier, i.e. normal delivery cases are detected and depicted. From our work, we can clearly say that K-Means works better when the dataset is between the range of 50 – 100. Suppose the data set is greater than 500 then K-medoid works efficiently. In our work, we are considering various maternity cases. Here we are detecting normal delivery cases as an outlier.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Poisoning trends in intensive care unit at secondary care hospital – a pilot study 2019-08-06T08:59:11+00:00 Sri Nanda G Balaji S Khayati Moudgil <p>Poison is known as a toxic and hazardous substance that is capable of causing illness to the living organisms. It can lead to some fatal outcomes. Self-harming has become a global issue, which is a burden on society. Every year millions of people die due to the consumption of toxic compound and leaving their loved ones behind in grief. The prospective pilot study was performed on a small scale for a period of three months. Each type of poison case admitted to Intensive care unit for the three months from July 2018 to September 2018 were taken into consideration. The informed consent has been obtained from all the patients, whereas demographics details of the patient were obtained using a predesigned data collection form. During the study period, 37 cases of poisoning were reviewed. The incidence is found to be more in males 28 (75.6%) when compared to females 9 (24.3%). Our study results showed that pesticides are the major reason for poisoning with an intention of self- harming. Majority of the poisoning cases were seen in the age group of 21-30 where physical and mental stress is the major reason.</p> 2019-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 The association between gene polymorphism of certain cytokines (IL-6, IL-10) and hepatitis C virus infection locally 2019-08-06T11:07:02+00:00 Najwan Abdul Karim Habib Naji Alzubaidi Syoof Khoman Alwan <p>Thirty blood samples were collected from people infected with HCV and collected 30 blood samples from healthy individuals as a control group. The samples were collected from the virus department at Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital, Women's Hospital and Educational Children and the Blood Bank in Diwaniyah Governorate, during the period from July 2018 until February 2019. Antibodies (Anti-HCV ) to HCV were detected in the infected serum using ELISA technique, and the diagnosis was confirmed Using the polymerase chain reaction test. Select gene polymorphism of interleukin -6 at site 174, which represents 3 genotypes GG, GC, CC in patients with HCV and control group. GG was significantly increased in patients with hepatitis C virus (63.3%) compared to the control group (30 %). The genotypes GC, CC were significantly decreased in patients with hepatitis C virus (16.7% and 20%) compared with the control group (43.3% and 26.7%), respectively. It also identified gene polymorphism of interleukin -10 at site 592, which represented 3 genotypes AA, AC, CC in patients with hepatitis C virus and control group. Genotype AC was significantly increased in patients with hepatitis C virus (53%) compared with the control group (30%). The genotypes CC, AA were significantly decreased in patients with hepatitis C virus (26.7% and 20%) compared with the control group (26.7% and 43.3%) respectively. Conclude from our current study that genotypes or alleles of IL-6 and IL-10 may play an essential role in increasing the risk of HCV in humans or play a vital role for prevention against.</p> 2019-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Insilico screening chemical compounds -glucosidase inhibitor from Cordia myxa L. 2019-10-14T13:26:44+00:00 Ahmad Najib Virsa Handayani Aktsar Roskiana Ahmad Syarif Hikmat <p class="Abstract" style="text-indent: 0in; line-height: 200%;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 200%; font-weight: normal;">One mechanism to maintain blood glucose level for diabetes mellitus is the inhibitor of the α-glucosidase enzyme to reduce the increased level. The research aimed to determine the chemical compound of <em>Cordia myxa</em> L. that can inhibit an α-glucosidase by insilico screening using the computer simulation with some docking program. The 3 D enzyme target receptor downloaded from Protein Bank Data (PDB) with 1LWJ code, and the macromolecules of a chemical compound from the sample were resulted from GC-MS analysis and optimizing the 3D conformation by. Screening of chemical compound by Autodock Vina on Pyrex Program. The results showed that 19’s chemical compounds of (<em>Cordia myxa</em> L.) having the value of free bonding energy (∆G) in the range of -5.3 kcal/mol to -9.3 kcal/mol, two compound with the higher ΔG value than the others are Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ΔG -7.8 kcal/mol) and 2,2,4-Trimethyl-3-(3,8,2,16-tetramethylheptadeca, 3,7,11,15, tetraenyl-cyclohexanol) (ΔG -9.3 kcal/mol).</span></p> 2019-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 A comparative study on different segmentation and classification methods for the diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease 2019-08-09T12:32:45+00:00 Pushpa B.R Nayana.P.Kamal Amal P.S <p>Alzheimer Disease (AD) is one of the brain disorders which progressively expand over the years. It gradually harms the reasoning ability and memory of the affected person. Earlier identification can keep away the severity of the disease and can advance the feature of life. Alzheimer's disease diagnosis using image processing is an important but challenging problem around medical science since image processing made hard by noise, low contrast and other imaging ambiguities. There are many methods that exist in medical image analysis, which includes preprocessing, feature extraction, image segmentation and classification<em>. </em>Although several models have been widely used, there is a need to implement a system with more accuracy. A comparative analysis for the segmentation which comprises FCM and K-means clustering methods and classification of AD using SVM and CNN performed. These methods are used for segmentation and classification, which calculates the accuracy and consolidates their advantages. Finally analyzing efficient for the diagnosis of AD.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Exploration and evaluation of efficient pre-processing and segmentation technique for breast cancer diagnosis based on mammograms 2019-08-12T05:48:21+00:00 Shobha Rani N Chinmayi S Rao <p>Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death for women everywhere in the world. Since the reason behind the disease remains unknown, early detection and diagnosis is the key challenge for breast cancer control. In this work, mammogram images are initially subject to pre-processing using Laplacian filter for enhancement of tumour regions, Gaussian mixture model, Gaussian kernel FCM, Otsu global thresholding and FCM technique are employed for segmentation. Further, the efficiency of segmentation techniques is analyzed by classifying the samples into benign, malignant and healthy using Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) features. Linear discriminant analysis classifier is used a combination based on which efficiency used for classification of mammograms. Ensemble methods are evaluated. The efficiency has resulted in better accuracy with the ensemble-based method. The experimentation is conducted in the mini MIAS database of mammograms, and the efficiency of the linear discriminant analyzer is found to be 89.19% for GKFCM, 83.78% with Otsu and 78.38% with FCM method with GLCM features.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Effectiveness of acupressure on bio-physiological parameters in mediosternotomy patients 2019-08-13T04:09:56+00:00 Pritha L Valliammal S Sai sailesh Kumar Goothy Vijayaraghavan R <p>Acupressure is one of the emerging alternative therapies for the management of the pain, anxiety and other physiological indexes. The present study was conducted at Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Medical Sciences, Whitefield, Bangalore. A total of twenty male and female patients those who undergo open heart surgery via median sternotomy were part of the study after obtaining the written informed consent. After recording the demographic data, the participants were randomly grouped into control and intervention groups using random numbers generated by computer with 10 participants in each group. The intervention was provided at PC6 acupressure point, situated on the inner side of forearm, three fingers below the wrist joint, three times a day (5-6am, 12 noon-1pm, 5-6pm) for four days. There was a significant decrease in the heart rate and blood pressure and significant increase in the partial pressure of oxygen. Further, there was decrease in the serum troponin T levels. The study support implementation of the acupressure.</p> 2019-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Effect of caloric vestibular stimulation in a paraquat-induced parkinsonian mouse model 2019-08-13T05:58:47+00:00 Sai Sailesh Kumar Goothy Srilatha Goothy <p>The present study was taken up to observe the effect of caloric vestibular stimulation on brain neurochemicals in a paraquat-induced Parkinso-nian mouse model. 24 healthy, adult male Swiss albino mice with body weight ranging between 25 - 40g were used in the study. The middle ear cavity of the mice was irrigated with hot (40oC) water. 0.5 ml of water was taken in 5 ml syringe with the needle removed. The ear was irrigated with water drop by drop, using the syringe. Gently the earlobe of mice was shaken. The procedure was continued with the other ear. Acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin and GABA were estimated. The results of the present study show a positive impact of vestibular stimulation in the management of the Parkinson’s disease. Further detailed research is required to understand the mechanism of action behind the performance of vestibular stimulation and could be adopted in the management of Parkinson’s disease.</p> 2019-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Relationship between vitamin D deficiency and serum ferritin level in healthy women 2019-08-16T05:56:05+00:00 Mohanad Adel Mohammed Mushtaq Talib Abed Muhannad Shweash Hayder Adnan Fawzi Muntaha Qasim Hendi Ashwaq Talib Duraij Ghuran Mahdi Salih <p>Vitamin D is an essential vitamin that regulates many biological processes and involved in the ‎activity of many organs like the skin, bone, kidney, etc. ferritin is an essential marker for ‎assessment of anemic status. The current study aimed to assess the relationship between ferritin ‎and vitamin D3 in healthy women at various age groups. A cross-sectional study carried out in ‎Ramadi city and involved 92 healthy women aged from ‎20-50 years‎, the participants divided into two groups according to age: group I with age ‏‎20 – 35 years and group II with age 36 – 50 years. In the present study mean vitamin D3 in group II ‎11.8 ‎±‎ 3.5‎ ‎ng/dL was ‎significantly lower than group I (35.3 ‎±‎ 12.2‎ ng/dL) p-value &lt; 0.001, a similar ‎finding observed for ferritin (‎19.6 ‎±‎ 13.9‎ ‎vs ‎66.7 ‎±‎ 52.1‎, p-value &lt;0.001). There was a direct relationship between ferritin with vitamin D. However, this relationship was ‎only significant in group II (p-value &lt;0.05), while in group I it was statistically significant. In conclusion, low vitamin D levels associated with low ferritin, indicating that vitamin D ‎deficiency is associated with anemia.</p> 2019-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Reduce the toxicity of prepared copper sulfide nanoparticles 2019-08-16T04:46:33+00:00 Manar M. Rashed Nada H.A. Al-Mudallal Ali A. Taha <p>Copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticles have attracted increasing attention from biomedical ‎researchers across the globe, because of their intriguing properties, which have been ‎mainly explored for energy and catalysis related applications. The aim of the study is to ‎prepare CuS NPs by BSA entrapment to reduce the toxicity, characterizing, comparative ‎the toxicity before and after entrapment against bacteria and check the toxicity against RD ‎and L20B cell lines. CuS-BSA NPs was an easy, low toxicity and low cost chemically ‎synthesized. The CuS-BSA NPs was identified though UV-VIS ‎spectrophotometer, FTIR, XRD, SEM, EDX, and Zeta potential. The antibacterial activity ‎against different G-positive and G-negative bacterial strains have been investigated for (2 ‎mg/ml) concentrations of CuS-BSA NPs and commercial CuS. A result showed that CuS-‎BSA NPs have more antibacterial activity than commercial CuS. Using different ‎parameters of CuS-BSA NPs, its anti-cancer bioactivity for every compound synthesized in ‎RD and L20B cell line was explored, and the result proved there was significant toxicity ‎against RD and L20B cell lines.‎</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Hypolipidemic effect of azima tetracantha on lipid profile markers of carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity in rats 2019-08-16T05:02:55+00:00 Saleem K Nargis Begum T Muhammad Ilyas MH <p>This study was aimed at evaluating the hypolipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of <em>Azima tetracantha </em>leaves against liver toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl<sub>4</sub>) in male albino Wistar rats and to compare the same with the reference drug silymarin. Six groups of rats with six rats in each group were used as the experimental subject. Animals were allocated into a control group and liver toxicity control group. The remaining four groups received in addition to CCl<sub>4</sub>, silymarin (20 mg/kg/d) as a reference treatment and <em>Azima tetracantha </em>(100, 200 and 400mg/kg/d). Once the experiment period was completed, the biomarkers of lipid profile, including total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)] were evaluated. <em>Azima tetracantha </em>significantly decreased the serum lipid profile markers cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, fatty acids, VLDL, LDL, and increased HDL. <em>Azima tetracantha </em>could be a promising protective agent against cholesterol through the improvement of liver function, modulation of CCl<sub>4 </sub>by-products formation and thus has hypolipidemic potentials.</p> 2019-07-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Design, optimization and comparative IN VITRO evaluation of sustain release matrix tablet using ARAUCARIA HETEROPHYLLA gum 2019-08-16T05:55:16+00:00 Gayathri R Sundaraganapathy R <p>The present study deals with the formulation of oral sustained-release tablets using natural gum <em>Araucaria heterophylla </em>gum, and the results were compared the formulations with existing polymers. The gum was isolated from the bark exudates of <em>Araucaria heterophylla </em>tree Sustain release matrix tablets of aceclofenac as a model drug were prepared with the proportions 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% of<em> Araucaria heterophylla</em> gum by direct compression method. The results were compared with sustain release matrix tablets formulated from similar proportions of Guar gum and HPMC K4M. The tablets were evaluated for their physical characteristics. The formulation with 30% concentration of the gum showed a release of -91.68±0.72% whereas the formulation with 30% guar gum showed a drug at release 91.26±0.41% after 8 hrs, while HPMC at 30% concentration gave a drug release of 86.26±0.61after 8 hrs. The other parameters are satisfactory and are within the Pharmacopoeial limits. The stability studies carried out under accelerated conditions as per ICH guidelines infer that the gum is chemically stable, compatible and maintain its physical and <em>in vitro</em> characteristics throughout the shelf life of the formulations.