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Epidemics or outbreak is a sudden spread of the disease within a short time to a large number of people in a given population. Ayurveda is an ancient system of medicine, clearly mentioned about such diseases causing epidemic under a broad term 'Janapadodhwamsa’. There is no term as Epidemiology in Ayurveda, but the principles were described in piecemeal when compiled, analysed and interpreted the same as a modern theory of Epidemiology. Many of today's medical sciences coincide with some of the basic principles of Ayurveda. Today whole world is suffering from the COVID-19 pandemic. To assess the concepts of epidemiology in Ayurveda and to compare the same with recent COVID-19 pandemic. Literary study of the epidemic was done thoroughly, including classical treatises like Charak Samhita, Sushrut Samhita & modern textbooks of epidemiology. Most of the concepts of Ayurveda about Janapadodhwamsa are found relevant to current theories of pandemic/epidemic. When COVID-19 pandemic compares with Janapadodhwamsa, it shows similarity in concepts like aetiology, modes of transmission, principles of prevention of outbreaks etc. Also, control measures of COVID-19 can be compared with Hetu-viparit&Vyadhi-viparitchikitsa. The concepts described in Ayurveda regarding Janapadodhwamsa are more or like the present modern concept of the pandemic/epidemic. Thus, the ancient Indian medicinal systems were well known to the fact of the epidemics & outbreaks of infectious diseases.
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