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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that affects behaviour and communication. It can be diagnosed at any age, although the symptoms generally appear in the first two years of life. Autism is also known as a "spectrum" disorder because there is wide variation in the severity and type of patient experience. Intestinal dysbiosis remains a risk factor for several neuron-developmental disorders and physiological diseases such as ASD. The gut microbiome in human influence the total metabolomic profile and thus has an impact on the overall health of human. The brain-intestinal axis concept demonstrates the interaction between the brain and the diverse gut microbial population. Recent findings show that ASD symptoms in affected individuals are linked with the altered intestinal microbiome. The current treatment modality for the symptoms of ASD are limited to Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) and FDA approved medications like Risperidone and Aripiprazole. Individuals with ASD appear to be susceptible to adverse effects of these medications. Current accumulating studies indicate that Microbiota Transfer Therapy (MTT) is a promising technique for treating ASD. MTT involves in vitro batch culture of gut microbiota, which is viewed as a quick and accessible method. It has provided encouraging results by improving ASD-related gastrointestinal (GI) and behavioural symptoms in affected individuals. The present review focuses on the link between gut dysbiosis and ASD, analyses the available clinical studies related to various treatment options and describes the role of MTT as a promising therapy of bringing back the healthy gut microbiota composition in treating ASD.
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