</p> 2019-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Biosynthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using herbal formulation and its characterisation 2019-08-16T06:27:14+00:00 Revathi B Rajeshkumar S Anitha Roy Lakshmi T <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-IN">To study the biosynthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using herbal formulation and its characterisation. To study the copper oxide nanoparticles biosynthesis using Moringha oriefera&nbsp; (I) Synthesis of nanoparticles using copper sulphate&nbsp; (II) Characterisation of nanoparticles using UV-visual spectroscopy. The size of the synthesised nanoparticles are found to be 2-100nm. The graph reached its peak at the wavelength of 300nm using UV-vis spectroscopy. The shape is spherical. These TEM and UV spectroscopic analysis confirmed the synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles. Overall results, confirmed the size and shape of CuO nanoparticles using this process and suggested their applications in biomedicine.&nbsp;The biosynthesized copper oxide nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average size of 2-100nm. The present research about the biosynthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using the plant extract Moringa Oleifera has excellent biocompatibility. The particles which are smaller in size shows more immunity. Hence the nanoparticles are expected to be used in future for the effective drug systems and immunity against diseases.&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></p> 2019-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Factors affecting the outcome in surgically treated civilian penetrating head injury: Case series 2019-08-17T04:56:19+00:00 Ali Adnan Dolachee Ghazwan Alwan Lafta Abdulqadder Nabil Mohammed Alyaa Khalid Al-Zubaidi <p>Penetrating brain injury (PBI) is any injury that causes penetration of the scalp, skull, meninges, and brain. It is a traumatic brain injury caused by either low-velocity sharp objects (e.g. a knife), high-velocity projectiles (shell fragment or bullets) or blast injury is the consequence of the detonation of complex explosives with or without PBI and closed head injury. To evaluate the factors (pre-operative and operative) that affect the surgical outcome of civilian PBI. This study was done from February 2017 to October 2018 prospectively &amp; retrospectively. The study involved only the civilian patients that got a penetrating head injury and surgically treated in Neurosurgical Teaching Hospital/Baghdad/Iraq. The data include thirty-nine (39) operated patients with PBI. Data information includes the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), radiological investigations (computerized tomov graphy (CT-scan) and plain X-ray) the outcome determined by Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS). The patients were followed up during the time of hospitalization. The surgical outcome of the penetrating head injury in this study was assessed by GOS and was as follow, good recovery 10 patients (25.6%), moderately disabled 11 patients (28.2%), severely disabled 5 patients (12.8%), vegetative 6 patients (15.4%), Dead 7 patients (18.0%). Good outcome 21 patients 53.8% while poor outcome 18 patients 46.2%. GCS is significant factor (p-value = 0.002), time not affecting, CT-finding is significant factor (p-value = 0.000), blood pressure &gt;= 90 mm Hg is a good predictor factor (p-value =0.001), speech difficulty is poor predictor factor (p-value = 0.004), outcome of inlet alone better than inlet and outlet. There are many factors affecting the surgical outcome in civilian penetrating head injury, and the significant factor is pre-operative GCS, CT-scan which is the best radiological investigation for pre-operative and post-operative assessment and show the details of the injury, blood pressure &gt; = 90 mm Hg which is a good prognostic factor.</p> 2019-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 An R based interface to understand cognitive ability of different participants using fixation and saccade detection 2019-08-17T11:13:31+00:00 Akshay S Ashika P Aswathy Ramesh <p>Eye-tracking is an emerging area of science in a wide range of computer vision-based applications. Eye-tracking mainly deals with where the person is looking at and for what duration. In this work, we propose an R based interface to visualize the eye-tracking data as fixations and saccades that depicts where the person looking at –fixations and saccades and what duration – fixation duration. Through the eye-tracking metrics that are visualized in our work, one can visualize the difference between the viewing behaviour of various participants. The differences thus depicted can later be studied in order to understand the cognitive abilities of the participants. The paper contains a detailed survey of the existing literature and the experimental results generated using the R interface.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Standardization and bacteria inhibitory test of purified extract of mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq) seeds and leaves 2019-08-19T04:25:47+00:00 Virsa Handayani Rezki Amriati Syarif Ahmad Najib Aktsar Roskiana Ahmad Abdullah Mahmud Nurasyiah Jumaris St <p>Mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq) is one of the plants that is often used by the community as traditional medicine. One of them is antifungal, antibacterial, antidiabetic, and eczema. This study aims to obtain standardized extracts from mahogany seeds and leaves. Standardization of purified extract of mahogany has been carried out according to the monographs of extract standardization guidelines, which include testing of specific and non-specific parameters. The results of the specific parameter testing showed that the purified extract of mahogany seeds is a thick extract, brown to reddish, smells distinctive and has a bitter taste. While the purified extract of mahogany leaves is a thick extract, greenish-brown in color, distinctive smell and has a bitter taste. The chemical content of purified extract of mahogany seeds and leaves showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids and saponins. Water-soluble essence levels in mahogany seeds and leaves was 14.84% and 10.28%. While the ethanol-soluble essence levels in mahogany seeds and leaves were 15.38% and 12.43%. Testing of non-specific parameters on mahogany seeds and leaves showed the results of drying shrinkage levels of 0.22% and 8.84%, moisture content of 2.60% and 4.04%, total ash content of 1.71% and 1.93%, levels acidic insoluble ash 0.38% and 0.32%, Total Plate Number (ALT) of mahogany seed bacteria 1x102 colonies/g, Number of mahogany mold seeds 4x10 colonies/g, heavy metal lead contamination and cadmium in mahogany seeds 0.0607µg/g and&lt;0.003µg/g. The inhibitory diameter of each concentration of seeds against Escherichia coli, 3%, 5%, 7%, and 9%, is 12,67; 13,67; 17,67; and 19,67 mm, respectively. The inhibitory diameter of each concentration of leaves against Escherichia coli, 3%, 5%, 7%, and 9%, is 10,27; 10,90; 13,46; and 15,68 mm, respectively.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Heparin-induced gross haematuria : a case study 2019-08-21T04:41:18+00:00 Sumit Kumar Rai Khayati Moudgil <p>Spotting blood in urine can be alarming. In many instances the cause is harmless, but blood in urine can indicate a serious disorder. Haematuria can be categorized into two categories, such as gross haematuria and microscopic haematuria. Gross haematuria is visible with naked eyes, and easily identifiable, whereas microscopic haematuria can be identified after doing a urine test under a microscope. It is important to know the primary cause of bleeding. It can be either due to medications, kidney disorders, urinary tract infections or strenuous exercise's. Here we report a case series of gross haematuria for three patients where it has been caused by anticoagulant drug heparin. Our case series illustrates a strong causal relation with heparin causing gross haematuria.</p> 2019-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Molecular characterization of covalently closed circular plasmid DNA in local Streptomyces strains isolated from soil with detection of antibiotic production and antibacterial activity 2019-08-21T06:09:26+00:00 Suad A Al-Hilu Wisam H Al-Shujairi <p>Various of <em>Streptomyces</em> species have two kinds of plasmids, circular plasmids (8 to 31 kb) and linear plasmids (12 to 1700 kb). Covalently closed circular (CCC) plasmids are profuse in the genus of <em>Streptomyces</em> and involved in production and resistance of antibiotics by genetic controlling. We collected fifty clinical soil samples from different regions in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf province/Iraq. The samples included five from Al-Ghadeer Quarter, five from Al-Karama Quarter, 10 from Kufa University, five from Al-Ameer Quarter, four from Al-Forat Quarter, 10 from North Quarters and eleven from desert roads in Al-Najaf. Diluted samples were cultured on Yeast extract Malt extract (YEME) agar medium as a selective medium; then the presumptive <em>Streptomyces</em> colonies were subcultured on Tryptone Yeast extract (TYE) agar, then incubation at 37ᵒC for 7 days. Seven biochemical tests for identification of <em>Streptomyces</em> isolates these are: Catalase test, Oxidase test, Urase test, Kligler Iron Agar test (KIA), Simmon᾽s Citrate test, addition to MacConkey agar test and Mannitol Salt agar test. Five antibiotic discs were used for detection of antibiotic sensitivity of the <em>Streptomyces</em> isolates; these are: Tetracycline, Gentamycin, Vancomycin, Ampicillin, Erythromycin. The sensitivity of the antibiotics was observed by recorded the diameter of inhibition zone around the discs. Two test bacteria (<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>E. coli</em>) were used for the determination of antibacterial activity<strong>. </strong>Plasmid isolation was done by the alkaline lysis method. This method is characterized by the rapid isolation of DNA from <em>Streptomyces</em>. Then, detection of Plasmid DNA occurred by using agarose gel electrophoresis.</p> 2019-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Detection and classification of brain tumor using machine learning approaches 2019-08-22T04:02:44+00:00 Pushpa B R Flemin Louies <p>This paper proposes a method where a framework is constructed to detect and classify the tumor type. Over a period of years, many researchers have been researched and proposed methods in this space. We have proposed a method that is capable of analyzing the heterogeneous data and classifies tumor type. MRI images have been considered for this project since it gives the clear structure of the brain, without any surgery it scans and gives the structure of the brain this helps in further processing in the detection of the tumor. Human prediction in classifying the tumor from the MRI leads to misclassification. This motivates our project to construct the algorithm to predict the tumor. Machine learning plays a key role in predicting tumor. In this proposed paper, we have constructed a framework for detecting the brain tumor and classifying its type. The approach goes under pre-processing to filter and smooth the image. The segmentation is carried out by using morphological operation followed by masking, which increases the accuracy in the classification step. The multiple feature extraction methods are utilized to extract the feature from the masked image, and for classification, the kernel SVM is used.</p> 2019-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Patch analysis based lung cancer classification 2019-08-22T11:49:13+00:00 Shobha Rani N Rakshitha B S Rohith V <p>Lung Cancer may be a variety of Cancer that begins in the Lungs because of those that smokes often. However, there Area unit rare probabilities those area unit non-smokers get Affected because of unhealthy pollution and Harmful gasses. The detection of tumor is incredibly vital that helps to detect affected neoplasm areas in the lungs. Computed tomography help us to understand the cancer positions in patients. The detection of cancer tumours are performed by scanning the images of computed tomography. Lung cancer identification system goes with a method of Morphological opening and Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) feature extraction and Normalized cross-correlation with patches Analysis. Lung cancer classification using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) gives good results of Accuracy of 81.81%. Patch Analysis is a new method to find lung cancer.</p> 2019-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Antifertility activity of Walsura Piscidia Roxb leaf extract on male rats 2019-08-23T04:34:33+00:00 Afsar Shaik Prasanna Raju Yalavarthi Chadrasekhar Kothapalli Bonnoth <p>The main aim of the present study was to estimate the fertilization parameters in male rats by using methanolic leaf extract of <em>Walsura Piscidia</em>. The animals were divided into three groups of five animals each. The first group (I) served as control and received normal saline remaining Groups (II &amp; III) were treated with plant extract at a dose of 200 &amp; 400 mg/kg p.o. Respectively for a period of 21 days. Dose-dependent significant decrease in the weight of testes &amp; epididymis was observed. Also, a dose-related reduction in sperm count and motility was observed. In conclusion, the methanolic leaf extract of <em>Walsura Piscidia</em> has produced dose-dependent antifertility effect o male rats.</p> 2019-07-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Preparation of herbal formulation and it’s application on nanoparticles synthesis and antibacterial activity 2019-08-26T03:59:53+00:00 Srijan Sunar Rajeshkumar S Anitha Roy lakshmi T <p>Copper nanoparticles makes important progress in the area of nanotechnology and nanomedicine due to their good optical, electrical and anti-fungal/bacterial application. It is prepared using some methods such as vacuum vapour deposition, microwave irradiation methods, chemical reduction and laser ablation. The chemical reduction method is simple, inexpensive and gives a liable control of geometrical nanoparticle characteristics like size and shape. 20 millimolar of 80 ml copper sulphate prepared using double distilled water. The plant extract is added with the metal solution and was made into 100 ml solution. The synthesised nanoparticles solution is preliminarily characterized by using UV- vis-spectroscopy, 3ml of the solution is taken in curette and scanned in double beam UV-vis- spectrophotometer from 300 nm to 700 nm wavelength. The agar well diffusion method is used. Different concentration of Cu NPs was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans (gram +), Enterococcus sp and Pseudomonas sp. The result reveals that Moringa Oleifera mediated with copper nanoparticles show effective antibacterial activity. CuNPs ex significantly higher activity with an increase in the zone of inhibition diameter. The plant extract is observed to be dark green, and the copper nanoparticles are seen to be in light greenish in colour. They can be used in toothpaste and oral medicines due to their antibacterial activity. Nanoparticles are expected to be used in future for the effective drug systems and immunity against diseases.</p> 2019-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Nutritional and total phenolic analyses of unfermented and fermented red grape (Vitis vinifera) beverages 2019-08-26T05:19:45+00:00 Parameshwari S <p>Grape juices-fresh, homemade fermented and commercial non-alcoholic were evaluated for their nutritional, Physico-chemical, phenolic and anthocyanin content. The grape juices obtained were clear, purple, and pH ranging between 3.3-3.5.