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Breast cancer has messed the life of a greater number of women being the most common cancer affecting them worldwide. A number of risk factors contribute the breast malignancy, however, genetic drift is accountable the most. Depending on the cell origin, invasiveness and receptors involved, breast cancer is classified into various subtypes. The accurate diagnosis of breast cancer is important as it defines the prognosis and directs the type of treatment required. A number of major signaling pathways involved in breast tumorigenesis and its development include estrogen receptors (ERs), HER2, Wnt/β-catenin, Notch, Hedgehog (Hh), PI3K and mTOR pathway. Furthermore, certain enzymes like Cyclin dependent kinases and breast tumor kinases also play a vital role in cell cycle regulation and therefore, in the development of breast neoplasms. Recent studies have also enlightened the role of non-coding RNAs in breast cancer development. This review discusses various aspects of breast cancer such as its etiology, subtypes, various signaling pathways involved, targets projected by these pathways and the current treatment options based on a few of these targets. Also, the role of different genes, enzymes and non-coding RNAs related to breast tumorigenesis and development is discussed.
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