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Currently, the world is facing a health and socioeconomic crisis caused by the novel coronavirus disease COVID-19. On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared this disease as a pandemic. The condition (COVID-19) is an infectious disorder triggered by a newly discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2. Most of the COVID-19 infected patients will experience mild to moderate respiratory symptoms and recover without any unique therapy. Assessment of the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 cases suggests the infected patients will not be contagious until the onset of severe symptoms and affects the other organs. Well-differentiated cells of apical airway epithelia communicating with ACE2 were promptly infected to SARS-CoV-2 virus. But the expression of ACE 2 in poorly differentiated epithelia facilitated SARS spike (S) protein-pseudo typed virus entry and it is replicated in polarized epithelia and especially exited via the apical surface. Limiting the transmission of COVID-19 infection & its prevention can be regarded as a hierarchy of controls. In this article, we briefly discuss the most recent advances in respect to aetiology, pathogenesis and clinical progression of the disease COVID-19.
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