&nbsp; The titrable acidity increased in the commercial grape juice (8.65%) whereas total solids (22.67%) was higher in the homemade fermented samples. The nutritional parameters such as carbohydrate, protein, dietary fibres etc. increased in the commercial sample except for vitamin C, which was higher in the fresh juice sample. The total phenolic content (2650 mg/lit) and total anthocyanin content (310 mg/lit) of commercial grape juice was higher compared to the homemade fermented sample. The increase in various parameters in the commercial sample could be attributed to manufacturing and processing techniques used during the production of grape juice.</p> 2019-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 AntiHIV, antitubercular and antibacterial activities of novel 1-substituted-3-(3-(4-methylphenyl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydrobenzopyrimidin-2-yl amino) isothioureas 2019-08-28T04:17:19+00:00 Narendhar B Chitra K Alagarsamy V <p>In this research, substituted thiosemicarbazide group was placed at 2nd position &amp; 4-methylphenyl group was placed at 3rd position of condensed pyrimidine nucleus. Entire prepared title analogues were examined for its antibacterial, antitubercular, &amp; anti HIV activities against selected bacteria &amp; virus. The target compounds 1-substituted-3-(3-(4-methylphenyl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydrobenzopyrimidin-2-ylamino)isothioureas (<strong>TTS01 – TTS10</strong>) were synthesized from 2-hydrazino-3-(4-methylphenyl)benzopyrimidin-4(3<em>H)</em>-one (<strong>5</strong>) by reacting with various alkyl/aryl isothiocyanates followed by methylation with dimethyl sulphate. Among the test compounds, 2-methyl-3-(3-(4-methylphenyl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydrobenzopyrimidin-2-ylamino)-1-(3-chlorophenyl) isothiourea (<strong>TTS09</strong>) and 2-methyl-3-(3-(4-methylphenyl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydrobenzopyrimidin-2-yl amino)-1-(4-nitrophenyl) isothiourea (<strong>TTS06</strong>) shown most potent activity against <em>S. epidermidis</em>, <em>S. Aureus, and P. vulgaris</em> 3 µg/ml MIC. Compounds <strong>TTS06</strong> &amp; <strong>TTS09</strong> exhibited the antitubercular activity with 12.5 µg/ml MIC and antiHIV activity at 9.06 and 8.56 µg/ml, respectively against HIV1 and HIV2. Thus for further optimization &amp; development of novel antitubercular and antiHIV drugs, compounds <strong>TTS06</strong> &amp; <strong>TTS09</strong> may act as a pilot derivative.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Evaluation of Anti-fertility activity of Decaschistia crotonifolia leaves on female wistar rats 2019-08-28T05:24:36+00:00 Afsar Shaik Prasanna Raju Yalavarthi Chadrasekhar Kothapalli Bonnoth <p>Medicinal Plants were used from the ancient to the modern era and has proved in treating and preventing many different types of diseases which are not treatable with other means of treatment. The present study was aimed to prove the anti-fertility activity of <em>Decaschistia crotonifolia </em>leaves on female wistar rats. The extracts were mainly estimated for their anti-implantation activity by taking mainly 2 dose levels: 200 &amp; 400 mg/kg, respectively. The extracts were also tested for their hormonal alteration effects on female wistar rats.&nbsp; The reports obtained in this study strongly prove the anti-fertility potential of leaves extracts of <em>Decaschistia crotonifolia</em>, as the extracts has shown a potential decline in the formation of implants (100%), and also the increase in uterine weight projects its estrogenic effect in Ovariectomised rats. Hence by considering the above-mentioned results, it may be proved that the leaves extracts of <em>D. Crotonifolia </em>poccess strong anti-fertility activity.&nbsp;</p> 2019-07-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 AMPA receptor localization in trigeminal ganglion and its upregulation in migraine 2019-08-29T03:55:12+00:00 Sankaran PK Gunapriya R Yuvaraj MF Siva T Kumaresan M Priyadharshini A Karthikeyan G Senthil Murugan <p>Migraine is characterized by headache due to imbalance between excitation and inhibition of neurons disabling normal day to day activities. The excitations of neurons are done by excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate which plays the key role in creating any pathology related to neurons. This study was done to identify GluR1 a subunit of AMPA glutamate receptor in the cells of trigeminal ganglion after inducing migraine and compare it with control rats. The GluR1 subunits were localized in the cytoplasm of neurons, and these subunits were up-regulated following a migraine. The GluR1 was also localized in satellite glial cells and nerve fibers, indicating these subunits expressed in neurons and migrate during nociceptive sensitization. This GluR1 expression in the cells of trigeminal ganglion may be crucial in nociceptive sensitization leading to migraine and other painful conditions like trigeminal neuralgia.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Morphometric analysis of greater sciatic notch and its correlation to sexual dimorphisim in adult pelvic bones 2019-08-29T07:04:07+00:00 Kalyan Ram Sankaran PK Yuvaraj Maria Francis Gunapriya Raghunath Kumaresan M Balaji K Karthikeyan Siva T <p>To identify the sex determination of an unknown person from the skeleton remains the first and primary important step come across by the anatomical, forensic and archaeological experts. Many researchers have considered various parameters for sex determination using hip bone. The current study was carried out to identify the sex of hip bone using various dimensions of the greater sciatic notch. Adult hip bones of a known person were studied and evaluated. The hip bones were assessed using various parameters. The posterior segment, posterior angle and index II of a hip bone were found to be more helpful in sex determination.</p> 2019-07-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Synthesis and evaluation of coumate analogues as estrogen receptor inhibitors for breast cancer therapy 2019-08-30T04:06:02+00:00 Selvaraj Jubie Basheer A Neetu Yadav Ashish Wadhwani Mohammed Afzal Azam <p>A sulphatase inhibitor 667 COUMATE is in clinical trials for estrogen-positive breast cancer therapy for postmenopausal women, while there are a number of similar sulphatase inbitors are under development. Schiff's bases are versatile pharmacophores in which the N atom involves in hydrogen bonding with active cell centers interfering in normal cell biology. A library of novel coumate analogues with Schiff bases were designed, and structural based drug design was performed with human estrogen receptor (PDB ID: 2IOG) (Already reported). Based on the <em>in-silico</em> outcomes, seven coumate-schiff bases were synthesized. The compounds were obtained in good yield. The novelty had been ascertained by sci finder software. The synthesized molecules were consistent with their assigned spectra such as IR, Mass and NMR spectral data which confirmed their formation. The cytotoxicity study was performed by MTT assay for all the synthesized compounds. Most of the compounds have good IC<sub>50</sub> values (below 100 µg/ml).Two of the synthesized compounds COU-2 and COU-5 have shown good IC<sub>50</sub> values such as 19µg/ml and 39µg/ml, respectively. They suppressed the proliferation of estrogen receptor overexpressed MCF-7 cells.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 In situ gel loaded with curcumin-based fluvastatin nanostructured carrier effective against squamous tongue carcinoma 2019-08-30T05:07:15+00:00 Amal M. Sindi <p>The aim of the study was to devise&nbsp;a novel Fluvastatin (<a href="">FT</a>) based curcumin (CR) nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) loaded into an in situ&nbsp;gelling system (ISG) for localized and prolonged chemotherapy in the treatment of aggressive tongue carcinoma. FT-CR NLC was prepared using the solvent evaporation method, characterized, and optimized. FT-CR NLC was loaded in a Poloxamer 407 and polyvinyl alcohol-based ISG, further characterized and evaluated. The percentage of cellular viability and caspase-3 enzyme levels were evaluated for the optimized FT-CRNLC, and loaded ISG formulations were applied to HCS-3 cancer cell lines. Stability studies were performed. The optimized FT-CR NLC was spherical with an indicated particle size of 107 ± 4.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; nm, a polydispersity index of 0.38 ± 0.6, surface charge of -31.1 ± 1.8 mV, and entrapment efficiency of 98.4% ± 0.81%. The optimized ISG had an optimum sol-gel transition temperature. The FT IC50 was decreased by half for FT-CR NLC–loaded ISG in comparison to plain FT and FT-CR NLC. The studies indicated that CR’s synergistic anti-oxidant effect in the FT NLC formulation led to a higher inhibition against HCS-3 cancer cell lines. FT-CR NLC–loaded ISG had a prolonged release that can be significant in localized therapy as an alternative to surgery, especially in the treatment of aggressive tongue squamous cell carcinoma.</p> 2019-07-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Development, characterization and solubility enhancement of poorly water soluble drug telmisartan by polymer enriched bridging liquid technique using peg 4000 as hydrophilic polymer 2019-09-03T04:57:05+00:00 Manoj K Seenivasan P Arul K Senthil kumar M <p>The solubility and bioavailability enhancement of poorly water soluble drugs has been a foremost challenge in formulation development. Telmisartan belonging to Angiotension II receptor antagonist, extensively used candidate for the treatment of hypertension possess poor water solubility and bioavailability. Polymer Enriched Bridging Liquid (PEBL) method was adopted here for enhancing the flow properties and solubility of Telmisartan. The techniques involve the incorporation of a hydrophilic polymer, PEG4000 into the bridging liquid during the crystallisation process. The drug content determination suggested the better incorporation of polymer into the crystal aggregates. The FTIR analysis showed the absence of any chemical interaction. The DSC analysis showed a significant reduction in the enthalpy and melting point. The crystallinity of Telmisartan was reduced from 50.789 to 34.655% indicated by the reduction in peak intensity analysis and peak area calculation by X-Ray diffraction. The SEM analysis revealed the spherical nature of crystals resulting in the improvement of flow properties. The saturation solubility analysis revealed that the formulation STPG03 has shown 25.86 fold increase in the solubility in water and 24.217 folds in pH7.5 Phosphate buffer. The <em>in vitro</em> dissolution data also supported the results of solubility analysis. Hence PEBL technique provided a better alternative to enhance the flow characteristics, solubility, dissolution and bioavailability of Telmisartan.</p> 2019-07-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Effects of Riluzole on Nr2B subunits of NMDA receptors in rat migraine model 2019-09-03T06:05:26+00:00 Sankaran PK Gunapriya Raghunath Joy Ghoshal Yuvaraj Maria Francis Siva T Kumaresan M Karthikeyan Nandha Kumar <p>Migraine, a major public health problem, occurring due to the consequences of serial changes in the nerve ganglion leading to an imbalance in the excitation and inhibition. The is the major neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, causing to the sensory neurons leading to sensitization and . The present study was done to determine the effects of on the Nr2B of NMDA receptors after inducing a migraine. The rats were treated with after inducing migraine with nitroglycerin 10mg/kg. The nitroglycerin treated rats showed intense staining for NR2B , and there was a decrease in the expression after treatment. This study concludes that the NR2B are during migraine and can be used to control those by its property.</p> 2019-07-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Drug utilization review of corticosteroids in a tertiary care hospital of Salem District, Tamilnadu, India 2019-09-03T08:57:48+00:00 Arul Balasubramanian Rinson Reji Rosmy Jose Sarika Sasidharan Kothai Ramalingam <p>Corticosteroids are widely used compounds for allergic reactions, autoimmune diseases, inflammatory conditions, hormone replacement therapy etc. Hence, with widespread use and actions, these have several interactions with drugs and diseases. The purpose of this study was to obtain information about Corticosteroids prescribing and utilization pattern, to understand the prescribing behaviour of physicians and to identify drug interactions. A retrospective observational study was conducted in the department of dermatology and general medicine in a tertiary care hospital for 6 months. All the patients receiving any category of steroid therapy were included, and the prescribing and tapering pattern of steroids were reviewed. Drug utilization pattern (DUR) was observed and analysed among 150 patients during the study period. The results revealed that steroids were prescribed for various respiratory illnesses (66%) and skin-related conditions (34%). The steroid utilization was found to be more in elderly patients, particularly in males. Intravenous administration was common in 33% of cases. Budesonide was the most commonly prescribed steroid (36%), followed by Hydrocortisone (24%) and Dexamethasone (14%). The most frequent drug-drug interaction was between Hydrocortisone and Theophylline as well as Hydrocortisone and Hypoglycaemic agents. Most drugs were prescribed rationally, although some factors like prescribing drugs in the brand name, without mentioning route of administration, frequency and dose were deviating away from rationality. Not much variation was found in the pattern of prescription amongst healthcare professionals. Although most of the drugs were prescribed rationally, the involvement of a clinical pharmacist in patient care can help in more rational prescribing along with prevention and early detection of ADRs which can directly promote drug safety and better patient outcomes.</p> 2019-07-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Hair pin bends of epicardial coronary arteries - a unique feature in multiple myocardial bridges 2019-09-05T10:59:24+00:00 Mohandas G.V Sitansu k.Panda <p>Myocardial bridge(MB) is an anatomical variant. Sometimes MB can cause compression over the coronary arteries and causes ischemic heart diseases.MB associated with bends of coronary arteries double the risk of coronary artery disease. So the present study aimed to find out the incidence of bends of the coronary artery along with the myocardial bridging. 100 heart specimens were obtained from routine dissection conducted for undergradu­ate students in the department of Anatomy IMS &amp; SUM Hospital Bhubaneswar. After the simple dissecting procedure, epicardial coronary arteries, their branches and myocardial bridges and hairpin bends of coronary arteries were observed. Myocardial bridges present 41 (41%) over Left anterior descending artery(LAD) only.Among 41 hearts single myocardial bridge present in 37((90.25%) &nbsp;hearts, double myocardial bridge were present in 3((7.31%) &nbsp;hearts and triple myocardial bridges present in only one heart(2.44%). Hairpin bends of the coronary artery were present in double and triple myocardial bridged hearts only. No hairpin bends of the coronary artery was observed in the single myocardial bridge. Hair pin bends of the coronary arteries are the unique features of the myocardial bridges in multiple myocardial bridges, i.e. double and triple myocardial bridges. However, hairpin bends of coronary arteries were absent in single myocardial bridged hearts.