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The objectives of this study are to evaluate the benefit of using Giemsa staining in endoscopic duodenal biopsies if it provides an appropriate tool to diagnose giardia parasite more accurate than the usual hematoxylin-eosin stain. Method: a retrospective study including fifty patients have been nominated with upper abdominal pain, attended gastrointestinal tract(GIT) consultation unit in medical City of Imam Al-Hussein-Karbala/ Iraq complaining from upper abdominal discomfort. They have been examined by esophagio- gastro duodenoscopy. All duodenal biopsies have also been collected from pathology excluding all celiac disease cases. All biopsies have paraffin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin looking for Giardia; in the following, the slides are stained with Giemsa stain following the manufacture-instruction. Results: 50patients (27 females and 23 males) have been examined depending on the hematoxylin and eosin staining, respectively, the diagnosis is non-specific chronic duodenitis with low MARSH score. Eleven patients from total fifty-two ones (21.15%) have shown positive symptoms for giardia cyst and trophozoite using the Giemsa stain. Conclusion: Giardia infection is difficult to be diagnosed with hematoxylin-eosin stain, especially with low infection. Consequently, Giemsa stain might be used to increase the efficacy of histopathological diagnosis of the parasite.
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