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Gastric ulcer is an excavation of mucosa and extending to submucosal layers due to increased gastric secretion, generation of free radicals and imbalance between protective factors and aggravating factors. The present study aimed to screen yttrium and copper oxide nanoparticles for antiulcerogenic activity. Metal oxide nanoparticles were evaluated for various biological activities considering their high surface area to volume ratio, different oxidative states, cell permeability etc. Various studies have proved metal oxide nanoparticles to be beneficial in various ailments due to their antioxidant, antibacterial, and other pharmacological activities. Nanoparticles prepared using biogenic methods were relatively more biocompatible and less toxic compared to conventional methods of synthesis. In the present study, green synthesized yttrium and copper oxide nanoparticles were evaluated for acute toxicity, antioxidant, proton pump inhibition and antiulcerogenic activity. In vitro antioxidant activity by DPPH, nitric oxide scavenging methods and H+K+ATPase assay was performed to evaluate the mechanism of action. Synthesized nanoparticles have shown no signs of acute toxicity as per OECD 423. Pyloric ligation method was performed to evaluate gastric volume, pH and ulcer severity. The present study revealed the dose-dependent antiulcer potential of yttrium oxide nanoparticles at doses of 2mg/kg and 20mg/kg. Antisecretory action of yttrium and copper oxides were evident from in vitro H+K+ATPase activity and inhibition of gastric volume. Antioxidant activities of yttrium oxide nanoparticles indicate gastric mucosal protection by free radical scavenging action. Copper oxide nanoparticles produced antisecretory activity but produced mucosal damage and hemorrhage at a dose of 20mg/kg.
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