</p> 2019-07-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Comparative assessment of the efficacy of voglibose and metformin combined with insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus 2019-09-06T04:31:07+00:00 Kothai Ramalingam Veenah Ganesan Sooraj Sasi Surya Shanmugam Arul Balasubramanian <p>The present study was conducted to assess the efficacy of metformin and voglibose combined with insulin in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. It is a retrospective study was conducted in tertiary care hospitals of Salem district Tamil Nadu with 120 patients who are taking either metformin and insulin or voglibose and insulin according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The total number of patients were divided into two groups each consist of 60. Group A was the patients prescribed with metformin and insulin and group B was the patients prescribed with voglibose and insulin. The average efficacy of metformin and voglibose combined with insulin for 10 days, 20 days, 30 days &amp; 40 days were compared using FBS, PPBS, RBS and HbA1C values. The result shows that patients treated with metformin and insulin, the average efficacy of FBS levels on 10, 20, 30 and 40 days were 22.96%, 27.46%, 30.49% and 36.78% respectively. Whereas in the case of voglibose and insulin the efficacy was 23.48%, 28.38%, 32.57%, 40.47% for 10, 20, 30 and 40 days respectively.In the same way, the PPBS, RBS and HbA1C levels were also calculated. While comparing both the groups of patients, the average efficacy of treatment with voglibose and insulin was more effective than metformin and insulin in the tertiary care hospital of Salem district.</p> 2019-07-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Isolation and characterization of components from roots of Premna latifolia Roxb 2019-09-06T08:47:50+00:00 Gowtham M Asharani I V Paridhavi M <p>The aim of the current work was to isolate and characterize structurally fascinating and biologically intriguing compounds from the dried roots of <em>Premna latifolia</em>. Dried plant roots were subjected to soxhalation with ethyl alcohol and later to column chromatography. The individual compounds were isolated by preparative thin-layer chromatography followed by structural characterization using various spectral ways like LCMS, IR, 1D-NMR and 2D-NMR (<sup>1</sup>H-<sup>1</sup>H NMR and <sup>1</sup>H-<sup>13</sup>C NMR). Three totally different compounds were isolated and characterised as Compound 1: n-Tridecanyl n-Tetracosanoate, Compound 2: Stigmanstan -3β-olyln-octadec-9ʹ, 12ʹ-dienoate and Compound 3: n-Tetracosanol for the first time from <em>Premna latifolia </em>roots<em>.</em></p> 2019-07-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Stabilizing effect of chitosan-poly vinyl alcohol complex on simvastatin loaded nanoformulation 2019-09-06T08:48:43+00:00 Irisappan Sarathchandiran Nandakumar Selvasudha Kailasam Koumaravelou Kandasamy Ruckmani <p>Biopolymers are attractive new and general means of presenting more stable drug delivery system. This is accomplished by encapsulation of polymers to respective drug molecules which offer formation of bonds between them.&nbsp; In this work, chitosan-coated simvastatin nanoformulation was formulated using a method named solvent evaporation technique, and various stability studies were performed. The steadiness of preparation was evaluated by accelerated stability method and forced degradation method. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) was utilized to detect the degradant present in formulation after subjecting it in different stress condition. Simulated annealing process for the prediction of nanoformulation stability was also performed. The accelerated stability study was performed at three altered temperature conditions, (i.e.) accelerated temperature (40 ± 2 °C/75 ± 5% RH), room temperature (25 ± 2 °C/60%) ± 5% RH, and freezing temperature (4°C) and change in drug content, solubility, % cumulative drug release, moisture content and molecular weight were calculated. Standard sample and nanoformulation were exposed to different stress conditions (thermal, base, acid, and light). Finally, the percentage of decomposition was calculated by HPTLC method. All stability studies, along with the simulation method, represented the stability of simvastatin in nanoformulation. &nbsp;Establishment of adequate shelf life also was achieved. This work evidenced the extensive stability offered by chitosan polymers to the prodrug simvastatin. Also, give insight when the problem of poor stability of drug molecules limits its practical applicability.</p> 2019-07-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Preparation of a polymeric aggregate of unsaturated Poly ester with sawdust and studying its physical and mechanical properties 2019-09-09T04:11:59+00:00 Ebtehag Zeki Sulyman Hamid A. Salih Thaer Abed Hallow <p>In this study a type of polymeric composites from melting poly Unsaturated polyester as a basic substance with powdered sawdust was prepared, studying some of it is mechanical properties, which was included: Impact Strength (I.), Yong modulus (E), hardness (B.) and compression Strength (C.). Polymeric composites before and after reinforcing were studied by comparison between them. It was noticed increasing resistance of Yong modulus (E), Impact Strength (I.), hardness (B.) and compression Strength (C.). Also, It is studied the effect of some acids like (, H<sub data-id="subscript-1">2</sub>SO<sub data-id="subscript-2">4</sub>, HNO<sub data-id="subscript-3">3</sub>) with concentrations (0.5 N; 1N and 1.5N) respectively. Some physical properties were studied as absorbance and poly 's diffusion coefficient before and after reinforcing. The results showed increases in values of these properties with increasing concentration of acid and time of polymer's immersion in the acidic solution.</p> 2019-07-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Study of the effect of pvp k30 in the enhancement of solubility of telmisartan by polymer assisted crystal agglomeration using polymer enriched bridging liquid technique 2019-09-07T08:50:20+00:00 Manoj K Seenivasan P Arul K Senthil kumar M <p>Polymer Enriched Bridging liquid is a novel approach for enhancing the flow characteristics, properties, solubility and dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs. is an orally effective II receptor antagonist used extensively for the effective management of hypertension. is a poorly water-soluble drug and an ideal candidate for this approach. PVPK30 is used as the hydrophilic polymer. Various formulations were prepared with the addition of PVPK30 in the bridging liquid by Polymer Enriched Bridging Liquid Technique (PEBL). The preparations were subjected to particle size analysis, characteristics, FTIR, differential scanning (DSC) and Scanning Electron microscopic analysis. The crystal agglomerates were found to be spherical in nature with excellent flow characteristics. The of the pure drug was found to be decreased without any drug-polymer interaction. The saturation solubility studies showed that the optimized formulation STP04 showed 30.695 folds increase in solubility in water and 29.462 folds enhancement in pH 7.5 phosphate buffer. The in drug release studies also confirmed the enhancement in dissolution rate. The stability of the prepared aggregates was determined by accelerated stability studies. The addition of polymer in the bridging liquid during crystallization stage improved the effective incorporation of the hydrophilic polymer in the aggregates. Polymer Enriched Bridging Liquid technique can be considered as an ideal technique for solubility and dissolution enhancement.</p> 2019-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Studying the effect of variables on baclofen floating microsponge 2019-09-09T04:40:08+00:00 Faten Q. Ibraheem Anmar A. Abdelrazzaq <p>The aim of the present work was to develop a microsponge delivery system of baclofen to control its release and thereby reducing dosing frequency and enhancing patient compliance. The microsponge was produced by oil in oil emulsion solvent diffusion method. The effects of drug/polymer ratio, stirring time and type of Eudragit polymer on the physical characteristics of microsponges were investigated. The prepared microsponges was characterized for production yield (PY), loading efficiency (LD), particle size, surface morphology, and <em>in vitro</em> drug release. The results showed that the microsponge formula with Eudragit RS100 had optimum physical properties with PY % equal to 97 %, and LD % equal to 81% and controlled drug release (75% of drug release in 8 hours) when compared with other formulas and pure BFN. Therefore, the non-‎aqueous emulsion solvent diffusion method is a promising method to produce baclofen microsponges.‎</p> 2019-07-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Antioxidant profile of chicken bile extract and correlation with chemical content 2019-09-09T05:23:16+00:00 Tuty S Fidrianny I Sukrasno <p>Component in chicken bile may be similar to bear bile, which contains an immunostimulant agent ursodeoxycholic acid and related to antioxidant effect. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant potential of chicken bile extract by the DPPH method, analyze the correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid content with IC<sub>50 </sub>of DPPH scavenging activities. Chicken bile was cut and dried using freeze dryer, then extracted by reflux using different polarity solvents. A rotary evaporator was used to concentrate the extracts. Calculation of total flavonoid and phenolic content, antioxidant potential using DPPH assay were carried out by UV-visible spectrophotometry, and Pearson’s method was used to analyze their correlation. IC<sub>50</sub> of DPPH of ethanolic chicken bile extract was 46.64 µg/ml, while ethyl acetate and n-hexane extracts were 69.99 µg/ml and IC<sub>50</sub> 71.65 µg/ml, respectively. The highest phenolic content and flavonoid content were given by ethanolic chicken bile extract. The total phenolic and flavonoid content in chicken bile extracts had a significant and negative correlation with IC<sub>50</sub> of DPPH. All chicken bile extracts are potential antioxidants by DPPH assay. Phenolic and flavonoid compounds in chicken bile extracts contributed together in antioxidant capacity by DPPH assay.</p> 2019-07-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Fertility and sterility in some Iraqi families 2019-09-11T10:22:19+00:00 Eqbal Dohan Chillab Dhuha Salman Nabaa Salah Dhurgam A. Rahman <p>The present study aims at examining some hereditary effects (sterility and fertility) in sampled Iraqi families. The study includes 1000 families chosen from different areas. The samples are randomly chosen and from different cultural levels. The results show that there are normal differences in the ratio of the influencing factors on reproduction, such as fertility and sterility among foreign married and consanguineous ones. The high rate is found in the first step Consanguineous marriage where it reaches 3.5 (9.2-7.9X<sup>2</sup>) with the possibility of 0.05 free degree for the first and the second steps as compared with the foreign marriage. The ratio of the spontaneous abortion, the embryo death and the child death under the age of two years are high as compared with the rate of the foreign marriage which are as follows: (22.1), (3.3) and (5.2) respectively (valued 6.8-8.3X<sup>2</sup>) with the possibility of 0.05 free degree. Also, it is noticed that the ratio of the reproduction disorder of the sample under study is 53%, which is high as compared with the rate of the other studies that were carried out in Iraq. Also, it has been seen that there is a decrease in the internal marriage factor (F=0.27) and the ratio of Consanguineous marriage in this study is 56.6%, which is high as compared with other studies. This is evidence that the heredity danger awareness from the consanguineous marriage is below the required level.</p> 2019-08-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Categorizing the stages of lung cancer using Multi SVM Classifier 2019-09-11T10:57:32+00:00 Ashwini P Sherin Antony Kanchana V <p>Detection of cancer is the utmost fascinating analysis space for scientists in the early period. The projected method is meant to identify cancer in the beginning phase. The projected method comprises several phases, such as image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, and classification. In our proposed work, segmentation is done to fragment the CT image. We use solid feature extraction (GLCM) technique to extract certain essential features from the segmented images. Further extracted features are considered for classification (Multi SVM) process to check whether cancerous or non-cancerous.</p> 2012-07-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Postpartum Haemorrhage among Women in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia 2019-09-12T06:29:14+00:00 Sharifah Nadiah Syed Idrus Nurjasmine Aida Jamani Radiah Abdul Ghani <p>Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is defined as excessive bleeding of 500 ml or more within 24 hours after birth. It is known as one of the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. In Malaysia, from the year 2009 to 2014, PPH remained as one of the top contributors to maternal deaths; this suggests that the knowledge, attitude and practice on PPH among mothers in Malaysia still need to be improved. This cross-sectional study is aimed to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice on PPH, in addition to examining the association of socio-demographic factors with knowledge, attitude and practice of women in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. This study involved 105 women who have experienced pregnancy and delivered at least once and is living in Kuantan. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed from February until March 2018. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package Software for Social Sciences (SPSS). From the findings, the level of knowledge on PPH among women in Kuantan was average (n=73, 69.5%), whereas the level of attitude and practice of most respondents was found in a good level, 101 (96.2%) and 98 (93.3%) respectively. The factors that have significant associations with knowledge on PPH in this study were age group (p=0.016) and background of education (p&lt;0.001). In conclusion, this study showed that most of the participants in Kuantan have a moderate level of knowledge on PPH yet possess a good attitude and practice on the management of PPH.</p> 2019-07-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Triazoles with long chain alkyl groups as a potential biological compounds 2019-09-12T06:46:41+00:00 Salih Mahdi Salman <p>New series of four compounds was synthesized from multi hydroxyl group compounds such as methyl glycoside by coupling with long-chain alky propargyl ester ( C<sub>10</sub>, C<sub>12</sub>, C<sub>14</sub> and unsaturated C<sub>18</sub>) via click chemistry after activation the hydroxyl at C6 position by chlorination with N-chlorosuccinimide NCS and functionalized with sodium azide NaN<sub>3.</sub> The chemical structures and the purity of the resulting triazoles derivatives was confirmed by elemental analysis (CHN) and spectroscopic analysis <sup>1</sup>H NMR &amp; <sup>13</sup>C NMR. The biological activity for the target compounds was investigated, and they show good antibacterial and antifungal properties against some selected gram-posative and fungi, which make them suitable for medical applications.</p> 2019-07-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial evaluation of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives 2019-09-12T10:07:21+00:00 Suhail H. Derawey Mazin N. Mosa Ekhlas Qanber Jasim Rawaa M. O. Hraishawi <p>The present work includes synthesis and characterization of some novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives and the evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the synthesized compound against pathogenic isolated gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The activity result showed that some compound exhibited efficient effect against these bacteria. Some compounds had significant inhibition zone against Escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The compound OXD3 and OXD4 gave inhibition zone against resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa while stander drug cefepime doesn’t give an activity.</p> 2019-07-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Exploring the status of treating chronic pain among elderly patients hospitalized in internal medicine wards in saudi arabia 2019-09-13T04:21:32+00:00 Allehabi Muhaisn A Alshammari Mohammad A Alenzy Muhya T ALshehri Mohammed A Almusri Ali D <p>The elderly population experience many health issues that range from emotional, psychological to physiological conditions. Previous studies reveal that chronic pain is among the major health issues affecting old people. The processes of managing chronic pain among the elderly have proven to be challenging practices since individuals exhibit different health complications in advanced age.&nbsp;&nbsp; Saudi Arabia is among the countries that have made progressive improvements to the approaches employed to address chronic pain. Thus, exploring the status of elderly patients experiencing chronic pain in three major hospitals in Saudi Arabia is an educational strategy to understand the situation both in the middle east and the rest of the world. The notable chronic ailments associated with the elderly in Saudi Arabia include diabetes, back pain, and depression. Several studies have shown that the systems for treating older adults that suffer from chronic pain in Saudi Arabia are effective. However, the treatment is not as smooth as the systems due to the complexities associated with old age. For instance, old people have memory problems, movement challenges, and concertation difficulties, among others. However, noting how different people experience and address chronic pain is imperative for understanding the magnitude of distress pain causes to the elderly.&nbsp; The study used the 20-item pain anxiety symptom scale (PASC) to asses chronic pain for 53 patients draw from King Fahad Hospital in Jeddah, Asir Central Hospital, and King Khaled hospital in Najran. The study revealed that chronic pain causes fear. Inability to think properly. Concertation problem and lack of sleep, among other issues. Apparently. The study borrows from other studies done outside Saudi Arabia to explore the issue problem in a broader spectrum. The understanding of chronic pain status is an inevitable exercise towards establishing effective pain management programs or systems.</p> 2019-07-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Evaluation of ayurvedic therapy in management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia 2019-09-13T10:55:00+00:00 Arun Kumar Dwivedi Awadhesh Kumar Pandey <p>Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition that affects 50% of men in their 50 <sup>th</sup> decade. There have been many advances in the treatment of this condition, which aim to improve the patient’s quality of life.<sup>1</sup> Although there is no cure for BPH, but there are many useful options for treating the problem. Treatment focuses on prostate growth, which is the cause of BPH symptoms. Once prostate growth starts, it often continues unless treatment starts. The prostate grows in two different ways-in one type of growth, cell multiply around the urethra and squeeze it whereas in the second type of growth is middle lobe prostate growth in which cell grow into the urethra and the bladder outlet area. This type of prostate growth typically requires surgery. The first line of care for treating BPH is often medication.<sup>2&nbsp; &nbsp;</sup>Efficacy of Vasti therapy an Ayurvedic therapeutic procedure was studied in 75 patients of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). The treatment was given for 21 days, and then the effect was assessed clinically and objectively. Objective observations include determination of size (weight) of prostate and residual urine in the urinary bladder by ultrasonography, estimation of blood urea, serum creatinine and routine, microscopic and microbiological study of urine was also done. After the therapy in 70.67% of 75 patients, the size of the prostate was found regressed, and in 82.14% of 56 patients, the residual urine volume was decreased along with other objective and subjective improvement.</p> 2019-07-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 A critical analysis of Satmya with special reference to Madhumeha (Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus) and certain biochemical parameters 2019-09-16T04:28:34+00:00 Santosh Kumar Ranjan Byadgi P.S Tripathi N.S <p>Ayurveda is an ancient medical science that deals with the of the human being as well as measures to treat diseases. There are two main purpose of Ayurveda, first being to maintain the healthy status of the healthy people and the second one is to cure the disease of the unhealthy person. For the diagnosis of the disease, ancient have given much importance of knowledge obtained by (direct perception), (inference), (testimony), and (reasoning) during the examination of the patient for a successful treatment. To fulfill this purpose, Atura-Pariksha (examination of patients) (examination of medicinal drug and preparations) and Roga-Rogi (examination of the patient and disease) etc. are a very important tool. The concept of is described under (tenfold examination), and it is an important concept in both (maintenance of health) and (treatment of disease). The concept of is explained by different elaborately in their own way. The process of adopting from is well explained in the classics. To evaluate the significance of in (T2DM) patients. Assessment of status and biochemical parameters in (T2DM) patients. might be an important tool for the assessment of the strength of patient and also helpful for proper planning of treatment.</p> 2019-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 A significant role of biomarkers in breast cancer, cervical cancer and colorectal cancer - A review 2019-09-17T04:55:18+00:00 Malarkodivelraj Maymun sahana N Manimaran T Aruna M Dinesh kumar P <p>The early discovery of malignancy can altogether reduce disease mortality and spares lives. In this way, a lot of exertion has been dedicated to the investigation of new advancements to distinguish early indications of the ailment. Biomarkers have various potential applications in oncology, including peril examination, screening, differential end, an affirmation of figure, desire for response to treatment, and checking of development of illness. Malignant growth biomarkers spread an expansive scope of biochemical substances, for example, nucleic acids, proteins, sugars, little metabolites, and cytogenetic and cytokinetic parameters, just as whole tumor cells found in the body liquid. They can be utilized for hazard appraisal, finding, anticipation, and for the expectation of treatment adequacy and danger and repeat. A thorough comprehension of the pertinence of cach biomarker will be imperative for diagnosing the malady dependably yet in addition help in the decision of various restorative choices at present accessible that is probably going to profit the patients. In this review, we provide a information about late advances in disease biomarker discovery, different signalling pathways for specific tumors like breast malignancy, cervical malignancy, colorectal malignancy and finding, forecast and restorative purposes, which incorporate markers as of now in clinical practice just as different upcoming biomarkers.</p> 2019-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Mirror therapy to improve hand function in spastic cerebral palsy children 2019-09-17T05:22:20+00:00 Elanchezhian C Swarna Kumari P <p>Hand function is one of the important functional activities of the human being to perform a daily activity. One of the impairments is hand function commonly observed in spastic hemiplegics. Spasticity is one of the major factors affecting children, as a result of increased muscle tone, that influences hand movement. Children become more dependent when hand function is impaired. Normal muscle tone is a prerequisite for moving the hand to activity for normal hand function. Hand movement improves by reducing spasticity, which in daily living activity helps the child functionally independent. The aim of this research is therefore to enhance the hand function by using mirror therapy in children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy. 46 subjects are studied and divided into two groups, namely the group of mirror therapy (Experimental) and the conventional group. The informed concern was taken from their parents. Conventional training was given to one group and mirror therapy was given to another group. Both groups were treated for 60 min/ each session, 5 days/week for the duration of 4 weeks. Modified Ashworth scale was used to evaluate spasticity, 9 hole pegboards were used to measure finger dexterity, Fegl Meyer assessment upper limb was used to assess changes in the motor improvement, and Upper Extremity Functional Index was self-evaluating questionnaire done my parents or caretakers. The independent "t" test was used to analyze the outcome measures, the effect of spasticity effect and ability to function by hand. The mean post-test values of all mirror therapy variables were better than those of the conventional group (p&lt;0.005). The study shows spasticity reduction and improvement in the function of the hand in children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy using mirror therapy.</p> 2019-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Stress and fertility-Past conviction, present cognizance and future orchestrations 2019-09-17T09:30:13+00:00 Mishra Sarita Parameswarappa S. Byadgi Mishra S.P <p>Different studies have been done to study the effect of stress on reproductive physiology and fertility. of stress-induced infertility /decrease fecundity is explained by various axis and theory of oxidative stress, but proper management of stress and regulation of these axis along with oxidative stress is lacking in modern medical science. A better understanding of stress and its relation with body physiology, especially fertility, is attempted in light of Ayurveda to get knowledge about the of stress-induced infertility and its holistic management. In Ayurveda concept of stress is not only confined to psychological factors, but it is the state of disturb body homeostasis, i.e. the state where , , are not in their proper functioning. Diet and lifestyle have their role in maintaining body homeostasis. Along with diet and lifestyle various drugs, therapeutic procedure () &amp;amp; non-materialistic treatment ( and beliefs to be followed in life) have been described in Ayurveda to manage disturbed body homeostasis, and thus it helps in the management of stress in a holistic way. Concept of stress management by concepts like diet, lifestyle, Agni, body purification methods along with and objects (diet, lifestyle, and drugs) will open a vast area of research about the applicability of these concepts in stress management by the holistic way. It will help to serve society by providing not only cure of stress-related infertility but also give a healthy reproductive life.</p> 2019-07-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Statistical design and optimization of ketorolac tromethamine gastroretentive multiparticulate delivery system 2019-09-18T06:51:29+00:00 Rakesh Mishra Pavan Suradkar Tanaji Nandgude <p>The aim of the present research is to design and optimize floating multiparticulate drug delivery system of Ketorolac tromethamine (KT) so as to reduce its irritant effect on the gastric mucosa. Extrusion and spheronization process were used to prepare a drug-containing core pellets. A 3 level 2 experimental factor design was used to examine the effect of the amount of Eudragit RS 100, effervescent agent (NaHCO<sub>3</sub>: HPMC K4M) on floating lag time and drug release in 6 h. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectrum, physical characterization, particle size distribution analysis, scanning electron microscopy, floating studies and in vitro drug release studies of prepared floating pellets were evaluated. The study reveals the significant effect of the amount of Eudragit RS 100 and NaHCO<sub>3</sub>: HPMC K4M on floating lag time and drug release. The optimized batch showed floating lag time of 3.2 min and 95.15% average drug release in 6 hours. 80–95% of pellets remained floating for up to 6 h. All the batches showed excellent flow properties having an angle of repose in the range 29.85±0.2<sup>0</sup> to 21.60±0.5<sup>0</sup>, Carr’s index and Hausner’s ratio in the range of 14.49±0.26% to 7.54±0.32% and 1.08±0.04 to 1.16±0.7 respectively. The sustained release gastroretentive floating pellets of Ketorolac tromethamine were obtained and could be effectively used in the delivery of drug with less irritant effect on the gastric mucosa.</p> 2019-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 An efficient technique for identification of leukemia in microscopic blood samples using image processing. 2019-09-18T08:39:27+00:00 Meghana M.R Akshatha Prabhu <p>Leukemia is a blood cancer which features through the ejection of manipulated and strange fabrication of white blood cells which is the way of bone marrow within the blood. The project aims at designing and developing an efficient technique for the detection of luekemia based on image segmentation techniques and nuclei analysis which incorporates the affected percentage and are compared and classified using KNN and SVM. The DNA of youngster cells, for the maximum detail white platelets, subsequently finally ends up harmed here and there. This version from the norm reasons platelets to increase and separate constantly. Sound platelets bypass on inevitably and are supplanted by approach of new cells, which might be brought in bone marrow.&nbsp;</p> 2019-09-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 A study on the physico-chemical characteristics of Tannery Waste Water at Tiruchirappalli district 2019-09-19T04:53:08+00:00 Ramees Raja Hussain A Aneez Mohamed M <p>The waste water generated by the tanning industry are the potential sources of pollution in Tiruchirappalli district. The tannery effluent can cause serious impact to water and soil. This study evaluates the physico-chemical characteristics of tannery effluent and soil. The chemical and physical parameters and water quality index of tannery wastewater were observed to be toxic as it contains large values of organic and inorganic chemical elements.&nbsp; The tannery effluent contains large values of TDS, EC, anions and cations. The major pollutants in tannery effluents are high chlorides, sulphide and total dissolved solids (TDS). The organic impurities in tannery wastewater are the cause for its bad odour. Tannery wastewater polluted soil was analysed and found to have high values of PH, ESP(Exchangeable sodium percentage), EC,&nbsp; sodium, chloride, sodium adsorption ratio, micronutrients and macronutrients and low values of organic matter, moisture content, phosphorus, potassium, nitrogen,&nbsp; than the garden soil Unpolluted soil.</p> 2019-07-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Spinal cord segmentation and classification of degenerative disease 2019-09-19T06:17:19+00:00 Arjun Kanchana V <p class="Abstract"><span style="font-weight: normal;">spinal cord plays an important role in human life. In our work, we are using digital image processing technique, the interior part of the human body can be analyzed using MRI, CT and X-RAY etc. Medical image processing technique is extensively used in medical field. In here we are using MRI image to perform our work In our proposed work, we are finding degenerative disease from spinal cord image. In our work first, we are preprocessing the MRI image and locate the degenerative part of the spinal cord, finding the degenerative part using various segmentation approach after that classifying degenerative disease or normal spinal cord using various classification algorithm. For segmentation, we are using an efficient semantic segmentation approach</span></p> 2019-07-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Development and validation of a new analytical RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of Glibenclamide and Atenolol in bulk 2019-09-19T06:45:19+00:00 Anitha P Ramkanth S Satyanarayana S V <p>A new, simple, reliable, fast, sensitive and economical RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of two fixed-dose combinations frequently prescribed in coexisted chronic diseases such as diabetes (GLB) and hypertension (ATN) in bulk for the first time. The mobile phase used for the chromatographic runs consisted of 0.01N potassium dihydrogen ortho phosphate (pH 4.8) and acetonitrile (55:45, v/v). The separation was achieved on column (BDS C18 250 x 2.1mm, 1.6m) using isocratic mode. Drug peaks were well separated and were detected by a UV detector at 235.0 nm. The method was linear at the concentration range 2.5-15µg/ml for Glibenclamide (GLB) and 6.25-37.5µg/ml for Atenolol (ATN), respectively. The method has been validated according to ICH guidelines with respect to system suitability, specificity, precision, accuracy and robustness. The method was validated for system suitability, linearity, accuracy, precision, detection, quantification limits and robustness and was found it is acceptable in the range of 2.5–15 µg/ml for GLB<strong>&nbsp;</strong>and 6.25–37.5 µg/ml for ATN<strong>.&nbsp;</strong>The LOD and LOQ of GLB was found to be 0.48 µg/ml and 1.47µg/ml and for ATN was found to be 0.72µg/ml and 2.20 µg/ml, respectively.&nbsp;The method was applied to drug interaction studies of GLB with ATN to illustrate the scope and application of the methods to manage two different therapeutic classes of drugs, as they may co-administered in concurrent diseases.</p> 2019-08-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Effect of multiple emulsion on mortality of drosophila virils 2019-09-19T09:22:40+00:00 Areej Al-Khalaf <p>The frequent use of&nbsp;insecticides&nbsp;has led to the development of insecticide resistance by many insects. In some insect populations, resistance can be developed to multiple pesticides. Up to this, insecticides resistance became a key challenge, and the amounts of the used pesticides must be as lower as possible. In this study, we measured the potency of multiple emulsions on the mortality of <em>Drosophila virils</em> and the ability of the fly to ingest and excrete the emulsions as a new strategy to avoid the great use of pesticides.&nbsp; The obtained data showed that the value of the lethal concentration of half the number of individuals decreases when the exposure duration increases, which demonstrates the sensitivity of the larvae to the toxic effect of the formulation. This can help to suggest that this type of material can be more effective and lasting effect for as long as possible. Moreover, the ingestion and excretion of the formulated product in the hind-gut can help to suggest the ability of the studied formulation to pass through the peritrophic membrane and the midgut acidic regions as two important barriers. In conclusion, the formulated microcapsule has a satisfactory insecticidal potency against <em>D. virilis</em> in a dose-dependent manner which might help to avoid the developed resistance to commonly used insecticides.</p> 2019-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 External cueing on gait parameters in Parkinson’s Disease 2019-09-20T07:16:50+00:00 Deepa S Ramana K <p>Parkinson’s disease which is characterized by paucity of movement, leading to the abnormal gait parameters. The gait pattern is characterized by shuffling as festinant gait. Freezing is an incapacitating motor symptom is also one of the leading causes of gait abnormality leading to falls.&nbsp;Cueing strategy evokes a more goal-directed type of&nbsp;motor control results in improved gait parameters.&nbsp;<strong>Aims and Objectives</strong>:-The purpose of this study to find the effectiveness of external cueing on the gait parameters as cadence, step length and stride length.&nbsp;<strong>Materials and Methodology: -</strong>&nbsp;30 subjects diagnosed as Parkinson’s disease were randomly assigned to three groups, the walking ability was assessed using a 10 meter walk test, and pre test score was recorded. The external cueing technique was applied for a session of 4 days per week for 4 weeks; each session lasted for about 30 minutes, at the end for 4 weeks the post test scores were recorded.&nbsp;<strong>Results: -</strong>&nbsp;External cueing with a combination of audio- visual showed significant improvement in the gait parameters.&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion: -&nbsp;</strong>The improvement showed in the pre test to post test reflected the need for introducing the external cueing in improving gait and attention during a motor task.&nbsp;</p> 2019-08-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Studies on the evaluation of some strains of Calocybe indica P&C for cultivation in Jammu 2019-09-20T11:12:49+00:00 Pourush Shrikhandia S P Geeta Sumbali <p><em>Calocybe indica</em>, commonly known as milky/summer white mushroom, ‘kuduk’ or ‘dudhi chatta’, is a ligno-cellulolytic, tropical mushroom of Indian origin, which requires a temperature of 30-35°C and a relative humidity of 80-90°C for good growth. It is a new introduction to the domestic mushroom family. There are 40 different species of <em>C. indica</em>, out of which four are edible, that is,<em> C. carnea, C. ionides, C. gambosa and C. indica</em><em>. </em>In northern part of our country, very few efforts have been attempted towards the cultivation of <em>C. indica</em>. Therefore, the present study was conducted to screen some strains of <em>C. indica</em> viz., DMRO-309, DMRO-319, CI-6, CI-9 and APK-2 procured from Directorate of Mushroom Research, Solan for their growth behaviour, morphometric characters, yield and biological efficiency on wheat and paddy straw for cultivation in Jammu district. On the basis of the results obtained, <em>C. indica </em>strain DMRO-309 and APK-2 emerged as the best performers under the climatic conditions of Jammu region.</p> 2019-07-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Effect of muscle energy technique on pain pressure threshold in sacroiliac joint dysfunction 2019-09-21T04:19:27+00:00 Saumya Srivastava Dhanesh Kumar K U Harramb Mittal <p>Patients with conjectured sacroiliac joint dysfunction (SIJD) commonly complaints of tenderness and pain around the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS). The tenderness can be objectively recorded using pain pressure threshold (PPT) as an outcome measure. However, to date, no studies have been conducted to ascertain the effect of muscle energy technique (MET) on PPT. Consequently, the study aims to determine the effect of MET on PPT in SIJD. Twenty-five SIJD patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria participated in the study. Outcome measures like PPT, Visual analogue scale (VAS), and Oswestry disability index (ODI) was taken prior to the intervention and also after 4-day treatment sessions. There was a significant improvement (p&lt;0.05) seen in all the outcome measures. The study concluded that MET could be beneficial in reducing tenderness around PSIS and also helps in reducing pain and disability in patients with SIJD.</p> 2019-07-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Phytochemical screening and Anti-oxidant activity of Ammannia octandra L.f 2019-09-21T06:46:08+00:00 Kavitha G Sivakkumar T Elessy Abraham <p>The investigation includes phytochemical screening of different extracts of <em>Ammannia octandra </em>L.f. Petroleum ether, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate, Ethanol as well as the aqueous extracts of <em>Ammannia octandra </em>L.f showed many phytoconstituents. &nbsp;The phytoconstituents of <em>Ammannia octandra </em>L.f were found to be glycosides, alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins and phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity was determined for three extracts (Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and ethanolic). DPPH assay, Superoxide free radical scavenging activity, Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity, Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity as well as Total antioxidant activity methods were followed for antioxidant assays. The ethanolic extract showed better antioxidant activity. Pharmacological screening of different therapeutic activities of <em>Ammannia octandra </em>L.f has to be carried out so that it may be used in future as a good natural antioxidant source.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Effect of ritonavir on pharmacokinetics of antimalarial drug combinations in rats 2019-09-21T07:10:44+00:00 Sunitha G N Satyavati Dulipala D Girish Gudi <p>The current treatment for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) patients coinfected with malaria involves the coadministration of antimalarial and antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends artemisinin-based therapy for malaria that usually consists of artemether, artesunate or dihydroartemisinin with non-artemisinin derivatives such as amodiaquine, lumefantrine and mefloquine. &nbsp;Protease inhibitors (PI) such as ritonavir contribute to the improved health of HIV-positive individuals, and the inclusion of ritonavir in antiretroviral regimens is common in clinical practice. Ritonavir is a potent inhibitor of human CYP3A4, which is the primary enzyme involved in the metabolism of many of artemisinin-based drugs, as well as amodiaquine and proguanil. &nbsp;Upon co-administration, ritonavir can potentially influence the metabolism and thus increase the systemic exposure of these drugs. In order to understand this pharmacokinetic (PK) drug interaction, the current work evaluated the effect of ritonavir (50 mg/kg orally) on the PK of antimalarial drug combinations in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. When co-administered with ritonavir, the exposure (AUC) of the antimalarial drugs artemether, artesunate and proguanil was increased by approximately 3.5-fold. Correspondingly, peak plasma concentrations (C<sub>max</sub>) of these drugs increased as well. There was no apparent influence of ritonavir on the PK of lumefantrine, amodiaquine and atovaquone. This study demonstrates the potential influence of ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of at least some anti-malarial drugs, likely a result of inhibition of CYP3A. Further evaluation of clinically relevant drug interaction in humans may be warranted to ensure safe and effective use of anti-malarial and anti-HIV drugs concomitantly.</p> 2019-09-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Comparison of Malondialdehyde Level in the Cord Blood of Newborn Infants of vaginal and cesarean deliveries 2019-09-21T10:46:32+00:00 Eman Khammas ALSaadi Batol Faisal Taher Mohammed Abid Darweesh Mohammed Abul Al-Monther <p>The oxidative stress injury that has been linked to poor perinatal outcome and birth asphyxia may be found even with normal pregnancy, and it is severity in a newborn may be related to modes of delivery for which our study aimed to identify. Furthermore, this study was aimed to study the effect of both related- maternal, and related neonatal characteristics on baby’s oxidative stress marker level (Malondialdehyde). Fifty newborn children were selected in both labor ward and operating theatre of Al-Sadder Teaching Hospital, Misan, Iraq. They were divided into two groups. The first group comprised 28 newborns, who were born by a vaginal delivery; the second group consisted of 22 newborns who delivered by elective cesarean section. The laboratory measurement of levels of an important antioxidant factor [malondialdehyde (MDA)] in baby’s cord blood has been extracted and used as an indicator of stress. We compared the two samples of different malondialdehyde levels in relation to variables as the delivery type, some maternal, fetal and neonatal characteristics. The results of this study revealed that MDA level was higher among neonates delivered through Elective Cesareans Section than those delivered through Vaginal Delivery with significant statistical value (<em>p&gt;0.0001).</em> The previous delivery mood has a statistically significant value of (<em>p</em>&gt;<em>0.02</em>) among mothers who had no previous deliveries.&nbsp; While there were no significant statistical values regarding maternal characteristics as (ages, parity, residency, antenatal care, history of previous abortion, and body mass index) as well as fetal and neonatal characteristics as (sex, birth weight, fetal presentation, and Apgar score) and high MDA level. The current study was concluded that babies delivered by Elective Cesarean Section had been exposed to more oxidative stress compared to the normal Vaginal Deliveries especially for the Primigravidas.</p> 2019-07-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Vaginal birth after cesarean delivery among women who attended Al Sadder teaching hospital, Misan, Iraq, 2016 2019-09-21T11:03:34+00:00 Aqeela Haidar Majeed <p>A trial of labor has become the advisable choice for delivery in women with one previous low transverse segment and no recurring indication for elective repeated CS. However, a controversy exists regarding the safety and efficacy. This study was aimed to assessed Vaginal Birth after Cesarean Delivery among Women. A prospective study was conducted in Missan province at Al-Sadder Teaching Hospital during the period of January 2016 to January 2017. One hundred women with a single previous lower segment, incision attended the maternity unit with labor pain were selected. All data were collected through direct interview. Main characteristics of the study group were described using figures and tables comparing VBAC and CS groups. The data entered and analyzed using by SPSS software version 20. Statistically significant differences were defined as p &lt; 0.05. The results of this study revealed that the mean age was 28 years (± 2.2 SD); 89% were housewives, 73% have had 2-5 previous conceptions, and 80% reported less than two years between the previous CS and the current delivery. This study showed that 55% of the total study group delivered vaginally. The higher incidence of VBAC was among women aged 15-24 and 25-34 year. Significantly the majority of housewives were more likely to deliver vaginally compared with. The highest incidence of successful VBAC was among women when the interval between the previous CS and the current delivery is &lt;2 years. We concluded the study revealed that VBAC is an acceptable choice for delivery, especially if women have been selected with proper criteria with appropriate timing and close supervision.</p> 2019-07-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Preliminary phytochemical screening and anticancer potential of Kohautia aspera (Heyne Ex Roth) Bremek 2019-09-21T11:19:33+00:00 Kavitha G Sivakkumar T Elessy Abraham <p>Phytochemical screening followed by anticancer potential evaluation of<em> Kohautia aspera</em>&nbsp;(Heyne ex Roth) Bremek was the purpose of the study. Successive extraction was performed with four solvents of different polarity as well as hot percolation method for the aqueous extract. The anticancer potential of the plant was investigated by standard MTT assay against (MCF-7) human breast adenocarcinoma cells. The extracts showed many phytoconstituents. <em>In vitro</em> cytotoxic activity of plant increased with increasing concentration of extracts. The presence of important phytoconstituents in plants may provide protection against a number of diseases. The investigation concludes that <em>Kohautia aspera</em>&nbsp;(Heyne ex Roth) Bremek possesses significant anticancer potential.</p> 2019-08-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Effectiveness of acupressure on pain management among mediosternotomy patients 2019-09-23T05:39:05+00:00 Pritha L Valliammal S Vijayaraghavan R <p>Acupressure is an alternative therapy that uses fingers and hands to stimulate acupoints and maintains the balance of energy. It was well documented that acupressure is effective in relieving different types of pains in patients with different conditions. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of acupressure in pain and improving the bio-physiological parameters among mediosternotomy patients. The present study was conducted at Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Medical Sciences, Whitefield, Bangalore. A total of twenty male and female patients those who undergo open-heart surgery via median sternotomy were part of the study after obtaining the written informed consent. After recording the demographic data, the participants were randomly grouped into control and intervention groups using random numbers generated by computer with 10 participants in each group. The intervention will be provided at PC6 acupressure point, situated on the inner side of the forearm, three fingers below the wrist joint, three times a day for four days.&nbsp; Numerical Rating Scale of pain was used to assess the pain of the Participants. There was a significant decrease in the pain score of the participants<strong>, </strong>followed by the acupressure. The study provides further evidence for the effectiveness of the acupressure in pain management and also recommends detailed research in this area.</p> 2019-09-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Jasminum sessiliflorum extracts 2019-09-23T05:56:27+00:00 Ruby Philip Kathiresan Krishnasamy Elessy Abraham <p>Medicinal plants are important resources for the development of novel anti-inflammatory agents. Synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs have several adverse effects. Medicinal plants have numerous that are safer well as better substitutes for the prevention and management of various diseases and disorders. The and ethyl acetate extracts of Jasminum were evaluated for their potential as anti-inflammatory agents in by inducing paw edema in rats using . The anti-inflammatory activity of the reference drug was compared with the extracts of Jasminum . The extracts on screening indicated the presence of such as , , , alkaloids, and . The study established significant anti-inflammatory nature of the Jasminum extracts in a manner which is dose-dependent. The results indicate that both the extracts of Jasminum possess anti-inflammatory activity of significance and can be used in the development for novel anti-inflammatory moieties.</p> 2019-07-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 The role of cytokines in the prognosis of children with dengue shock syndrome in vietnam 2019-09-23T06:23:13+00:00 Tram Van Ta Hai Thanh Tran Quyen Nguyen Than Ha Xuong Tuyet Nguyen Vu Kien Tran Hien The Pham Cameron Simmons <p>Dengue shock syndrome (DSS) is a severe complication of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and can lead to death, but DSS incidence and effects are difficult to predict via clinical examination. With consideration of this issue, this research determined the role of cytokines in the severity and prognosis of DHF in children. This prospective cohort research involved 234 patients who were aged 18 months to 18 years old, admitted to Tien Giang General Hospital, and diagnosed as having DHF. The cytokine levels of the patients were recorded from admission to discharge. Almost all the patients (&gt;67%) exhibited increased interleukin 10 (IL-10), IL-6, and IL-2, whereas only 0.43% (the lowest) presented with elevated IL-12. Concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor-α were highest in the patients infected with DENV-1, followed by those infected with DENV-3 and DENV-2. IL-12 concentration decreased with increasing days of fever occurrence. No correlation was found between cytokine concentrations in the first day of hospitalization and shock in the DHF patients. The concentration of cytokines during the first day of hospitalization (i.e., patients with a fever lasting less than 72 hours) cannot be used as a guide in determining DSS prognosis.</p> 2019-09-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 C-reactive protein in children with dengue fever in Vietnam 2019-09-23T08:38:26+00:00 Nguyen The Nguyen Phung Thi Thai Phien Nguyen Thanh Liem Bui Thanh Hung Nguyen Diep Tuan Tran <p>Precise diagnosis of the severity of dengue fever (DF) and its timely treatment reduce its mortality, but the sensitivity of clinical presentations is low for the classification of severity. Research on biomarkers is ongoing, and some studies in adults have shown the utility of C reactive protein (CRP) in the early diagnosis of dengue severity. However, the role of CRP in children with DF is still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the value of CRP in distinguishing between DF and severe DF. A cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2016 to April 2017 at Children's Hospital 1 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Serum CRP was tested on days 4 and 5 of the disease. Laboratory tests for DF were based on either a positivity for non-structured glycoprotein-1 antigen (NS1Ag) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin (Ig) M in acute phase serum. Among 270 patients, 29.6% had DF, 26.7% had DF with warning signs, and 43.7% had severe DF. The CRP level was measured in 123 patients on day 4 and 147 patients on day 5 of the illness. The median CRP level for DF was 2.4 mg/L, for DF with warning signs was 6.7 mg/L, and for severe DF was 7.3 mg/L. The CRP level was higher on day 4 than on day 5. The CRP level showed a statistically significant difference between the group with circulatory dysfunctions (p=0.02) or liver dysfunction (p= 0.04) and the other patients. The CRP cut-off point on day 4 that distinguished DF and severe DF was 5.8 mg/L and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.89, with a sensitivity of 82.9% and specificity of 80%. The CRP concentration in the early stage of illness may, therefore, help to distinguish between DF and severe DF.</p> 2019-09-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 The pattern of cataract in Amara city, south of Iraq, 2017 2019-09-23T11:58:51+00:00 Hasan Abdulameer Al-Mu’mar <p>A cataract is the leading cause of blindness and visual impairment throughout the world according to the World Health Organization (WHO), and it has been shown that visual impairment and age-related cataract may be independent risk factors for increased mortality in older persons. This study was aimed to determine the epidemiological characteristics of cataract patients and their management. A cross-sectional study with an analytic element. It was conducted in the department of ophthalmology in Al-Sadder teaching hospital in Misan governorate, Iraq. During 2017, the study, including the patients who attend the Ophthalmology Unit regarding some characteristics features with underwent a full eye examination with some investigations. The results of the current study revealed that the total study sample was 109 patients who diagnosed as cataract patient, out of them about 63 (57%) was female and 46 (43%) was male. There were 61(56%) of the case with age ≥ 50 years old, while the rest (44%) of the case with age less than 50-year-old. More than two-thirds of cases was lived in urban(72.5%). About 28% of cataract patients was a smoker, and 17.4% was a positive family history. The positive history of Systemic disease, Ocular disease or trauma and steroid was 50,4%, 21.1%, and 14.7, respectively. There was a three type of cataract was noted by the study as following; nuclear sclerotic was 53%, posterior sub-capsular was 34%, and cortical was 13%. A statistically significant association between cataract types and patients age, address, steroid maturity and IOP where p-value ≤0.05. Surgery used in 50% of patients. Cataract mostly occurs in female, more than 50 years old patients and steroid used. Common treatment was surgery</p> 2019-09-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Inhibitory role of Metformin for tamoxifen induced ‎uterine cell proliferation in diabetic ‎patients with ER-‎positive Breast cancer 2019-09-25T05:08:10+00:00 Ghasak Kais Abd-Alhussain Mohammed Qasim Yahya Mal-Allah Al-Atrakji Wieeam Abdulfattah Saleh Aqeel Shaker Mahmood <p>The objective of the current work to evaluate the role of metformin in inhibiting the tamoxifen induced ‎endometrial ‎changes in diabetic patients with ER-positive breast cancer, a case-control study, carried out between December 2018 to May 2019, forty ‎diabetic women in postmenopausal phase with ER+ breast cancer on tamoxifen (20mg/day), ‎metformin ‎‎(1700 mg/day) GROUP A, and 40 diabetic patients with ER+ breast cancer on the ‎same dose of tamoxifen, but other hypoglycemic agent GROUP B, were selected as controls. ‎Uterine thickness was assessed by ultrasonography imaging at the beginning of treatment with ‎tamoxifen and after 2 years of treatment. Hysteroscopy ‎was done, and pathological findings also ‎recorded.‎ Mean uterine thickness of diabetic patients on other hypoglycemic was ‎significantly higher than diabetic patients on metformin (14.79±3.6 vs 4.37±1.8). Uterine ‎thickness &gt;5mm were 2 (5%) vs ‎36 (85%) reported with the diabetic patient on metformin and the ‎diabetic patient on ‎other oral hypoglycemic group. Three cases (7.5%) of the diabetic patients ‎on other hypoglycemic agent were developed uterine polyps, and one case (2.5%) of diabetic ‎patients on metformin were developed uterine polyps. One case (2.5%) of uterine carcinoma ‎was reported with diabetic patients on other hypoglycemic group.‎ In conclusions metformin significantly inhibit tamoxifen-induced endometrial changes and ‎offers favorable endometrium protection.</p> 2019-08-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Evaluation of in vitro anthelmintic activity of extracts of jasminum sessiliflorum 2019-09-25T05:43:29+00:00 Ruby Philip Kathiresan Krishnasamy Elessy Abraham <p>Plant preparations are most popular from ancient times for the treatment of various diseases. The ancient people had an appreciable on the application and usage of plant preparations for the common ailments. Based on the investigation, it has been found that various species of this plant has been used as an anthelmintic. The extracts of Jasminum sessiliflorum was investigated for anthelmintic potential using earthworms, <em>Pheretima posthuma. </em>Different concentration of plant extracts were used for the evaluation. Albendazole (10 mg/ml) was used as reference standard drug. The method employs the determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms and these results were recorded. Extracts showed significant activity. The ethanolic extract was found to be most efficient.</p> 2019-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 To study the effect of taurine on the effects of vital bones and regulate the level of glucose in type II diabetes 2019-09-27T08:43:30+00:00 Falah Hassan Shari Hiba Dawood Jubran K. Hassan Qais A. ALJazeari Mazin A.A. Najm Ahmad Salahuddin H. N. K. Al-Salman <p>Taurine is sulfur containing semi-essential amino acid that has important roles in many biological processes, but its effect on glucose homeostasis, weight, growth and bone mineralization weren’t well defined. Objectives: the evaluation of oral Taurine effects has used for 3 months on bone mineralization biomarker, glycemic control and body weight in type ll diabetic patients. Methods: the interventional double-blind placebo-controlled study in which 80 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (age range 45-55) assigned in either control (n=40), or study group the (n=40) group. The last group has received a 1000mg capsule of Taurine once a day for three months. Parameters measured were serum calcium, 25(OH) vitamin D and osteocalcin, NTX-1 HbA1C% with fasting blood glucose before and after 3 months. Results: taurine led to significant (p&lt;0.05) rise in osteocalcin, significant lowering in body weight, BMI and there were no significant changes in serum calcium, NTX-1, Vitamin D, HbA1C and fasting blood glucose, all as compared with the control value. Conclusions: the 3 months of oral Taurine are used in type II diabetic patients may modulate bone mineralization represented by elevation of osteocalcin and reduction of body weight, but has no significant effect on glycemic control and did not reduce HbA1C%.</p> 2019-09-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 The role of different serotypes and dengue virus concentration in the prognosis of dengue shock syndrome in children 2019-09-25T07:02:55+00:00 Tram Van Ta Hai Thanh Tran Quyen Nguyen Than Ha Xuong Tuyet Nguyen Vu Kien Tran Hien The Pham Cameron Simmons <p>Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a burden of disease in tropical countries, caused by any one of four-dengue virus (DENV) serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4). Although there have been many studies on patients with DHF, many things remain unclear, including the role of DENV serotypes and DENV concentration. The objective of this study was to determine the role of different serotypes and DENV concentration in the prognosis of dengue shock syndrome. This was a prospective cohort study, conducted to show information relating to patients’ conditions, such as hematocrit, platelet, leukocytes, and DENV concentration and the differences between DENV serotypes. The study also expressed the relationship between two groups, DHF without shock and DHF with shock, in terms of immune status, different DENV serotypes, and DENV concentration. Two-hundred and thirty-four patients were serologically confirmed as having a DENV infection. On hospital admission day (fever within 72 hours), results showed that almost all patients had a secondary dengue infection (76.5 %). DENV-1 accounted for the highest number of cases (61.11%), and DENV-4 accounted for the lowest (0.43%). No statistically significant difference was found when comparing the two groups (DHF with shock and DHF without shock) or when comparing the groups of different DENV serotypes. The study concluded that different DENV serotypes or DENV concentration in the first day of hospitalization (fever within 72 hours) cannot be used for prognostic of DSS.</p> 2019-08-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Assessment of clients 'satisfaction with primary health care services in Basra City, South of Iraq 2012 2019-09-25T11:06:07+00:00 Essam Mohammed Abd-Alsaid <p>Client satisfaction has been defined as the degree of congruency between a client’s expectation of ideal care and his/her perception of the real care receive. In Iraq, there has been a recent concern at the Ministry of Health (MOH) about improving the quality of Primary Health Care (PHC) services being considered the first health “gate” for the community. This study aimed to assess the level of clients’ satisfaction with PHC services in Basra, Iraq, 2012. A cross-sectional study was performed on 12 randomly selected PHC centers from the total eight PHC districts at Basra Health Directorate, where 1200 clients aged 18 years and above were selected systematically. Data was collected via a direct interview with clients using an Arabic language questionnaire. The satisfaction was rated at a scale of 1-5 points, and the data was analyzed using c.&nbsp; The results of the current study revealed that the overall clients’ satisfaction was 90.8%. The highest score for clients’ satisfaction was for nurses’ staff domain of PHC services (91.9%), and the lowest was for waiting for the domain (74.5%). Old age, females, retired and illiterate clients showed significantly the highest overall satisfaction. Clients reported their main dissatisfaction for the availability of the medicines item (53.4%) and the waiting time to see medical staff item (59%). The present study concluded that overall clients’ satisfaction was relatively high, and socio-demographic characteristics played major roles in deciding the extent of clients’ satisfaction.</p> 2019-09-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Detection of bacterial pathogens causing a chronic suppurative otits media and study of antibiotic susceptibility in Iraqi patients 2019-09-26T05:18:03+00:00 Alaa Sameer Neamah <p>A complete number of 100 ear swabs were researched for the present study. This investigation is to discover the microbiological profile and their anti-microbial affectability designs in patients with constant suppurative otitis media in an Al-hububi clinic. Gram recoloring, direct microscopy with KOH, culture affectability and biochemical tests were completed to distinguish the living beings and to realize the affectability design. Every one of the swabs were gathered from patients with the clinical conclusion of unending suppurative otitis media. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (37.21%) was generally secluded life form pursued by Staphylococcus aureus (27.91%) from the samples. Amikacin was found to be the most effective antibiotic with low resistance rate. The investigation of microbial example and their anti-infection affectability decides the predominant living beings causing unending suppurative otitis media in neighborhood begins fitting treatment of otitis media and its intricacies for effective result.</p> 2019-09-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Recent advancement in wound healing dressing material 2019-09-26T06:09:37+00:00 Awadhesh Kumar Pandey Arun Kumar Dwivedi <p>Wounds have been occurring as long as the existence of life. Presently available advanced wound care products for dressing are beyond the reach of the majority Indian population, and they also do not completely fulfil the required benefits of therapeutic value. The dermal patch technology is the best-known and widely used approach for delivering drugs. It has been proven to be the fastest, easiest, safest and most economical way for drug delivery. The use of biodegradable polymers in wound management has been brought into prominence with new innovations in drug delivery system. Thus with a new dimension for the use of polymeric materials in or as wound healing, drug delivery devices involves incorporation of biodegradability into the drug delivery system. A number of degradable polymers are potentially useful for drug delivery including a variety of synthetic and natural substances such as Poly Lactic acid, Poly Crypolactone, Chitosen etc. Among all these Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) is the most readily biodegradable polymer in the surgical field. The biodegradable polymers have gained growing importance in the medical area, and these have been used in a wide number of applications in the human body, such as surgical sutures, controlled drug release systems, artificial skins, guides for nerves, veins and artificial arteries and orthopaedic devices. Biodegradable polymers have several physical and chemical characteristics, such as molecular mass average and distribution, glass transition and/or melting temperatures, monomer ratios and sequencing for copolymers. The knowledge of physicochemical characteristics of Poly Lactic acid polymers essential to understand its thermo-mechanical performance. In order to achieve appropriate wound healing, sustained release of the drug from the bio-degradable patch is necessary. So the assessment of the interaction between the drug and polymer is indispensable.</p> 2019-08-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 The correlation of clinical and subclinical presentations with dengue serotypes and plasma viral load: the case of children with dengue hemorrhagic fever in Vietnam 2019-09-26T06:41:50+00:00 Tram Van Ta Hai Thanh Tran Quyen Nguyen Than Ha Xuong Tuyet Nguyen Vu Kien Tran Hien The Pham Cameron Simmons <p>Numerous studies have been carried out on patients afflicted with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), but various issues related to the disease, including the characteristics of the dengue virus (DENV), remain unclear. To address this deficiency, the current research was conducted to determine the correlation of clinical and subclinical presentations with dengue serotypes and plasma viral load. This prospective cohort study, which was performed at Tien Giang General Hospital from 2009 to 2014, involved 481 children who were under 15 years of age and had DHF for less than 72 hours. Results showed that among the patients, the highest proportion were composed of those suffering from DENV-1 infection (44.7%). The progression of the disease to dengue shock syndrome (DSS) owing to infection with DENV-2 and DENV-1 was significantly higher than that caused by infection with DENV-3 and DENV-4. No statistically significant differences in DENV viremia were found between the non-shock DHF and DSS groups. Finally, no correlation was found between dengue plasma viral load and clinical and subclinical presentations. The findings led to the conclusion that dengue serotypes can be used as a basis in ascertaining the prognosis of DSS and DHF.</p> 2019-09-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Rule of vitamin C in the treatment of idiopathic facial paralysis IFP (Bell's palsy) 2019-09-26T11:18:58+00:00 Abbas kinbar kuser Redha Alwan Al-hashimi <p>This study was designed to show the rule of Vitamin C in the treatment of Bell's palsy when adding to the treatment of bell's palsy in compares to treatment without ascorbic acid and how its effect of fastening time of recovery. Six months from February to July 2019, and 60 patients were collected for this study, 22 patients treated with classical treatment for Bell's palsy, and on the other side 38 patients, we added Vitamin C (500mg) besides classical treatment for Bell's palsy. The results of the current study revealed that Patients with IFP were treated with vitamin C and classical treatments are gotten complete recovery within 4 weeks (92.1%) as compared to classical treatment alone (14.6%) with significant P value 0.0001. About complete resolution after4 to 6 weeks, there is no difference between both vitamin C and classical treatment (92.1%) and classical treatment alone (86.4%) with non-significant P-value. About facial residual, after 6 weeks, there is no difference between both vitamin C and classical treatment (10.5%) and classical treatment alone (10%) with non-significant P-value. It has been concluded that there is the significant value of vitamin C in the treatment of Bell's palsy as compares with classical treatment alone; but this positive value when treated early and good recovery in the first 4 weeks of IFP. A very good result in the hastening of the recovery period in the first 4 weeks but the same as a classical treatment alone after 4 weeks. In this study, no significant values of vitamin C to prevent complications of IFP.</p> 2019-09-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Evaluation of metabolic stability of antimalarial and antiretroviral drugs 2019-09-27T08:32:34+00:00 Sunitha G N Satyavati Dulipala D Girish Gudi <p>The concomitant administration of drugs and antimalarial drugs is recommended for the treatment of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) patients with malaria resulting in drug-drug interactions (DDI) causing either lack of efficacy or toxicities. Drug metabolism is often the first step in understanding the DDI potential of either a new chemical entity or a combination of drugs. inhibitor (PI) such as is a potent CYP 3A4 inhibitor and may interact with these antimalarial drugs that are metabolized by CYP3A4 to cause metabolism-related DDI's. the present study is an attempt to evaluate the potential for a drug-drug interaction between and through metabolic stability studies. Metabolic stability of antimalarial and drugs alone and in combination with and without and was evaluated using human liver (HLM). The antimalarial drugs , and were metabolically unstable alone (% metabolism ≥ 80%) and in combination with other antimalarial drugs in HLM. , and were metabolically stable (% metabolism ≤ 30%). drug was metabolically unstable while was moderately stable. intrinsic clearance of antimalarial drugs , and decreased from 106.4, 290.6 and 230 ml/min/kg to 32, 44.8 and 49.5 ml/min/kg in the presence of . However, there was no change in the intrinsic clearance of , and in the presence of . did not alter the clearance of antimalarial drugs. This study suggests that affected the clearance of a few antimalarial drugs in HLM probably by the inhibition of CYP3A4 and findings may need to be further evaluated in clinical studies.</p> 2019-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Antifungal susceptibility testing of candida – Methods and issues in current practice 2019-07-08T11:58:03+00:00 Lakshmi Krishnasamy Priya Santharam Chitralekha Saikumar <p>Despite the availability of many antifungal drugs in clinical practice, the occurrence of antifungal drug resistance is on the rise. Since the antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) is not done routinely in many of the microbiology laboratories, it is very difficult to determine which antifungal agent is very effective for a particular infection. There is a real need for precise, reproducible and extrapolative antifungal susceptibility testing methods to aid the therapeutic management. The practice of empirical treatment for fungal infections further promotes the emergence of resistant strains. The AFST practice would essentially help the clinicians in appropriate decision making. Although conventional AFST methods are somewhat cumbersome, many novel AFST methods are currently available in many laboratory settings which would provide a quicker result many times. In essence, the application of AFST along with identification of the fungus up to species level would definitely be very helpful in selecting the primary antifungal agents for treatment especially in difficult to manage and invasive fungal infections. This review will throw light on the various AFST methods available and their issues in the current practice.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Transfersome vs liposomes as drug delivery vehicle for the treatment of skin cancers 2019-07-08T12:00:18+00:00 Sivarajakumar Raahulan Bharat Kumar Reddy Sanapalli Sai Kiran SS. Pindiprolu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri <p>Skin cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. It is estimated that by 2030, there will be around 13.1million deaths can occur due to skin cancer. Current treatment of skin cancer includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Chemo-resistance, off-target effects and poor bioavailability are the major challenges for currently available drugs for the treatment of skin cancer. Transfersomes is a novel, elastic vesicular drug carrier composed of phospholipids, surfactants and ethanol for enhanced transdermal delivery. This article we have reviewed about merits/demerits, liposomes vs transfersomes, preparation methods, characterization, mechanism of skin delivery, and application and regulatory aspects of transfersomes in treating various skin cancers.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Bacteriocins: Production, different strategies of purification and applications 2019-07-10T04:07:41+00:00 Vishakha Sharma Rahul C Ranveer Neelam Jain Gajender Kumar Aseri <p>Food safety and quality are the major concern for food processing industries. In today's world, people are getting more conscious about food safety parameters. In this regard, bacteriocin plays a major role in ensuring the safety and quality of food products. From those, LAB bacteriocins are of great interest due to their GRAS status. They are widely used in food preservation, agriculture and pharmaceutical industries. They have also been incorporated into food packaging material due to their both antibacterial and antifungal properties. In this review, we highlighted the possible ways to produce and purify bacteriocin and also the potential application to be used as a natural preservative.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Proper digestion as a regulator of female reproductive physiology- An Ayurvedic perspective 2019-08-28T12:25:11+00:00 Mishra Sarita Parameswarappa S. Byadgi <p>Neuro-hormonal regulation of female reproductive system is a well established theory till today which believes that Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone(GnRH) is the primary signal that control the activity of Anterior Pituitary Gonadotrops which regulates secretion of Follicular Stimulating Hormone ( FSH ) and Luteinzing Hormone ( LH ). Further FSH and LH regulate growth of ovarian follicle and their proper balance results in ovulation. There is consensus among experts about hypothalamus that secret GnRH is the primary site that regulates female reproductive physiology. Now researchers are focused on the factors regulating HPO axis. Since last one decade role of GIT in regulation of HPO axis became the area of interest for researchers. Various studies have been done showing relationship between GIT and HPO axis. In <em>Ayurvedic samhitas artava dhatu</em> and <em>artava-vaha strotasas</em> are considered as the factors regulating reproductive physiology. In present study literature review of <em>Charak Samhita, Sushruta Samhita and Ashtanga Hridaya</em> was done to understand concept of <em>artava dhatu</em> and its regulatory factors. It was found that <em>artava dhatu</em> is formed only after proper digestion. Various factors e.g. type of diet, life style and <em>Agni</em> (status of digestive capacity) having their role on digestion that indirectly influencing <em>artava </em>and<em> artava-vaha strotas</em>. It can be concludes that <em>Ayurvedic</em> concept of <em>ahar</em>, <em>agni</em> and digestion have their regulatory role on female reproductive physiology by regulating formation of <em>artava dhatu</em>.</p> 2019-07-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 A review on the neuroprotective effect of Nelumbo nucifera seed pod 2019-09-09T04:53:18+00:00 Ruvanthika PN Manikandan S <p>Receptaculum Nelumbinis, the dried seed pod of <em>Nelumbo nucifera</em>, exhibited good efficacy for improving learning and memory abilities. Earlier, studies revealed that Receptaculum Nelumbinis can exert therapeutic effects in diverse disorders like heart failure, neoplasm via anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities. In the central nervous system (CNS), Receptaculum Nelumbinis (RN) also has beneficial effects on various disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), depression, Parkinson's disease (PD), cerebral ischemia, epilepsy, and Huntington's disease (HD). RN also enhances memory and cognition ability of rodents in dissimilar pathological conditions, such as stress exposure, diabetes, aging and high-fat diet (HFD). The effect of noise stress on exploratory, locomotor, and anxiolytic activity in the open-field behavior (OFB) test and the effect of drug RN and active component quercetin, a flavonoid isolated from seedpod in overcoming these changes. Optimistically, getting a vibrant impression concerning the role of RN in the CNS, the present paper summarizes and discusses the pharmacological effects of RN as well as its possible mechanisms in CNS disorder prevention and or therapy.</p> 2019-07-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019